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Results 351 - 400 of 948
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Blain G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To test whether ventilatory thresholds, measured during an exercise test, could be assessed using time varying analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia frequency (f(RSA)). METHODS: Fourteen sedentary subjects and 12 endurance athletes performed a graded and maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer: initial load 75 W (sedentary subjects) and ...
Ciocca Mario - - 2005
Athletes are affected in various ways by medications and supplements. Physicians caring for athletes need to be aware of medicines that athletes are taking and how they may interact with performance, exercise, environment, and other medicines. Athletes may attempt to gain a performance advantage with the use of a variety ...
Vergès Samuel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Whereas a high prevalence of bronchial abnormalities has been reported in endurance athletes, its underlying mechanisms and consequences during exercise are still unclear. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the following: (1) bronchial responsiveness to methacholine and to exercise; (2) airway inflammation; and (3) airflow ...
Marković Goran - - 2005
The aim of the study was to assess fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes and to determine which physical, physiological and motor characteristics differentiate mostly the successful from the less successful fighters. Thirteen national taekwondo champions were divided into two groups according to their senior international competitive achievements. ...
Wyse Cathy - - 2005
Exercise-induced oxidative stress (EIOS) refers to a condition where the balance of free radical production and antioxidant systems is disturbed during exercise in favour of pro-oxidant free radicals. Breath ethane is a product of free radical-mediated oxidation of cell membrane lipids and is considered to be a reliable marker of ...
Legrand Renaud - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the muscle deoxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy in endurance athletes who presented or not with exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) during a maximal incremental test in normoxic conditions. METHODS: Nineteen male endurance sportsmen performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer to ...
Edwards David G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness increases with age, and chronic endurance exercise has been shown to attenuate increases in arterial stiffness in older individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of varying fitness levels on wave reflection in young healthy adults. METHODS: A total of 32 subjects (16 ...
Barfield J P - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of disability type on exercise response during power wheelchair competition. The secondary purpose was to determine the extent to which heart rate responses during competition meet cardiorespiratory fitness training intensities for the general population. METHODS: Forty-eight athletes who had ...
Bauer Natali - - 2005
Ouabain, an inhibitor of the sodium pump, has been identified as a constituent of bovine adrenal glands. We were interested whether the release of this cardiotonic steroid is stimulated by physical exercise. Hence, athletes and healthy dogs were subjected to ergometry. Ouabain-like compound (OLC) was measured in venous blood by ...
Mastorakos George - - 2005
Exercise represents a physical stress that challenges homeostasis. In response to this stressor, autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are known to react and to participate in the maintenance of homeostasis. This includes elevation of cortisol and cathecholamines in plasma. However, sustained physical conditioning in highly trained athletes is ...
Falk Bareket - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that exercise-induced bronchoconstriction may involve oxidative stress. Strenuous exercise promotes free radical production, which can lead to many of the pathophysiologic changes associated with asthma, including bronchoconstriction, mucus secretion, and microvascular leakage. Lycopene has been shown to have high antioxidative activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ...
Komarow Hirsh D - - 2005
Allergic diseases are common in all age groups and locations around the world. In the United States, allergic diseases affect 20 to 40 million people annually, including 10% to 30% of adults and close to 40% of children. An estimated 15 million people in the United States have been diagnosed ...
Kane Shawn F - - 2005
There are a few "red flag" findings in the history and physical examination of an athlete that may require obtaining an electrocardiogram (ECG) as part of a cardiac evaluation. In this article we discuss the normal variants seen in the ECG brought on by regular physical training and ECG abnormalities ...
Durand F - - 2005
Because the practise conditions put the ski-mountaineering athletes potentially at risk for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of EIB in this population. Thirty-one highly-trained ski-mountaineers with racing experience participating in the race were evaluated. EIB was determined after a European race at high altitude ...
Brennan Fred H - - 2005
Physicians providing medical coverage at endurance events know that athletes often collapse during the race or shortly after crossing the finish line. An athlete who collapses during a race may have an ominous condition, such as a cardiac or neurologic event. The most common reason that athletes collapse at or ...
Patel Dilip - - 2005
The hand plays an important role in the athlete's ability to compete, and there is a tendency to misdiagnose and undertreat these injuries. Thus,a detailed anatomic understanding and a timely and accurate diagnosis through a thorough physical examination are critical to guide the treatment and return of normal function of ...
Corrado Domenico - - 2005
The 1996 American Heart Association consensus panel recommendations stated that pre-participation cardiovascular screening for young competitive athletes is justifiable and compelling on ethical, legal, and medical grounds. The present article represents the consensus statement of the Study Group on Sports Cardiology of the Working Group on Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise ...
