Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 948
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De Mozzi Paola - - 2008
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation. A literature search was performed using the key words 'bicuspid aortic valve', 'pathophysiology', 'exercise' and 'training'. BAV is the result of a complex developmental process where several genes seem to lead to abnormal valvulogenesis. Complications associated with BAV ...
Monchanin Geraldine - - 2008
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in sickle cell trait (SCT) athletes with or without alpha-thalassemia. Five athletes with SCT, 7 athletes with both SCT and alpha-thalassemia (SCTAT) and 8 control ...
Lippi Giuseppe - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Several creatinine-based estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been advocated as reliable alternatives to the urinary clearance of exogenous filtration markers. The Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) equation requires a body weight parameter, which was not included in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and the Mayo ...
Hagmar Magnus - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Optimization of body weight and composition is a key priority for elite athletes striving for a competitive advantage. The present investigation was designed to characterize various parameters related to weight control in Olympic competitors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Research unit at a University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 223 athletes (125 men ...
Lakhan Shaheen E - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibrosis occurs with normal aging, but the extent of this process and its effect on cardiac function is unknown. Fibrosis in the nonhypertensive elderly patient is thought to be due to decreased degradation, and not increased deposition, of collagen. The cause of this decreased degradation is unknown. ...
Schwellnus Martin P - - 2008
Exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is defined as a painful, spasmodic, and involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle that occurs during or immediately after exercise. There is a high lifetime prevalence of EAMC in athletes, specifically in endurance athletes. The most important risk factors for EAMC in athletes are a previous ...
Montagnana Martina - - 2008
Although regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of a variety of chronic disorders, competitive physical exercise is associated with a significant increase of risk of sudden death in athletes, especially adolescents and young adults. Several pathogenetic mechanisms have been ...
Berthelot Geoffroy - - 2008
World records (WR) in sports illustrate the ultimate expression of human integrated muscle biology, through speed or strength performances. Analysis and prediction of man's physiological boundaries in sports and impact of external (historical or environmental) conditions on WR occurrence are subject to scientific controversy. Based on the analysis of 3263 ...
Shave Robert - - 2007
PURPOSE: Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is a highly specific marker of myocardial damage and used clinically in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Release of cTnT has been demonstrated in several small studies after endurance exercise. The purpose of this study was to explore, using a meta-analytic approach, the ...
Cooper Leslie W - - 2007
Master's swimming has been one of the most successful master's athletic organizations over the past few decades. It creates an excellent environment for older athletes to stay fit and develop friendships. Exercise has been shown to be important in keeping an aging population healthy by reducing risk factors associated with ...
Hull James H K - - 2007
The fact that exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may be both over- and underdiagnosed in athletes has led to calls for widespread screening for the condition. This article assesses such a strategy by employing the standard framework used when evaluating any screening policy. This approach highlights a number of concerns and allows ...
Morrison Audry Birute - - 2007
Key questions regarding the training and physiological qualities required to produce an elite rock climber remain inadequately defined. Little research has been done on young climbers. The aim of this paper was to review literature on climbing alongside relevant literature characterising physiological adaptations in young athletes. Evidence-based recommendations were sought ...
Nederhof E - - 2008
The current diagnosis of overreaching and overtraining is based on exclusion. In the present paper, four possible confirmative tools have been examined in three female speed skaters between 16 and 19 years old. A nonfunctional overreached (NFO) athlete, an athlete who was recovering from NFO and a healthy athlete were ...
Chester N - - 2008
This study was undertaken to examine self-reported caffeine consumption and reasons for its use, amongst UK athletes, following its removal from the 2004 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. A convenience sample of track and field athletes (n = 193) and cyclists (n = 287) completed a postal or Web-based ...
Gokhale Rohit - - 2007
Exercise and physical strenuous activity have been demonstrated to increase the serum TNF-alpha and IL-6. Regular physical training is expected to attenuate such a response. This study was undertaken to understand the impact of regular exercise training on IL-6 and TNF-alpha in athletes and non-athletes. Ten athletes, who have been ...
Basavarajaiah Sandeep - - 2007
AIMS: Identification of a prolonged, corrected QT (QTc) interval in athletes may be a recommendation for disqualification from competitive sports. However, the prevalence and diagnostic significance of an isolated prolonged QTc in asymptomatic athletes without familial disease is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2006, 2000 elite athletes (mean ...
