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Löllgen Herbert - - 2010
There is current debate on the appropriate type and extent of medical testing for amateur and hobby athletes before they engage in sports. In particular, views diverge on the value of an ECG at rest. We selectively searched the Medline and Embase databases for relevant publications that appeared from 1990 ...
Walker James J Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, - - 2010
Due to the growing awareness of exercise-related arrhythmias and improved sensitivity of diagnostic modalities, physicians are increasingly faced with choices that may have life-changing impact for the athlete. This article surveys recent research and expert opinion addressing benign and pathogenic cardiac changes underlying arrhythmias in athletes.
Komatsu William R - - 2010
To compare the aerobic exercise capacity and pulmonary function between athletes with and without type 1 diabetes. Fifty-one adult age-matched individuals were assessed in random order to the maximum volume of O(2) consumption (Vo(2 peak max)) (ml/kg/min), anaerobic threshold (ml/kg/min), peak pulmonary ventilation (Ve), heart rate (beats per min), time ...
La Gerche André - - 2010
Pulmonary transit of agitated contrast (PTAC) occurs to variable extents during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that the onset of PTAC signifies flow through larger-caliber vessels, resulting in improved pulmonary vascular reserve during exercise. Forty athletes and fifteen nonathletes performed maximal exercise with continuous echocardiographic Doppler measures [cardiac output (CO), ...
Stenfors Nikolai - - 2010
Respiratory symptoms in relationship to exercise, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) are very common in elite winter athletes. Symptom-based screening for BHR would facilitate selection of athletes with possible EIA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of self-reported symptoms as predictors of ...
Peeling Peter - - 2010
Iron is a trace mineral used by the body in many physiological processes that are essential for athletic performance. However, it is common that an athlete's iron stores are compromised via several well-established exercise-related mechanisms such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Recently, however, a new mechanism for athletics-induced ...
Dickinson John - - 2011
Background There is increasing evidence to suggest many elite athletes fail to recognise and report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), supporting the contention that athletes should be screened routinely for EIB. Purpose To screen elite British athletes for EIB using eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH). Methods 228 elite athletes provided written ...
Kim Eunkuk - - 2010
To compare outcomes between aquatic and land-based exercises during early-phase recovery from acute lower extremity ligament injuries in elite athletes. A single-blinded, covariate adaptive randomized, controlled study. National training center for elite athletes. Twenty-two athletes with isolated grade I or II ligament injury in ankles or knees were randomized into ...
Klaver-Król Ewa G - - 2010
In surface electromyography (sEMG), the distribution of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities has been shown to reflect the proportion of faster and slower propagating MUPs. This study investigated whether the distribution of MUP velocities could distinguish between sprinters (n=11) and endurance athletes (n=12) in not-specifically trained muscle (biceps brachii) during ...
Johnson Richard J - - 2010
The large daily energy intake common among athletes can be associated with a large daily intake of fructose, a simple sugar that has been linked to metabolic disorders. Fructose commonly is found in foods and beverages as a natural component (e.g., in fruits) or as an added ingredient (as sucrose ...
Lateef Fatimah - - 2010
Ice water immersion and contrast temperature water immersion therapy post exercise is fast becoming a common practice among athletes involved in a variety of sports. Several mechanisms have been put forth to explain the rationale for its use. However, there is still a lack of evidence from a sufficiently large-scale ...
Wilson M - - 2010
The cardiovascular benefits of exercise are well known. In contrast, the impact of lifelong endurance exercise is less well understood. Long-term high-intensity endurance exercise is associated with changes in cardiac morphology together with electrocardiographic alterations that are believed to be physiologic in nature. Recent data however has suggested a number ...
Bernardi Marco - - 2010
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was 1) to describe the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of Paralympic athletes participating in the following five sports: Nordic sit skiing (NS, n = 5), wheelchair distance racing (WR, n = 6), wheelchair basketball (WB, n = 13), wheelchair fencing (WF, n = ...
Guidetti Laura - - 2010
Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of ...
Maughan R J - - 2010
Most humans observe an overnight fast on a daily basis, and the human body copes well with short duration fasting. Periodic fasting is widely practised for cultural, religious or health reasons. Fasting may take many different forms. Prolonged restriction of food and fluid is harmful to health and performance, and ...
Hurley David J - - 2010
The estimated prevalence of iron deficiency in the world suggests that there should be widespread negative consequences of this nutrient deficiency in both developed and developing countries. In considering the reality of these estimates, the Belmont Conference seeks to reconsider the accepted relationships of iron status to physiological, biochemical and ...
