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Gieck J H - - 1987
Improper techniques are often the cause of overuse syndromes. Unless the technique is corrected, the patient is doomed to recurrence. The same is true of improper posture, especially in the lower extremity and trunk areas. The pitcher or tennis player should have his or her style analyzed for proper form. ...
O'Toole M L - - 1987
To better characterize the athletes who participate in ultraendurance triathlons, 14 triathletes in training for the Hawaii IRONMAN triathlon were studied. A physical and physiological profile was developed from anthropometric measurements and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise on a treadmill, cycle ergometer, and arm ergometer. A comparison of the maximal ...
Myers A - - 1987
With the emergence of physical activity programs geared specifically to senior citizens, family physicians will increasingly be called on to provide advice or approval concerning their patients' suitability for participation. In addition, family physicians have been identified as having a key role to play in the promotion of exercise for ...
Hardy C J - - 1986
The present study sought to examine the relationship between selected psychological traits as measured by the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) 16 PF inventory and fear of success as measured by the Fear of Success Scale (FOSS). The subjects were 36 Senior elite wrestlers (age 20-25) who were ...
Kerr I L - - 1986
There has been a significant increase in the number of individuals participating in contact sports. As a result, every effort must be made to provide the athletes with protection against mouth injuries. In this review the use, construction and benefits of mouthguards in all sports has been described. There is ...
Worobetz L J - - 1986
It has been thought that upper intestinal symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, belching, and chest pain experienced during exercise may represent esophageal dysfunction. The aim of this study is to examine esophageal function during moderate exercise in asymptomatic healthy athletes. Six healthy male athletes were exercised for 2 h on a ...
McKeag D B - - 1986
This paper has outlined the components of conditioning and has given detailed training guidelines. Training should be sports specific. Conversely, the sport used for a training program will specifically emphasize different energy systems to a certain degree. The effect of exercise on growth and development is also a necessary concern. ...
Chillag S A - - 1986
The current increased participation in long distance running and endurance events brings new challenges to the physician. Adaptive changes of exercise must be differentiated from disease states. Left ventricular hypertrophy, Wenckebach rhythm, elevated creatine kinase (myocardial fraction), gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, amenorrhea, and apparent anemia may all be exercise related. ...
Morris A F - - 1986
This unique report contains selected physical and structural characteristics of a female ultramarathon wheelchair road racer. When tested, this 25-year-old athlete weighed 65.6 kilograms, with a height of 171.4 centimetres. The resting heart rate was 57 beats per minute, which rose to a maximum of 161 during a progressive, arm-cranking, ...
Loucks A B - - 1986
In recent years, reproductive disorders in athletes have been observed in increasing numbers and proportions as larger numbers of women are participating in more strenuous athletic activities. Clinical problems with infertility and decreased bone density have been reported in this group, which has prided itself on its health. Hypoestrogenic women, ...
Wolfe L A - - 1986
Echocardiographic studies related to chronic exercise effects on cardiac dimensions were reviewed. Sources of error in M-mode echocardiography include its resolving power, changes in transmission velocity in a nonhomogeneous medium, subjective analysis of records, and assumptions to predict ventricular volume and mass from one-dimensional data. Existing studies document larger values ...
Yerg J E JE - - 1986
Vasovagal syncope occurred in an endurance athlete prior to exercise as the result of a 22-second episode of complete heart block with ventricular asystole and subsequent sinoatrial arrest. The subject suffered a head injury but recovered without sequelae. Noninvasive cardiac testing was unrevealing. Although lesser disturbances of cardiac rhythm and ...
di Prampero P E - - 1986
The energy cost of the forms of locomotion discussed throughout this article is summarized in Table 9. This table, as well as the preceding sections of this article, are designed to provide a rather comprehensive and simple set of information for potential readers: medical doctors, who should be able to ...
Coelho A - - 1986
Nineteen young athletes with documented symptomatic tachyarrhythmia were systematically evaluated. There were 15 men and 4 women, aged 14 to 32 years (mean 22 +/- 6). Documented tachyarrhythmias were paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in five patients, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in five, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia in eight (sustained in five, nonsustained in ...
Hollmann W - - 1986
After a short historical remark the development of athlete's heart in childhood is described. Within 2 years significant differences were observed between endurance-trained (swimming) and untrained girls and boys determined by X-ray and echocardiographical examinations. The limits of the physiological size in relation to body weight were not exceeded within ...
Hamill J - - 1986
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using ground reaction force data, two ankle stabilizing techniques commonly used by athletic trainers; the closed Gibney taping procedure and the boot type ankle stabilizer. Each condition was examined in a pre- and postexercise bout. In addition, a no appliance condition was ...
Rowland T W - - 1986
The role of the pediatrician in the management of the child athlete has expanded in accord with the burgeoning number of children involved in sports competition. Growing information regarding physiologic responses to exercise in the pediatric age group has added to the importance and utility of this involvement. The scope ...
Hespel P - - 1986
The chronic effect of training on intraerythrocyte cationic concentrations and on red cell Na+,K+-ATPase pump activity was studied by comparing well-trained athletes with sedentary subjects at rest. Also the acute effect of a 50-min cross-country run on these erythrocyte measurements was studied in the athletes. At rest the intraerythrocyte potassium ...
Kitada M - - 1985
One thousand and twenty-two of senior high school students and 274 of primary and junior high school students screened as positive through heart disease mass examination were tested by the Master's two step Method. The results are as follow: 1) In order to get informations to give the guide line ...
Rice S G - - 1985
Nine hundred eight-three new intercollegiate athletes were evaluated to estimate the frequency of exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Medical history was obtained using a specifically structured interview. Athletes were selected for exercise testing based on positive responses to questions regarding symptoms of respiratory distress after strenuous exercise. Exercise testing was performed in ...
Asayama K - - 1985
The wheelchair marathon is one of the most difficult sports for participants with much uncertainty regarding the security of the paraplegics. The physical fitness of paraplegics has been examined regularly since The Oita International Wheelchair Marathon (half marathon) was inaugurated (1981). A full marathon (42.195 km) was adopted at The ...
Fagard R - - 1985
Twelve male runners and 12 matched nonathletes performed a prolonged uninterrupted graded exercise test on the bicycle ergometer up to exhaustion to study blood pressure and plasma levels of renin (PRA), vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II), and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha), a metabolite of the vasodilator prostacyclin. In the ...
Worobetz L J - - 1985
A study of the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise was carried out on athletes who participated in the recent Enduro event in Dunedin. Of 119 competitors, 70 (59%) responded to our questionnaire and demonstrated a prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms of 81%. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms were noticed in 58% with ...
Prior J C - - 1985
Gonadal steroids are altered by the reproductive system's adaptation to conditioning exercise. Contraceptive options for the athletic woman include all measures appropriate for the sedentary woman. Barrier methods (always with spermicidal jelly) are the preferred choice. The cardiovascular risks, decreased aerobic performance, and shorter time to muscular exhaustion related to ...
Noakes T D - - 1985
Four athletes developed water intoxication (hyponatremia) during endurance events lasting more than 7 h. The etiology of the condition appears to be voluntary hyperhydration with hypotonic solutions combined with moderate sweat sodium chloride losses. The reason why the fluid excess in these runners was not corrected by increased urinary losses ...
Allen W K - - 1985
Many well-trained elite older runners have performances comparable to those of much younger nonelite runners. We sought to determine whether the physiological determinants of endurance performance in two groups of such athletes were the same. Eight master athletes (age 56 +/- 5 yr) were matched on the basis of 10-km ...
Cantwell J D - - 1985
Exercise training has an effect on myocardial metabolism and the coronary vasculature. Alterations in the autonomic nervous system tone appear to account for the bradycardia often seen in athletes. Cardiomyopathy is the main threat to health and life in the young competitive athlete. For the older jogger or marathoner, coronary ...
Loucks A B - - 1985
Secondary amenorrhea in athletes is reviewed with respect to its incidence, treatment, associated characteristics, proposed mechanisms, and endocrine profile. Athletic amenorrhea is classified within the general category of chronic anovulation syndrome, but no mechanism has been demonstrated. The wide range in observed incidences (1-44%) is due to the lack of ...
Elliot D L - - 1985
The nutritional aspects of exercise are topics of popular interest, misconception, and active research. In this article, the authors review basic concepts of muscle metabolism; information concerning the role of exercise in weight loss; dietary supplements for athletes, including nutrition for competition; and eating disorders among those performing vigorous exercise.
Reilly T - - 1984
Sports equipment encompasses a gamut of devices used in laboratory, training and competitive contexts and these form the content of this paper. Ergometers range in sophistication from friction braked stationary bicycles to computer controlled simulators which incorporate exercise modes specific to the athletic user. These are now used in training, ...
Eston R G - - 1984
The study of fluctuations in athletic performance attributable to the menstrual cycle has been an area of considerable interest and controversy for well over half a century. Studies have included simple observations of performance in athletic events, and have also documented specific physical, psychological and physiological changes as they relate ...
Ferst J A - - 1984
Physiological adaptations of the heart to prolonged, intense physical training produce electrocardiographic changes considered abnormal in untrained persons. Increased vagal tone, anatomical changes in the heart, and other less understood mechanisms are thought to cause a spectrum of surface ECG changes characteristic of trained athletes. Arrhythmias frequently seen include sinus ...
Brotherhood J R - - 1984
During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high ...
Parkhouse W S - - 1984
Sprint-trained athletes demonstrate a remarkable ability to perform exercise which results in fatigue quickly. However, the mechanisms for these enhanced performance capabilities have not been fully elucidated. Elevation in glycolytic enzymes and increased fast-twitch fiber compositions which would result in an enhanced ability to produce ATP do not appear to ...
Mahler D A - - 1984
We describe the scientific basis for evaluating the biomechanics and associated physiological requirements of exercise performance in elite national rowers. Computer-assisted analysis of high-speed cinematography has demonstrated that efficiency in rowing is related to the relative proximity between peak force and the perpendicular position of the oar. Physiological testing has ...
Eggleston P A - - 1984
Standardized exercise testing may be useful to the competitive athlete, his coach, and his physician as a method to detect abnormal asthmatic responses to exercise and provide optimal therapy. It may be used to adjust conditioning and remove impediments imposed by asthma to optimal performance. Formal testing requires appropriate equipment ...
Hammond H K - - 1984
The best available assessment of aerobic capacity is measurement of the consumption of oxygen at maximal dynamic effort. When carefully administered, this measurement is remarkably reproducible. Major sources of error in obtaining this measurement include improper gas collection apparatus, inaccurate flow meters, and failure to correct for water pressure in ...
Thomas B D BD - - 1984
Twenty-five athletes competing in a triathlon, an endurance competition, were studied to determine the relationship of sustained muscle exertion with myoglobinemia and clinical rhabdomyolysis. Of 24 athletes who completed the event, each individual demonstrated a dramatic rise and fall in serum myoglobin over a 24 hour period, with an average ...
Scott S G - - 1984
A comprehensive approach to the rehabilitation of injured athletes necessitates that an injury be treated specifically with appropriate measures to achieve comfort and that early prescription of various exercises be designed to promote optimal healing and a return to function. In addition, the athlete must be assisted to regain and ...
Viitasalo M T - - 1984
Ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained from 35 male athletes between 14 and 16 years old, and from 35 male non-athlete controls of the same ages, in order to determine the effects of regular physical training on cardiac electrical activity. In the young athletes, the heart rates were significantly (P less ...
Squires R W - - 1984
As in all other medical evaluations, the evaluation of the cardiovascular system in the competitive athlete or the nonathlete wishing to exercise must begin with a carefully performed history and physical examination. Subsequent studies, including chest radiograph and electrocardiogram, may be waived in certain populations of young athletes, but in ...
Bhattacharya A K - - 1983
The differences in the distribution pattern of muscle fiber types between short-, middle-, and long-distance runners are well known. Since slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers have different oxidative and glycolytic activities, lactate and pyruvate blood concentrations are expected to behave differently in athletes training in different sports disciplines after short ...
Reilly T - - 1983
Implications for sports performance and athletic injury occurrence have been forcefully insinuated by proponents of a biorhythm theory based on date of birth. The theory postulates that variations in human abilities are governed by three consistently recurring cycles of 23, 28 and 33 day lengths. This study assessed the validity ...
Allen M - - 1983
Endorphins are a collection of opioid-like neurochemicals scattered throughout the nervous system which have profound effects upon the neurohormonal regulatory mechanisms of the brain-stem and all that it controls. Endorphins, primarily beta-endorphin, are elevated with exercise, which places athletic activity in a pivotal role to modulate--usually by inhibition--diverse physiologic functions. ...
Spirito P - - 1983
Treadmill stress electrocardiography is employed widely to detect underlying cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic persons. To determine the frequency and significance of an abnormal S-T segment response to exercise in young athletes with increased left ventricular (LV) mass induced by physical conditioning, 75 male isometrically trained athletes without evidence of heart ...
Diddle A W - - 1983
Menstrual dysfunction characterized by delayed menarche, irregular menses, or secondary amenorrhea often affects women who compete in athletics over a prolonged time. