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Lefkowitz Todd - - 2009
Clinical decision making for injured boxers follows the same therapeutic principles as the treatment plan for other injured athletes. Just as surgical techniques have improved, so has the scientific basis for implementing therapeutic exercises progressed to return the athletes to their former level of competition.
Miccheli Alfredo - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the systemic effects of an isotonic sports drink on the metabolic status of athletes of the Italian Olympic rowing team during recovery after strenuous and prolonged physical exercise by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics analysis on plasma and urine. ...
Perseghin Gianluca - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Exercise training may cause changes in thyroid function. This thyroid response may be due to exercise-induced modulation of energy metabolism but also of the adipocytes endocrine function. In particular, the role of leptin and of circulating soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) was unexplored. The aim of this study was to ...
van Teeffelen W M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In spite of the benefits of physical activity, exercise may provoke acute cardiac events in susceptible individuals. Understanding risk factors of exercise-related acute cardiac events may identify opportunities for prevention. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to examine determinants of acute cardiac events in athletes. The cases were athletes ...
Papadakis M - - 2009
Regular physical exercise reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A small proportion of athletes, however, are at increased risk of exercise-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) as a result of quiescent cardiac anomalies. The preventable nature of such deaths has prompted the medical and sporting governing bodies to recommend preparticipation cardiovascular screening ...
de Oliveira Erick Prado - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical exercise can be both beneficial and harmful for the gastrointestinal tract in a dose-effect relationship between its intensity and health. Mild-to-moderate intensity exercises play a protective role against colon cancer, diverticular disease, cholelithiasis and constipation, whereas acute strenuous exercise may provoke heartburn, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, ...
Rowland Thomas W - - 2009
PURPOSE: The extent that enhanced ventricular function contributes to superior aerobic fitness of trained athletes is unclear. This study compared cardiovascular responses to progressive cycle exercise in 12 adolescent soccer players and 10 untrained boys with assessment of ventricular inotropic and relaxation properties by Doppler ultrasound techniques. METHODS: Resting cardiac ...
Cox Amanda J - - 2009
Differences in the immune and inflammatory response to exercise between healthy and illness-prone athletes may be one explanation why some athletes experience a greater incidence of upper respiratory symptoms than others. The aim of this study was to compare the C-reactive protein (CRP) response to acute exercise between healthy and ...
Prakken N H - - 2011
Objective To establish cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reference values for atrial adaptation to training in endurance athletes in comparison with matched non-athletes. In addition, to study the relationship of atrial size to ventricular and annular size and valvular function. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 180 healthy individuals aged 18-39 years ...
Cinar Vedat - - 2010
In the present study, experiments were designed to investigate if supplementation with calcium during 4 weeks had an effect on blood parameters in sedentary male athletes at rest and exhaustion. Thirty healthy subjects of ages ranging from 18 to 22 years were included in the study. The subjects were separated ...
Davranche Karen - - 2009
The present study investigated the effects of acute paddling on performance in a typical decision-making task. It was aimed at assessing whether the effects of moderate exercise can be replicated using the feet as response effectors when physical exercise essentially solicits upper-body muscles. Twelve national-level paddling athletes performed a Simon ...
Hoffman Jay R - - 2009
Hoffman, JR, Kraemer, WJ, Bhasin, S, Storer, T, Ratamess, NA, Haff, GG, Willoughby, DS, and Rogol, AD. Position stand on Androgen and human growth hormone use. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S1-S59, 2009-Perceived yet often misunderstood demands of a sport, overt benefits of anabolic drugs, and the inability to be ...
Wells Greg D - - 2009
Physiological assessment of athletes is an important process for the characterization of the athlete, monitoring progress and the trained state or 'level of preparedness' of an athlete, as well as aiding the process of training program design. Interestingly, the majority of physiological assessments performed on athletes can also be performed ...
Di Luigi L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hyperthyroidism (sHT) affects cardiovascular (CV) morphology and function; whether such changes can impact on sport eligibility is unclear. AIM: This exploratory study evaluated the CV system and sport eligibility in athletes with levothyroxine-induced sHT, in the setting of mandatory pre-participation screening. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A full, non-invasive CV ...
Sorokin A V - - 2011
Background Endurance exercise training produces multiple cardiac adaptations including changes in electrophysiological function that may make endurance-trained athletes more vulnerable to atrial fibrillation (AF). This possible association is not recognised by many practising cardiologists and sports physicians. Consequently, we performed a literature review to examine the relationship between atrial fibrillation ...
Suriano R - - 2010
Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known ...
Neville Vernon - - 2009
The America's Cup is the oldest competing trophy in sport, yet little is known of the nature and intensity of racing or the physical characteristics of the athletes. In this study, aspects of the physical demands of America's Cup yacht racing were analysed, including the intensity of exercise and activity ...
