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Results 301 - 350 of 944
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Papaioannou Athanasios - - 2006
Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 - 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 - 6 ...
Maskhulia L - - 2006
The heart undergoes profound changes in response to systematic athletic training. Several adaptations of cardiac shape and function occur with athletic training to improve the heart's function as a pump and thereby increase aerobic capacity. Maximal oxygen consumption or VO2 max is regularly used as an index of physical fitness ...
Anderson Sandra D - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission required a medical justification for athletes to inhale a beta2-agonist before an event at the Summer Games in Athens in 2004. OBJECTIVE: We sought to establish the percentage of athletes applying to use an inhaled beta2-agonist on the basis of the results of ...
Barnett Ralph L - - 2006
Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending ...
Whiting Susan J - - 2006
The following series of papers comprise a symposium on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), which are the new dietary recommendations for North Americans, that was presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. The process of developing the DRIs has been an enormous undertaking resulting, thus ...
Stanford Kristin I - - 2006
The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 ...
Wehrlin J P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether world class endurance athletes, in contrast with less well trained subjects, increase their haemoglobin mass on a regimen of living high and training low (LHTL). OBJECTIVE: To assess whether haemoglobin mass increases in world class athletes on LHTL and whether this increase is associated with ...
Nadelson Craig - - 2006
Sport and exercise-induced migraines are difficult to distinguish from benign exertional headaches and other headache syndromes. Exertion can be the sole cause, or may be among multiple triggers for an individual's headache. Because approximately 10% of these headaches have an organic origin, a careful history and physical examination is necessary. ...
Dickinson J W - - 2006
The reported prevalence of exercise induced asthma (EIA) in elite winter athletes ranges from 9% to 50%. Many elite winter athletes do not report symptoms of EIA. At present there is no gold standard test for EIA. To establish the efficacy of screening for EIA and examine the role of ...
Kvist Joanna - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury during the last part of a match or training session and one reason for that could be a post-exercise increase in tibial translation. PURPOSE: To investigate if sagittal tibial translation is affected after a workout session in volleyball or ...
Lippi Giuseppe - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic approach and the clinical management of patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome or cardiac dysfunction are as yet challenging. Although ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and natriuretic peptides were recently proposed for detection of myocardial ischemia and cardiac dysfunction, little information is available on preanalytical and metabolic ...
Fell, James
There is a common belief among older athletes that intense training becomes more difficult with ageing. One of the reasons attributed to this performance limitation is an impairment of recovery processes that can prolong the time taken for the body to adequately adapt between training sessions or after competition. However, ...
Lussi Adrian - - 2006
In rare cases the occupation - be it at work or during professional and strenuous sports activities - may give a clue to a patient's risk factors for dental erosion. However, no detrimental effects were described on a population level. Frequent contact to inorganic or organic acids at work could ...
Korobeynikov G - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The methods of psychological diagnostics ignored the integral criteria of functional states which are used in athletes. That is the reason why the elaboration of psychophysiological diagnostics criteria for higher qualification athletes was performed. BACKGROUND: The diagnostics of psychophysiological functions obtains information on individual and typological characteristics of higher ...
Naylor Louise H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is a known stimulus for arteriogenesis, but it is unclear whether elite athletes, who exhibit increased conduit vessel diameter at rest, experience further structural vascular adaptations as a result of intense exercise training. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparisons were performed between elite rowers (N = 17), following a respite ...
St Clair Gibson A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study compared differences in maximal strength and aerobic capacity and symptoms of fatigue and depression in athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI) and control athletes (CON) matched for age and current training volume who did not have symptoms of excessive or chronic fatigue associated with their sporting activity. ...
Ghosh Joydeep - - 2006
Sudden death in athletes is a rare event but brings with it an impact that goes beyond sport. There are many causes of sudden death during exercise. While the responsibility of preventing or treating them lays with us physicians, preparticipation screening is largely ineffective and impractical. Definitive, large scale prospective ...
Latz Kevin - - 2006
A growing number of pediatric orthopedic patients fall into two dissimilar groups: the obese patient with problems related to obesity, and the young athlete injured during sports. While there is widespread recognition of pediatric orthopedic diseases related to obesity, the injuries resulting from "overuse" or over participation in sports are ...
Swanson Don R - - 2006
Research on atrial fibrillation (AF), a common heart arrhythmia in the elderly, over many decades has resulted in a literature of more than 16,000 articles indexed in Medline. An exploratory Medline search was conducted in which the subheadings for epidemiology and etiology of AF were combined to form a small ...