Wang Hsing-Kuo - - 2005
This study compared the thickness of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons, the widths of the subacromial space in the frontal and scapular planes, and abnormal sonographic findings in the shoulders of injured, and uninjured elite college baseball athletes and healthy controls. This study recruited two groups of 42 and 12 ...
Meyer T - - 2005
The first part of this article intends to give an applicable framework for the evaluation of endurance capacity as well as for the derivation of exercise prescription by the use of two gas exchange thresholds: aerobic (AerTGE) and anaerobic (AnTGE). AerT GE corresponds to the first increase in blood lactate ...
Goulet Eric D B - - 2005
The use of nutritional ergogenic aids containing Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), a plant which is also known as ciwujia or Siberian ginseng, is relatively common among endurance athletes. Eleutherococcus senticosus has been suggested to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CF) and fat metabolism (FAM) and, therefore, endurance performance (EP). This article reviews the ...
Chee C E - - 2005
AIMS: This is a case report of an athlete whose professional football career was transiently terminated because of the presumed diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The diagnosis was based on electrocardiographic repolarisation changes. The ECGs, treadmill exercise tests (Bruce protocol) and echo examinations at the time of his ...
Aughey, Robert J.A.
Endurance athletes may use hypoxic exposure, and high intensity interval training to&#13;improve subsequent endurance performance. Research on the physiological adaptation&#13;of athletes to these interventions has tended to focus on metabolic, haematological and&#13;respiratory measures. Consequently, relatively little is known, in well-trained athletes,&#13;about the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia, acute and chronic ...
Andziulis A - - 2005
Functional diagnostics is one of the most important areas of sports medicine, which plays an increasingly role in selection of athletes, optimisation of training, early diagnostics and prophylaxis of sports pathology. Functional condition of the body undergoes constant changes under the influence of a number of factors. The differences may ...
Unal M - - 2005
The present study aimed at investigating serum leptin levels of elite young male athletes who have been regularly exercising for a long period of time and males who do not exercise. The study included 24 trained young male athletes and 22 healthy sedentary male subjects. Athletes who participated in the ...
Scanlon Thomas F - - 2005
Dorian Crete and Thebes are conventionally seen by ancient sources as the originators of pederasty; modern historians see support for this view in Dorian male-centered militarism and sexual segregation in upbringing. Here athletic culture, including training, nudism, and competition, is argued to be a chief 'trigger' for the emergence of ...
Tanaka Junya - - 2005
Our purpose of this research is a development of the method that detects EEG of an athlete under exercising. If EEG under exercising can be measured, we can assess the mental condition of the athlete. Usually, EEG is measured in the shield room, and a subject is required rest in ...
Griniene Elvyra - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To identify the links between the changes of functional indicators and the level of mental working capacity of athletic and non-athletic females after standardized physical loa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed in the Center for Research of Human Physical Abilities of Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. Ten ...
Obel O A - - 2005
A 53 year old athlete with a history of severe palpitations and lightheadedness presented for a second opinion. He was found to exhibit very frequent atrial ectopy, frequent runs of symptomatic atrial tachyarrhythmia, and sinus bradycardia at rest. During exercise testing, his tachyarrhythmias increased in relation to the duration and ...
Rizzo Marta - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The number of competitive master athletes (MA, over 40 years) has been rising. Since the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing in this population, cardiovascular pre-participation screening, including a maximum exercise test, is recommended. In this context the addition of contrast to echo could be useful because ...
Mendez-Villanueva Alberto - - 2005
Surfboard riding (surfing) has experienced a 'boom' in participants and media attention over the last decade at both the recreational and the competitive level. However, despite its increasing global audience, little is known about physiological and other factors related to surfing performance. Time-motion analyses have demonstrated that surfing is an ...
Angyán L - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to assess anthropometrical, somatomotor, and cardio respiratory characteristics of athletes and non-athletes subjects to establish which effects of the organized physical training discriminate well between them. Subjects were 61 athlete and non-athlete medical students. Four groups were formed relying upon gender and physical activity. ...
Poderys Jonas - - 2005
The problem of evaluating the mobilization of body functioning during exercise combines two questions: first, the velocity of adaptation at onset of exercise, and second, to what extent the body function was mobilized. The aim of this study was to find out the peculiarities in mobilization of cardiovascular function during ...
Gall B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an athlete's capacity to perform exercise is impaired following concussion and whether this would be reflected by an altered heart rate response. METHODS: Of the 14 concussed athletes, nine missed playing time as a direct result of their concussion and five did not. The concussed athletes ...
Ramón T - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Athletic taping is used frequently by human athletes to stabilise, maintain or strengthen soft tissue structures, but empirical evidence supporting any changes in equine kinematics is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of athletic taping of the fetlock applied by an experienced athletic trainer on forelimb ...