Brancaccio Paola - - 2008
We determined whether a short-term exhaustive dynamic exercise (cycling) for about 18min induces changes in the intramuscular architecture of the quadriceps in trained athletes. Thirty-five male athletes (age 28.8+/-9.8 years; height: 175.4.+/-5.5cm; weight: 74+/-11.5kg; average years spent training: 11.1+/-8.4 years; mean weekly duration of training: 10.4+/-3.20h) underwent an incremental cycloergometer ...
Broglio Steven P - - 2007
Concussed athletes may underreport concussion-related symptoms in order to expedite return to play. Whether neurocognitive impairments persist once concussion-related symptoms resolve has yet to be determined. Reliance on athlete-reported, postconcussion symptoms when making return-to-play decisions may expose athletes to subsequent injury if complete recovery has not occurred. To evaluate the ...
Hamilton Bruce - - 2008
Achilles tendinopathy is common, and its management continues to be challenging, especially in elite athletes. Despite a wide range of novel management options, none guarantees a rapid return to high level sporting activity. Eccentric exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms and normalise imaging abnormalities, but time constraints on professional ...
Thevenet Delphine - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare, during a 30s intermittent exercise (IE), the effects of exercise intensity on time spent above 90% VO2max(t90VO2max) and time spent above 95% VO2max(t95VO2max) in young endurance trained athletes. We hypothesized that during a 30sIE, an increase in exercise intensity would allow an ...
Tanaka Hirofumi - - 2008
Older ('Masters') athletes strive to maintain or even improve upon the performance they achieved at younger ages, but declines in athletic performance are inevitable with ageing. In this review, we describe changes in peak endurance exercise performance with advancing age as well as physiological factors responsible for those changes. Peak ...
Hauw Denis - - 2008
Based on the course-of-action theory, this study performed a situated analysis of three elite aerial freestyle skiers' activity. Data were collected by observation, videotaping and self-confrontation interviews retrospectively build the athletes' activity. The analysis identified units of action, thought, and feelings and described their relationships during each leap. Comparisons of ...
Willardson Jeffrey M - - 2007
In recent years, fitness practitioners have increasingly recommended core stability exercises in sports conditioning programs. Greater core stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. Traditional resistance exercises have been modified to emphasize core stability. Such modifications have included ...
Di Paolo F M - - 2007
Long-term athletic training is associated with changes in cardiac morphology, commonly described as "athlete's heart." Although numerous studies have investigated the effects of training on cardiac dimensions, most are limited to male Caucasian athletes, and few data are available regarding the effect of long-term exercise training on the woman's heart. ...
Biffi Alessandro - - 2007
Young competitive athletes are perceived by the general population to be the healthiest members of society. The possibility that highly trained athletes may have a potentially serious cardiac condition that can predispose to life-threatening tachyarrhythmias or sudden cardiac death seems paradoxical. Thus, differentiating the benign, exercise-induced physiologic changes from true ...
Desbrow Ben - - 2007
This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Questionnaires were distributed to 140 athletes (105 men and 35 women, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y old) representing 16 countries during prerace registration. A large proportion (73%) of ...
Cosca David D - - 2007
Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is ...
von Arx T - - 2008
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a mouthguard on maximal exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary parameters at peak workload, and to assess the athletes' attitudes toward wearing a mouthguard. Thirteen volunteer male athletes (18 to 27 years old) were interviewed before and after delivery of ...
Di Luigi L - - 2008
Whereas experimental studies showed that in healthy trained subjects, the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5i) sildenafil improves exercise capacity in hypoxia and not in normoxia, no studies on the effects of the long half-life PDE-5i tadalafil exist. In order to evaluate whether tadalafil influences functional parameters and performance during a maximal exercise ...
Lippi G - - 2008
Physical activity is essential for weight control, for limiting onset and complications of chronic disorders and for preventing impaired insulin sensitivity. Little is known about the glycaemic adaptations of physically active subjects, especially elite and professional athletes. Thus, we evaluated the glycaemic control in elite and professional cyclists by assessing ...
Brolinson P Gunnar - - 2007
Exercise has a variable effect on the immune system. The underlying reasons for this variability are multifactorial and include infectious, neuroedocrine, and metabolic factors, with nutritional status of the athlete and the training load playing a role. Environmental factors such as living quarters, travel requirements, and the type of sport ...
Brown Cathleen N - - 2007
Deficits in static and dynamic stability during single-leg stance have been noted in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but few investigators have tested subjects for subtle deficits in dynamic balance. Subtle deficits in dynamic balance during a double-leg stance may reveal changes in the sensorimotor system because of CAI. ...