Le Faucheur Alexis - - 2006
The development of sports activities in the over forties has increased the number of middle-aged patients performing heavy-load exercise. The normal response of ankle systolic blood pressure (ASBP) and ankle to brachial index (ABI) to intense exercise is known in young athletes, but little is known for other age groups. ...
Noakes T D - - 2005
To evaluate the role of fluid and Na+ balance in the development of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), changes in serum Na+ concentrations ([Na+]) and in body weight were analyzed in 2,135 athletes in endurance events. Eighty-nine percent of athletes completed these events either euhydrated (39%) or with weight loss (50%) and ...
Hodges A N H - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of prophylactic treatment with an inhaled bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory on arterial saturation (SaO2) in trained non-asthmatic male athletes with exercise induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH). METHODS: Nine male athletes (mean (SD) age 26.3 (6.7) years, height 182.6 (7.9) cm, weight 79.3 (10.5) kg, VO2MAX 62.3 (6.3) ...
Parsons Jonathan P - - 2005
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes airway narrowing that occurs in association with exercise. EIB occurs in up to 90% of asthmatic patients and is estimated to occur in > 10% of the general population. Recent reviews have identified asthma as a risk factor for sudden death and have reported many deaths ...
Cavanaugh J T - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion. METHODS: The study was a retrospective, case series analysis of centre of pressure (COP) data collected during the Sensory ...
Allen Thomas W - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review evidence-based support for return to play criteria following acute exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases Ovid Medline and PubMed were searched for papers relating to exercise related asthma and bronchoconstriction and return to play criteria. Additional references from the bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed. DATA ...
Waninger Kevin N - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Infectious mononucleosis is an acute self-limited disorder diagnosed by clinical and hematologic measures. This paper reviews the literature regarding the decision-making process for return to play in individuals at risk for complications due to infectious mononucleosis. DATA SOURCES: Computerized literature search identified articles using the keywords infectious mononucleosis, athlete, ...
McAward Kevin J - - 2005
Physicians often see patients who have syncope or presyncope, but episodes associated with exercise are uncommon. Transient syncopal episodes usually require minimal evaluation and intervention. Most cases of exercise-associated syncope have neurocardiogenic origins and are benign, but fainting may signal a potentially fatal underlying problem. More serious causes of exertional ...
Edg E Johann - - 2006
We measured the muscle buffer capacity (betam) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport athletes (n = 7), endurance trained (n = 6) or untrained but physically active (n = 8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine VO(2peak) followed 2 days later by ...
Dickinson J W - - 2006
A fall in FEV(1) of > or =10% following bronchoprovocation (eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) or exercise) is regarded as the gold standard criterion for diagnosing exercise induced asthma (EIA) in athletes. Previous studies have suggested that mid-expiratory flow (FEF(50)) might be used to supplement FEV(1) to improve the sensitivity and ...
Marlin L - - 2005
The aim of this study was to establish the percentage of sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers among French West Indian sprinters selected for the French National Team in 2000. The investigation determined the number of SCT carriers and the number of national records they had established. Sixteen athletes were indexed ...
Testa Massimo - - 2005
Endurance athletes complaining of muscle pains concomitant with fatigue and exercise intolerance provide a diagnostic challenge. When the most common causes have been ruled out, the presence of metabolic myopathies, including mitochondrial myopathies (MMs), should be considered. MMs are a group of diseases characterized by inadequate mitochondrial ATP production needed ...
Verges S - - 2005
Aim: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) through its relaxing effect on smooth muscle cells may be involved in pulmonary gas exchange as well as in the modulation of the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. As athletes with exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) present pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities in normoxia that could be even greater in ...
Keçeci Ayşe Diljin - - 2005
Mouth guards are considered an essential part of equipment for athletes participating in contact sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of custom-made mouth guards on the ventilatory gas exchange effects of taekwondo athletes. The subjects were 22 elite athletes aged between 14 and 17 years. ...
Kippelen P - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To identify in a follow up study airway changes occurring during the course of a sport season in healthy endurance athletes training in a Mediterranean region. METHODS: Respiratory pattern and function were analysed in 13 healthy endurance trained athletes, either during a maximal exercise test, or at rest and ...
Hopkins Susan R - - 2005
Horses are bred selectively for aerobic performance and have extraordinarily high maximal oxygen consumption, approximately double the mass-specific value for human athletes. Pulmonary limitations to exercise performance are well described in these animals, including exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. In human athletes, pulmonary limitations are recognized increasingly as ...
Pelliccia Antonio - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: In the present study we assessed the distribution and clinical significance of left atrial (LA) size in the context of athlete's heart and the differential diagnosis from structural heart disease, as well as the proclivity to supraventricular arrhythmias. BACKGROUND: The prevalence, clinical significance, and long-term arrhythmic consequences of LA ...
Ebben William P - - 2005
This study describes the results of a survey of the practices of Major League Baseball strength and conditioning (MLB S&C) coaches. The response rate was 70.0% (21 of 30). This survey examines (a) background information, (b) physical testing, (c) flexibility development, (d) speed development, (e) plyometrics, (f) strength/power development, (g) ...
Simenz Christopher J - - 2005
This study describes the results of a survey of the practices of National Basketball Association strength and conditioning (NBA S&C) coaches. The response rate was 68.9% (20 of 29). This survey examines (a) background information, (b) physical testing, (c) flexibility development, (d) speed development, (e) plyometrics, (f) strength/power development, (g) ...
Suedekum Natalie A - - 2005
Iron is an important mineral necessary for many biologic pathways. Different levels of deficiency can occur in the athlete, resulting in symptoms that range from none to severe fatigue. Iron deficiency without anemia may adversely affect athletic performance. Causes of iron deficiency include poor intake, menstrual losses, gastrointestinal and genitourinary ...
Pigozzi F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of cardiovascular screening in minimising the risk of athletic field deaths in master athletes is not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of ST segment depression during a stress test in asymptomatic apparently healthy elderly athletes. METHODS: A total of 113 male subjects aged ...
Niemi Anna-Kaisa - - 2005
Differences in ACTN3 (alpha-actinin 3) genotypes have been reported among endurance and power athletes. Elite athletic performance in endurance sports should also depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that produces ATP for muscle metabolism. We determined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ACTN3 genotypes in Finnish elite endurance (n = 52) and ...
Ozmerdivenli Recep - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute or habitual exercise on visual evoked potentials (VEP). The study group consisted of 9 female and 7 male volleyball players and the control group contained 9 female and 7 male students who were not involved in any sportive ...
Hagmar Magnus - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate cardiac structure and function and exercise capacity in senior former elite athlete women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty postmenopausal former elite endurance athletes and 19 age-matched sedentary controls. METHODS: All subjects underwent transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiac ...
Casey Ellen - - 2005
Gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses are common in athletes. Various causes include adverse physiologic adaptations of the gut during exercise; excess ingestion of carbohydrate drinks, alcohol, and anti-inflammatory medications; emotional stressors; exposure to pathogens in closed environments and during travel; trauma; and abdominal wall pressure overload. Unfortunately, evidence-based management of GI illnesses ...
Deruelle Fabien - - 2005
This study aimed to analyze the impact of step-duration protocols, 1-min vs. 3-min, on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise, whatever the aerobic-fitness level of sedentary (65.5 +/- 2.3 years, n = 8) or highly fit (63.1 +/- 3.2 years, n = 19) participants. Heart rate and VO2 at the first and ...
Pope James S - - 2005
For the athlete, not only can pulmonary disorders cause significant alterations in training schedules or even prolonged stoppages, they can be life-threatening. Infectious diseases such as acute bronchitis, influenza, and pneumonia conspire to disrupt exercise regimens. Pneumothorax, vocal cord dysfunction, and exercise-induced asthma may present diagnostic and treatment challenges. Obstructive ...
Blain G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To test whether ventilatory thresholds, measured during an exercise test, could be assessed using time varying analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia frequency (f(RSA)). METHODS: Fourteen sedentary subjects and 12 endurance athletes performed a graded and maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer: initial load 75 W (sedentary subjects) and ...
Ciocca Mario - - 2005
Athletes are affected in various ways by medications and supplements. Physicians caring for athletes need to be aware of medicines that athletes are taking and how they may interact with performance, exercise, environment, and other medicines. Athletes may attempt to gain a performance advantage with the use of a variety ...
Vergès Samuel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Whereas a high prevalence of bronchial abnormalities has been reported in endurance athletes, its underlying mechanisms and consequences during exercise are still unclear. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the following: (1) bronchial responsiveness to methacholine and to exercise; (2) airway inflammation; and (3) airflow ...
Marković Goran - - 2005
The aim of the study was to assess fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes and to determine which physical, physiological and motor characteristics differentiate mostly the successful from the less successful fighters. Thirteen national taekwondo champions were divided into two groups according to their senior international competitive achievements. ...
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