Adegbesan O A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The perception of Nigerian athletes of the use of mouth guards to prevent the stresses of sports injuries was examined using psychological, sociological, and physical stress variables. METHODS: The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. Participants (n = 333) were selected using the purposive random sampling ...
Feugier P - - 2004
Arterial endofibrosis is a recently discovered artery disease that is specific to endurance athletes. Cycling is the sport that has shown the greatest number of cases. The endofibrosis is located most frequently in the external iliac artery, but other locations must also be sought. Thigh pain during supramaximal exercise and ...
Ashenden Michael J - - 2004
Longitudinal monitoring of athlete's hematologic parameters holds considerable promise as a strategy to detect and thereby deter illicit blood doping. This study documents temporal changes of hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and reticulocyte counts in elite rowers. The 'within subject' variation in rowers was comparable to that of athletes from other sports. ...
McFarland Edward G - - 2004
This article reviews some of the conditions about the elbow in athletes or active individuals. The conditions discussed are synovial plica of elbow, radiocapitellar arthritis, congenital dislocation of the radial head, radio-ulnar synostosis, hemophilia and rheumatoid arthritis. In the past, people who had these conditions were instructed to avoid athletic ...
Sahoo Sanjiv K - - 2004
We discuss the impact of epilepsy on the lives of athletes involved in contact sports. Recommendations for epilepsy patients with regard to contact sports have changed over the years from avoidance to encouragement. It is conceivable that exercise could exacerbate seizures either directly, through hyperventilation, or indirectly by alteration of ...
van Baak M A - - 2004
Beta(2)-adrenergic agonists are important therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of (exercise-induced) asthma in athletes, but may have ergogenic effects. In this study we investigated whether inhalation of a supra-therapeutic dose of 800 microg salbutamol before exercise affects endurance performance during a cycling trial in non-asthmatic athletes. In a ...
Spiering Barry A - - 2004
Athletes are required to provide objective documentation of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) to use beta2-agonists during Olympic competition. A positive response to bronchial provocation by eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) is considered acceptable confirmation of EIB. Thirty times forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) is recommended as EVH target ventilation ...
Flotats Albert - - 2005
PURPOSE: Although marked repolarisation abnormalities (MRAs) are considered innocuous in trained athletes, their functional significance awaits clarification. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the pathophysiological implications of such MRAs. METHODS: We compared left ventricular (LV) functional response to exhausting exercise in 39 male athletes with (n=22) or ...
Pate Russell R - - 2004
Exercise physiology plays an important role in the practice of clinical sports medicine. Exercise physiology research has identified important effects of exercise on the body's systems, tissues, and cells. Ongoing research is investigating the role of exercise in subcellular, molecular, and chemical processes. Increasingly, sports medicine physicians and other practitioners ...
Adams Erik S - - 2004
Inflammatory skin conditions can present obstacles that affect athletic participation. In eczema and psoriasis, cutaneous lesions can lead to skin breakdown, which may disqualify an athlete from participation and may also contribute to secondary infection. Adequate control of chronic skin conditions can, therefore, ensure more consistent athletic participation, and successful ...
Noakes T D - - 2004
Of 371 athletes (62% of all finishers) whose weights were measured before and after the 226 km South African Ironman Triathlon, the athlete who gained the most weight (3.6 kg) during the race was the only competitor to develop symptomatic hyponatraemia. During recovery, he excreted an excess of 4.6 litres ...
Gall Brent - - 2004
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the neuroautonomic cardiovascular regulation in recently concussed athletes at rest and in response to low-moderate steady-state exercise, using heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A 5-min ECG sample was taken at rest from the 14 concussed athletes at 1.8 (+/- 0.2) days ...
Unnithan Viswanath B - - 2004
A paucity of literature exists with regard to research on nutrition for the pediatric athlete. This lack of research makes the development of specific nutritional recommendations for young athletes problematic. This issue is made difficult by the macro- and micronutrient intake required for growth and development in conjunction with that ...
Rao K A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances are often reported by long distance runners and are more common in women, particularly after prolonged high intensity exercise. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether these symptoms could be associated with alterations in GI motility. METHODS: Small bowel and colonic transit were measured using pH telemetry in a ...
Maughan Ron - - 2004
This issue of IJSNEM features two articles related to supplement use by athletes. In one (Morrison et al. 2004), people who undertake regular exercise in a gym were found to report the use of a wide variety of supplements. The other paper (Goel et al. 2004) dealt with one of ...
Iellamo Ferdinando - - 2004
PURPOSE: A decrease of electrocardiographic T-wave voltage with increasing training loads has been reported in elite endurance athletes and ascribed to training-related adaptation in sympathetic activity to the ventricles. A switch from vagal to sympathetic predominance in sino-atrial node regulation on going from low to peak training load has been ...
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