Caimi Gregorio - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate erythrocyte deformability, nitric oxide metabolites, and their modifications induced by exercise in athletes who practised different sports. DESIGN: This evaluation was effected before and after cardiopulmonary test, using a cycloergometer. SETTING: The study was performed in the Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases of the ...
Teramoto Masaru - - 2010
The health benefits of leisure-time physical activity are well known, however the effects of engaging in competitive sports on health are uncertain. This literature review examines mortality and longevity of elite athletes and attempts to understand the association between long-term vigorous exercise training and survival rates. Fourteen articles of epidemiological ...
van Tellingen C - - 2011
Symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias are a very disturbing sign to well-trained athletes, warranting prompt diagnosis and therapy, preferably not interfering with their physical performance at the time. A case is presented where exercise induced atrial flutter occurred in the aftermath of a viral infection. Basic tools like holter-monitoring and a heart-rate ...
Petrie Trent A - - 2009
This article examined the relationship of perfectionism, psychological well-being (self-esteem and optimism), reasons for exercising and appearance orientation to eating disorder classification among 204 female collegiate athletes. Multivariate analyses showed that only self-esteem, exercising to improve appearance and be more attractive, and appearance orientation differentiated significantly between the symptomatic/eating disordered ...
Ahmetov Ildus I - - 2009
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is essential to induce the full spectrum of VEGF angiogenic responses to aerobic training. In the present study, we examined the impact of the functional His472Gln polymorphism of the VEGFR2 gene on elite athlete status, endurance performance and muscle fibre type composition. Four ...
Rechichi Claire - - 2009
Some reports suggest variation in physiological responses and athletic performance, for female athletes at specific phases of the menstrual cycle. However, inconsistent findings are common due to the inappropriate verification of menstrual cycle phase, small subject numbers, high intra- and interindividual variability in estrogen and progesterone concentration, and the pulsatile ...
Garrido-Chamorro Raul P - - 2009
Optimal exercise performance in well trained athletes can be affected by arterial oxygen saturation failure. Noninvasive detection of this phenomenon when performing a routine ergometric test can be a valuable tool for subsequent planning of the athlete's training recovery, and nutrition. Oximetry has been used to this end. The authors ...
de Lira C A B - - 2010
Participation in sports for individuals with disabilities continues to gain popularity. In order to provide fair and equitable competition among persons with different disabilities and functional capacity, a separate functional classification system has been devised for each sport. The aims of the present study were to evaluate aerobic and anaerobic ...
Ellis Christopher - - 2009
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) has been well described in the literature, and its pathogenesis has been elucidated. The most common presenting symptoms of EAH are confusion or severe alterations in mental status. Although rhabdomyolysis in association with hyponatremia has been described in other settings, only 1 case of EAH associated with ...
Manzi Vincenzo - - 2009
In athletes, exercise training induces autonomic nervous system (ANS) adaptations that could be used to monitor training status. However, the relationship between training and ANS in athletes has been investigated without regard for individual training loads. We tested the hypothesis that in long-distance athletes, changes in ANS parameters are dose-response ...
Vergès S - - 2009
The effect of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on RM function, dyspnoea and exercise performance was evaluated in SCI athletes. Nine endurance athletes (7 paraplegics T4-L1, 2 post-polio syndromes) were evaluated on three occasions (T1-T3), with a 1-month interval between evaluations. Participants performed between T1 and T2 their standard individual ...
Joy Elizabeth A - - 2009
Exercise is beneficial for women of all ages and is associated with long-term health benefits and enhanced well-being. Nevertheless, active women and girls are at risk for conditions resulting from sports and exercise participation. Because of their unique physiology, children are more susceptible to heat illness than adolescents and younger ...
Rawlins John - - 2009
Participation in regular intensive exercise is associated with a modest increase in left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) and cavity size. The magnitude of these physiological changes is predominantly determined by a variety of demographic factors which include age, gender, size, ethnicity, and sporting discipline. A small minority of male athletes ...
Cooper, Trevor Kenneth
To determine whether highly trained endurance athletes (HT) who develop exercise induced arterial hypoxemia (EIH) also demonstrate reduced peripheral chemoresponsiveness (PC) during exercise, twelve (N=12) HT male cyclists were selected for study. Basic pulmonary function data (FEV1 = 4.69 ± 0.66 L, PVC = 6.12 ± 0.82 L, FEV1 /FVC ...
Kuepper T - - 2009
Over the past 25 years sport climbing has developed from an elite extreme sport subculture pursued by few into a mainstream recreational sport enjoyed globally by climbers of all ages, climbing abilities, and with pre-existing health conditions. As the demands and grades of climbing difficulty have increased over this period, ...