Kroff Jacolene - - 2010
The morphological determinants of respiratory muscle (RM) strength and endurance in non-athletic populations are well documented, but are lacking in athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinanthropometric and pulmonary predictors of RM strength and endurance. 160 athletes (103 men) were recruited from eight different sports ...
Bougault Valérie - - 2010
This study was aimed at the following: (1) the prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in swimmers and winter sport athletes according to the previously recommended regulatory sport agencies criteria, (2) the relationship between respiratory symptoms and AHR/EIB, (3) the impact of the chosen cutoff value for ...
Popovic Martin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: This study set out to identify the effects of recreational and endurance exercise on subclinical evidence of atherosclerosis in young adults. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease risk factors and intima-media thickness determination by B-mode ultrasonography of 150 subjects were correlated to endurance exercise, recreational exercise, and sedentary lifestyle. The subjects comprised ...
Stuempfle Kristin J - - 2010
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is hyponatremia that occurs <or= 24 hours after prolonged physical activity. It is a potentially serious complication of marathons, triathlons, and ultradistance events, and can occur in hot and cold environments. Clear evidence indicates that EAH is a dilutional hyponatremia caused by excessive fluid consumption and the ...
Oliveira Leonardo P J - - 2010
Hypertension is a prevalent disease worldwide. Its inadequate treatment leads to major cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. These conditions decrease life expectancy and are a substantial cost burden to health care systems. Physically active individuals and professional athletes are not risk free for developing this ...
van Rosendal Simon Piet - - 2010
Fluid is typically administered via intravenous (IV) infusion to athletes who develop clinical symptoms of heat illness, based on the perception that dehydration is a primary factor contributing to the condition. However, other athletes also voluntarily rehydrate with IV fluid as opposed to, or in conjunction with, oral rehydration. The ...
Cinar Vedat - - 2011
This study was performed to assess how 4 weeks of magnesium supplementation and exercise affect the free and total plasma testosterone levels of sportsmen practicing tae kwon do and sedentary controls at rest and after exhaustion. The testosterone levels were determined at four different periods: resting before supplementation, exhaustion before supplementation, ...
Homan Kristin - - 2010
Although internalization of the thin ideal has been extensively researched and is now regarded as a risk factor for eating disturbance, endorsement of the firm, athletic body ideal has received only minimal attention. This short-term longitudinal study explored whether internalization of two aspects of the current cultural ideal (thinness and ...
Patlar Suleyman - - 2011
Many researchers have emphasized the relation between nutrition and development and sustaining performance. Two methods are commonly employed to identify the interaction between physical activity and nutrition. The first consists of administering food with a variety of contents to people engaged in physical activity and observing their performance responses, and ...
Atkins Justin M - - 2010
Abdominal and groin injuries are common problems encountered by athletes across a wide variety of sports. They range from benign but annoying, such as exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), to the activity-limiting and possibly career-ending condition of athletic hernia. This article covers ETAP, rectus abdominus injuries, osteitis pubis, athletic hernia, ...
Zwierko Teresa - - 2010
PURPOSE: Physical exertion may disturb retinal function. We wondered whether different levels of physical performance could affect the plot of neuroretinal activity after dynamic exercise in healthy subjects. The aim of our study was to estimate the effect of increasing intensity physical exercise on retinal activity in 2 groups: athletes ...
Flueck Martin - - 2010
Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review ...
Schumacher Y O - - 2010
Haemoglobin (Hb) and Reticulocytes (Ret) are measured as indirect markers of doping in athletes. We studied the diurnal variation, the impact of exercise, fluid intake and ambient temperature in athletes on these parameters. Hourly venous blood samples were obtained from 36 male athletes of different disciplines (endurance (END) and non-endurance ...
Cakmak Alpay - - 2010
Regular physical activity may play a protective role against cardiovascular disease in adults, and paraoxonase activity may serve to mediate this effect. This study compared paraoxonase activity and that of other antioxidative agents in adolescent athletes compared with inactive youth. Paraoxonase level was 177.32 +/- 100.10 (U/L) in children with ...
Behm David G - - 2010
Training of the trunk or core muscles for enhanced health, rehabilitation, and athletic performance has received renewed emphasis. Instability resistance exercises have become a popular means of training the core and improving balance. Whether instability resistance training is as, more, or less effective than traditional ground-based resistance training is not ...
Rankovic Goran - - 2010
Physical capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. Aerobic capacity has been accepted as its major component. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has been regarded by majority of authors as the best indicator of aerobic capacity of an organism, and at the same time, the best ...
Tanskanen Minna - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between oxidative stress and overtraining syndrome. Indicators of oxidative stress (plasma protein carbonyls, nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were measured in severely overtrained (two women, five men) and control athletes (five women, five men). ...
van Rosendal Simon Piet - - 2010
Dehydration in athletes alters cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function and may inhibit endurance exercise capacity if fluid loss exceeds 2% of bodyweight (BW). If this level of dehydration cannot be prevented when starting from a state of euhydration, then athletes may create a state of hyperhydration by consuming extra fluid prior ...
Limongelli Giuseppe - - 2010
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that physical training exerts its potential benefits on the individual health status by modulating the immune system and the whole body metabolism. A better knowledge of the physiologic immune response to exercise may help to understand the benefits of physical exercise in ...
Angelidis Pantelis A - - 2010
Today's state of the art in exercise physiology, professional athletics and sports practice in general clearly shows that the best results depend on the personalisation and continuous update of the recommendations provided to an athlete training, a sports lover or a person whose medical condition demands regular physical exercise. The ...
Eichenberger Philipp - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three-week consumption of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on time trial performance and metabolism during cycling in endurance athletes. Nine endurance-trained men participated in this double-blind and placebo-controlled cross-over study. At the end of the supplementation period with GTE ...
Connes Philippe - - 2010
Abnormal hemorheology has been proposed previously as a possible genesis of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) in humans. This study, in support of the hemorheological hypothesis, aims at determining if red blood cell shape changes might be related to EIH. Three groups of subjects: one without EIH (n=5); one developing mild-EIH (n=7); ...
Goulet Eric D B - - 2010
Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) has been shown to increase endurance performance (EP). However, EP starts declining at a dehydration level >2% body weight (BW). It thus appears that the use of GIH is only required when athletes anticipate that their fluid intake during exercise would not be sufficient to prevent a ...
Murrell Carissa - - 2009
Orthostatic tolerance is reduced with increasing age and following prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress following prolonged exercise. Measurements were obtained before, and within 45 min after, 4 h of continuous running at 70-80% ...
Cuthill J A - - 2009
The case histories are presented of four athletes taking part in a 95-mile ultra-endurance foot race in Scotland who were hospitalised after developing exercise-associated hyponatraemia and rhabdomyolysis. Exercise-associated hyponatraemia is relatively uncommon in temperate climates. Risk factors disposing to this disorder are discussed. Exercise-associated hyponatraemia is thought to be due ...
Fagnani F - - 2009
Several studies suggest that intense exercise may increase the athlete's thrombotic tendency. Available data on those metabolic alteration are still conflicting and their clinical significance is still worth of interest. The aim of the present study was to investigate if widely used markers of cardiac damage such as NT-proBNP levels ...
Thurston Alan J - - 2009
To the ancient Greeks, physical exercise was an essential part of life, especially during adolescence and young adulthood. Long after the end of the Classical Greek era, Roman conquest brought a shift towards martial training, increased professionalism in athletic competition and a weak strand of restorative gymnastics kept barely intact ...
Hurvitz Michal - - 2009
Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has ...
Nikander R - - 2010
The association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with cross-sectional geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among 204 female athletes representing five different exercise loadings and 50 referents. All exercises involving ground impacts (e.g., endurance running, ball games, jumping) were associated with thicker cortex at the distal and diaphyseal sites ...
Babiloni Claudio - - 2010
Here we tested two working hypotheses on spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency") in experts: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite karate athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of karate actions; (ii) compared to non-athletes and elite karate athletes, amateur karate athletes are characterized by an ...
Donnikov A E - - 2009
The effects of 6-h marathon ultra-race (long aerobic work below the lactate threshold level) on the levels of IL-6, leukemia inhibiting factor (LIF), and stem cell growth factor (SCF) were studied. The athletes participating in the study had different endurance levels evaluated by the distance covered over 6 h. The ...
Millward David - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of clinically diagnosed exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) and asthma among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student athletes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Division I university athletic department and primary care sports medicine clinic/athletic training room. PATIENTS: All varsity athletes were eligible for the study. Seventy-five participants ...
Tsai M-L - - 2011
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative effects of prolonged, intensive training and rapid weight loss on immunological parameters and antioxidation activity of elite male Taiwanese taekwondo athletes. Design 16 Elite male taekwondo athletes (mean age, 21.6 (1.3) years; mean height, 173.7 (5.5) cm) volunteered to ...
Jordan Barry D - - 2009
Clinical decision making for injured boxers follows the same therapeutic principles as the treatment plan for other injured athletes. Just as surgical techniques have improved, so has the scientific basis for implementing therapeutic exercises progressed to return the athletes to their former level of competition.
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