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Martin B J - - 1982
Endurance athletes possess superior ability to sustain high ventilation. However, it remains unknown if this high ventilatory endurance is an effect of training. As one approach to this question, we compared the breathing endurance of eight distance runners with that of eight of their siblings who were untrained. In two ...
Viitasalo M T - - 1982
Data from ambulatory electrocardiographic recording in 35 highly trained endurance athletes and in 35 non-athletic controls of similar ages are given. The minimal, mean hourly, and maximal heart rates were significantly lower in the athletes. Thirteen athletes (37 . 1%) but only two controls (5 . 7%) had sinus pauses ...
Koeslag J H - - 1982
Post-exercise ketosis was first described in 1909 by Forssner, who found that his daily excretion of acetone in the urine was increased on days when he had undertaken a brisk walk in the morning. Athletes on unrestricted diets eat more, particularly carbohydrates, than non-athletes, and have lower post-exercise ketone body ...
Baker E R - - 1981
Since women have become more involved in physical fitness and competitive endurance sports, the incidence of menstrual dysfunction has increased. Long-distance running and other sports may lead to alterations in gonadotropins, androgens, estrogens, progesterone, or prolactin, which in some women may directly or indirectly result in amenorrhea or infertility. The ...
Heath G W - - 1981
Sixteen highly trained masters endurance athletes, 59 +/- 6 yr, were compared with 16 young athletes, with whom they were matched on the basis of their training regimens, and with 18 untrained middle-aged men. On echocardiographic evaluation, both groups of athletes had a significantly greater left ventricular volume and mass ...
Schoene R B - - 1981
To investigate the influence of the midluteal and midfollicular phases of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance and ventilatory drives, we studied six outstanding female athletes, six controls with normal menstrual cycles, and six outstanding athletes who were amenorrheic. In all menstruating subjects resting minute ventilation (Ve) and mouth occlusion ...
Keul J - - 1981
Echocardiographic measurements in 90 successful athletes were compared with data from untrained subjects and patients with hypertension and cardiomyopathy. The athletes represented sports disciplines requiring predominantly static exercise and power training (weight lifters, hammer-throwers, shot putters) and dynamic or endurance exercise (middle and long distance runners, cyclists, nordic skiers, rowers). ...
Haralambie G - - 1981
Athletes in training have significantly higher levels of serum aldolase activity at rest when compared to nonathletes. This is due to the higher level (and higher proportion) of aldolase isoenzyme A, predominant in muscle. At rest, athletes with a history of infectious hepatitis show significantly higher proportional and absolute levels ...
Mumford M - - 1981
Nineteen long distance runners and 19 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls were evaluated by echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) at rest and after 12 minutes of treadmill exercise. Seven of ten male athletes exhibited ECG abnormalities of prominent precordial voltage, early repolarization, and one had right ventricle hypertrophy; only three of ...
Martin B J - - 1981
Do the ventilatory muscles (VM) of normal persons become fatigued while high ventilation is maintained during strenuous exercise? If so, then one effect of the intense training performed by endurance athletes should be an increase in VM endurance. To investigate this possibility, eight female endurance-athletes and eight female non-athletes were ...
Brisson G R - - 1981
8 male collegial athletes were submitted at random to three (55, 70 and 85% of VO2 max) ergocycle exercises of 20-min duration. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during and after ergocycling sessions by antecubital catheterization. Serum prolactin was measured by RIA using specific antiserum. The exercise treatments induced a ...
Haralambie G - - 1981
Nine female athletes were examined before and after a 25 km race (German championship). Their average running speed was 3.89 m/s. Postexercise weight loss was 1.60 +/- 0.58 kg or 2.87% of body weight, the mean rectal temperature increased by 1.04 +/- 0.52 degrees C to 38.4 +/- 0.54 degrees ...
Nemoto I - - 1980
Aerobic threshold (AerT) and anaerobic threshold (AnT) were determined in 20 non-athletes (physical education majors) and 10 athletes (varsity athletes), aged 20.8-31.5 years, during incremental exercise on the cycle ergometer; workloads were increased by 0.25 Kp every 3 minutes at 50 rpm. AerT was determined using selected respiratory gas exchange ...
Haralambie G - - 1980
The following article reports (A) data on glyoxalase I activity in skeletal muscle of untrained men and endurance--trained athletes, and (B) the presence at rest and the rise in blood after exercise of two metabolites of the aminoacetone pathway of amino acid degradation in man. Glyoxalase I showed an average ...
Corcoran P J - - 1980
In the past three decades, wheelchair sports have become an international reality. Disabled athletes are exercising their right to accept the challenges and risks taken by able-bodied athletes. Marathon racing over a 26-mile, 385-yard course is the latest and most strenuous of the wheelchair athletic events. The small amount of ...
Poole G W - - 1980
The physiological characteristics of 32 elite Canadian synchronized swimmers were studied. The variables examined included aerobic power (VO2 max), anaerobic power measured by a maximal 30 second effort on a bicycle ergometer (AN30) and pulmonary function including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1.0). ...
Zeppilli P - - 1980
The occurrence of Wenckebach second-degree (Mobitz I) A-V block in apparently normal persons still provides a puzzle for the cardiologist, as the benign nature of this event has been recently questioned. This problem becomes more intriguing when Wenckebach A-V block is encountered in asymptomatic top-ranking athletes, because of medico-legal implications. ...
Zeppilli P - - 1980
Eight cases of top-ranking athletes with "repolarization disorders" are reported. All subjects were asymptomatic and were otherwise suited for excellent cardiovascular performances. Seven athletes did not show any evidence of heart disease. Seven had MVP (mitral valve prolapse). Umprompted variability of ECG tracings was observed in three cases. Both isoproterenol ...
Koeslag J H - - 1980
1. The effect of exercise on blood ketone body concentrations was studied in trained athletes and in sedentary subjects pedalling a bicycle ergometer. 2. Although the untrained subjects had higher heart rates and blood lactate concentrations at the same work load as the athletes, neither group developed ketonaemia even after ...
Rosenblum S - - 1979
To compete successfully, one must be able to act aggressively in controlled, nondestructive, goal-oriented ways. Conflicts affecting aggressive behavior tend to interfere with competitive success. Depression, fear of success/competitive inhibition, and guilt are among the psychopathologic entities that affect the athlete's performance, whether he be a professional athlete or an ...
Martin B J - - 1979
Previous studies have shown that endurance athletes are endowed with low ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. The implications of this association have never been clear. Although recent evidence shows that exercise ventilation (VE) correlates with ventilatory chemoresponsiveness in a group of athletes, the extent to which non-athletes may differ from ...
Zeldis S M - - 1978
Ten female field hockey players were studied to determine if prolonged dynamic conditioning results in an increased left ventricular internal dimension at end diastole (LVIDD) and if this increase correlates with maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). At peak season, echocardiograms were obtained and VO2max determined during maximal treadmill exercise. VO2max, LVIDD ...
Morganroth J - - 1977
Although earlier electrocardiographic and roentgenographic studies suggested that the heart of trained athletes differed from that of nonathletes, little was known of the cardiac dimensions of the athlete's heart until the advent of echocardiography. Echocardiographic studies have demonstrated that trained athletes may have increased left ventricular mass and that the ...
Haralambie G - - 1976
In eight groups of healthy male athlets, aged 19-44 years, serum urea, alpha-amino nitrogen and free tyrosine were determined before and after physical exercise of different duration. Exercise was competitional running, skiing, march or bicycle ergometer work, its duration between 15 and 765 min. The results were compared with previous ...
Leitch A G - - 1976
We have studied maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, maximal exercise ventilation and the ventilatory response to exercise in 24 male and 14 female Scottish athletes. The values for maximal oxygen uptake are similar to those reported in other international studies. In eight athletes repeat measurements of maximal oxygen uptake ...
Bailey R R - - 1976
Forty-two of 369 athletes were found to have a positive Occultest on the first urine sample voided following athletic competition. This positive reaction could be due to the presence of either myoglobin or haemoglobin. The Occultest was most often positive in competitors in the longer duration events such as the ...
Galteau M M - - 1976
In order to obtain information concerning the CPK turnover during exercise, we have elaborated a technique to measure its activity continuously in vivo. A colorimetric method has been adapted to total blood. CPK was measured continuously in 5 physically fit athletes exercised on an ergometric bicycle for 30 min. There ...
Balazs E - - 1976
The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) was administered to 24 outstanding U.S. female athletes who were competitors in the 1972 Olympic Games. The resulting EPPS group profile strongly points to the essential normality of these competitors. Within the framework of a well-balanced needs profile, the two highest group needs scores ...
Fardy P S - - 1976
Heart rate (HR), total electromechanical systole (Q-S2), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), pre-ejection period (PEP), and diastole (D) were compared in 350 former athletes and 156 non-athletes, age 27-74. The two cohorts had been equated according to habitual leisure time physical activity. Former athletes exhibited significantly longer Q-S2 and PEP ...
Miyamura M - - 1976
Ventilatory responses to CO2 during rest and exercise were studied in 10 marathon runners and 14 untrained subjects by the rebreathing method. The average responses of the untrained subjects and athletes at rest as meausred by the slope of VE-PACO2 curves were 1.86 and 1.12 liters/min-mmHg, the difference being statistically ...
Meytes I - - 1975
Among 126 top Israeli athletes, in whom an ECG was obtained during a random survey, 11 had first-degree heart block (P-R greater than or equal 0.21 sec.) and in three of them Wenckebach's phenomenon was found. The latter could be demonstrated only after 15 minutes' rest in a recumbent position ...
Freed D L - - 1975
Thirteen experienced male weightlifters taking high-protein diets and regular exercise took part in a double-blind crossover trial of methandienone 10 or 25 mg/day to seeif the drug improved athletic performance. Their improvemments were significantly greater on methandienone than on placebo; their body weights rose (though this seemed to be associated ...
Morganroth J - - 1975
Little is known about the structure of athletes' hearts of anatomic variations associated with training. Echocardiograms of 56 active athletes were obtained. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume and mass were increased in athletes involved in isotonic exercise, such as swimming (181 ml, 308 g) and running (160 ml, 302 g), ...
Badeer H S - - 1975
The classic view that the resting bradycardia of exercise training is due to an increase in the tonic discharge of the vagi is no longer tenable; If it were true, full doses of atropine would accelerate the heart to a greater extent in the athletic animal. All investigators agree that ...
Stegemann J - - 1975
The circulatory and diuretic responses of athletes and non-athletes to 6-h water i-mersion with intermittent swimming exercise (series I) as well as to 8-h inactive immersions (series II) were studied. With simultaneous intermittent exercise, the normally arising diuresis during a water bath was strongly suppressed in athletes and even abolished ...
Zwiren L D - - 1975
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary function and body composition of sedentary and highly active paraplegics. Four age-matched groups of men (n = 41) were studied: wheelchair-bound sedentary (WS), wheelchair-bound athletes of international caliber (WA), able-bodied sedentary (NS), and able-bodied athletes of national Israeli teams (NA). ...
Lamb D R - - 1975
In this presentation several of the reasons why androgenic hormones might be responsible for some of the effects of physical training and for some of the differences among individuals in athletic ability have been outlined. It seems apparent that minimal amounts of androgen are necessary to produce the normal differences ...
Bullard J - - 1974
This article outlines the ways in which the practice of medicine is affected by patients' participation in sports, or indeed any form of physical exercise. Several instances are cited where the patient's need for a quick recovery will materially affect the treatment he is given. The family physician must be ...
van Saase J L - - 1990
OBJECTIVE: To compare the long term survival of a group of athletes taking prolonged vigorous physical exercise to that of the general population. DESIGN: Follow up of a cohort of participants in the Dutch eleven cities ice skating tour (a race and recreational tour) over a distance of 200 kilometers. ...
Shangold M M Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, Pa - - 1990
The prevalence of menstrual dysfunction is greater among athletes than in the general population. Many factors undergo change during the course of an athletic training program and any or all of these may contribute to disturbances in menstrual cyclicity. All athletes with oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, or menarcheal delay require thorough evaluation ...
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