Poh Kian-Keong - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Physiological cardiac adaptations to exercise training resulting in the 'athlete's heart' are well known. Most of these studies, however, were included either those who exercise to exhaustion, non-elite athletes or those who participate primarily in sports requiring extensive weight training. Studies utilizing conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiographic studies in ...
Castro Mónica G - - 2007
Mitochondrial function is absolutely necessary to supply the energy required for muscles, and germ line mutations in mitochondrial genes have been related with impaired cardiac function and exercise intolerance. In addition, alleles at several polymorphic sites in mtDNA define nine common haplogroups, and some of these haplogroups have been implicated ...
Babaee Bigi Mohammad Ali - - 2007
Athletes involved in mainly static or isometric exercise (e.g., weight lifting, power lifting, and bodybuilding) develop pressure overloads due to the high systemic arterial pressure found in this type of exercise. It is hypothesized that chronically elevated aortic wall tension in strength-trained athletes is associated with aortic dilatation and regurgitation. ...
Cuk Ivan - - 2007
In 1933, at the 5th Regional Sokol Meeting in Ljubljana which was at the time a place in the Yugoslav Kingdom, Skerlj carried out the first measurements of 189 gymnasts, active competitors; in 2000, at the World Cup Meeting in Ljubljana, Cuk and associates carried out measurements of 40 top ...
Berger Nicolas J A - - 2007
Pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during "step" exercise have not been characterized in young, sprint-trained (SPT), athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that SPT athletes would have (i) slower phase II kinetics and (ii) a greater oxygen uptake "slow component" when compared with endurance-trained (ENT) ...
Mougios Vassilis - - 2007
The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non-athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non-athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was ...
La Gerche A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that ultra-endurance exercise causes myocardial injury. The extent and duration of these changes remains unresolved. Recent reports have speculated that structural adaptations to exercise, particularly of the right ventricle, may predispose to tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent and duration of post-exercise ...
Dickinson John - - 2007
This case study describes the support given to a British elite athlete in the build up to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. The athlete had complained of breathing symptoms during high intensity training that led to a reduction in performance and premature cessation of training. Following a negative eucapnic voluntary ...
Markovic Goran - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The present study analysed the allometric relationship (MR = a . M(b)) between human metabolic rate (MR), ranging from resting to maximal metabolic conditions, and body mass (M ), both in athletes of different specialization and untrained individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy male athletes and 43 ...
Bullock Nicola - - 2007
To quantify the impact of eastward long haul travel on diurnal variations in cortisol, psychological sensations and daily measurements of physical performance. Five elite Australian skeleton athletes undertook a long haul eastward flight from Australia to Canada (LH(travel)), while seven elite Canadian skeleton athletes did not travel (NO(travel)). Salivary cortisol ...
Sallaoui R - - 2007
Several studies in the past few decades have shown that very intense and repeated exercise, particularly when performed over many years, could cause respiratory health problems. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma has increased in the athletic population, particularly in elite athletes and has not been published in North African athletes. ...
Bianco M - - 2007
Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in ...
Esch Ben T A - - 2007
In this review, we examine the growing body of evidence suggesting that the pericardium plays an important role in modulating cardiac function during conditions of physiological stress. Specifically, we discuss the effects of the pericardium on left ventricular filling and compliance. Furthermore, we reveal that there is increasing evidence to ...
Poulsen S H - - 2007
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of long-term physical training on left ventricular longitudinal contraction by strain rate analysis and tissue tracking imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population comprised 17 male elite endurance and 15 male elite strength athletes and 12 male control subjects ...
Chaturvedi Aditi - - 2007
Drug abuse is a major concern in the athletic world. The misconception among athletes and their coaches is that when an athlete breaks a record it is due to some "magic ingredient" and not because of training, hard work, mental attitude and championship performance. The personal motivation to win in ...
Spence Luke - - 2007
PURPOSE: Upper respiratory illness (URI) is the most common medical condition affecting elite athletes. The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the incidence, pathogenic etiology, and symptomatology of acute URI during a 5-month training and competition period. METHODS: Thirty-two elite and 31 recreationally competitive triathletes and cyclists, ...
Daniels Lori B - - 2008
Current screening methods have poor specificity and sensitivity for detecting cardiac abnormalities that predispose young athletes to sudden death. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) show promise in screening asymptomatic populations for structural heart disease, but little is known about their use in student athletes. This study sought to describe the distribution and ...
Kotani Kentaro - - 2007
This study investigated the relationship between the force applied to a finger and the differential threshold of the force. Further, it presented an improvement function for tactile perception in archers by adapting to circumstances in which enhanced tactile perception and finger dexterity are required to practice archery on a daily ...
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