- - 2009
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal ...
Gaetz M B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: After a concussion, when symptoms have decreased substantially at rest, it is recommended that athletes begin light aerobic exercise before progressing to sport specific exercise. The British Columbia Concussion Rehabilitation Programme (BC-CRP) uses a standardized cognitive and exercise test protocol designed to indicate when an athlete should progress to ...
Ribeiro Luiz Fernando Paulino - - 2010
The slope of the distance-time relationship from maximal 200 and 400 m bouts (S(200-400)) has been increasingly employed for setting training intensities in swimming. However, physiological and mechanical responses at this speed are poorly understood. Thus, this study investigated blood lactate, heart rate (HR), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) ...
Rowland Thomas - - 2009
Untrained subjects typically demonstrate a plateau in stroke volume beyond the early stages of an acute bout of progressive exercise. Some studies have indicated that the stroke volume pattern in highly trained endurance athletes may differ, continuing to rise progressively to the point of maximal exercise. This suggests that the ...
Duhig Thomas J - - 2009
Maintaining performance levels in athletes remains challenging when metabolic disturbances may be suspected clinically. In athletes there are reported deviations from normal range lab values and multiple factors that may lead to clinical suspicion of thyroid disease, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis. Reports of exogenous thyroxine use in athletes and ...
Moreira André - - 2009
Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression, which is multifactorial in origin. Evidence showing clinical significance of this immunodepression is scarce. We assessed in a systematic manner whether physical activity or intensity of exercise increase susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). A literature search was performed using the keywords 'upper respiratory ...
Hull James H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Exercise-related respiratory symptoms in the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) have poor predictive value. The aim of this study was to evaluate how athletes presenting with these symptoms are diagnosed and managed in primary care. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to a random selection of family practitioners in ...
Machotka Zuzana - - 2009
Athletes competing in sports that require running, changes in direction, repetitive kicking and physical contact are at a relatively higher risk of experiencing episodes of athletic groin pain. To date, there has been no systematic review that aims to inform clinicians about the best available evidence on features of exercise ...
Bonetti Darrell L - - 2009
Adaptation to living or training in hypoxic environments (altitude training) continues to gain interest from sport scientists and endurance athletes. Here we present the first meta-analytic review of the effects on performance and related physiological measures following adaptation to six protocols of natural or artificial hypoxia: live-high train-high (LHTH), live-high ...
Parsons Jonathan P - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise has been recognized as a trigger of bronchospasm for centuries. However, there remains much debate regarding the mechanism of this response, nomenclature to describe it, optimal tests for diagnosis, and treatment options. There is a need to review recent findings in this area both for clinicians ...
Crouse Stephen F - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in American collegiate football athletes is virtually unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the type and frequency of ECG abnormalities in a sample of football athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision university program. ...
Müller Wolfram - - 2009
Ski jumping puts high demands on the athlete's ability to control posture and movement. The athlete has to solve extremely difficult optimization problems. These implicit decisions and the resulting control manoeuvres can be understood by means of computer simulations. Computer simulations based on wind tunnel input data can identify the ...
Sallaoui Ridha - - 2009
This study is a cross sectional analysis, aiming to evaluate if atopy is as a risk factor for exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) among Tunisian athletes. Atopy was defined by a skin prick test result and EIB was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in forced expiratory volume in ...
Cinar Vedat - - 2009
The effects of 4 weeks of calcium supplementation on free- and total testosterone levels were established in active and sedentary adult males at rest and exhaustion. Thirty healthy male athletes were equally divided into three study groups, as follows: Group 1-non-exercising subjects receiving 35 mg calcium/kg body weight; Group 2-subjects ...
Youssef H - - 2008
AIM: Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an essential parameter to watch over defense system of athletes exposed to an oxidant stress during intensive periods of training. To control this parameter throughout the training period, repetitive biological samples are required. The TAC is usually investigated in venous blood which needs invasive ...
Rhodes Rea Kae - - 2008
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the pathophysiology, steps in making a diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment methods for vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) in young athletes. DATA SOURCES: Review of published literature about VCD and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and a case study. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of VCD is often ...
Higgins John P - - 2008
With a growing awareness of the tragedy of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in young athletes, more extensive pre-participation examinations are being performed prior to competitive sport participation. In addition to a history and physical, young athletes often have a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to better identify heart disease associated with ...
Laabes E P - - 2008
AIM: The mean daily calcium intake of adult Nigerians is reportedly low, and animal studies have shown that exercise-induced changes in the bones of growing mice are gender specific. We therefore sought to describe calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index (SI) and SI-based T-scores in ...
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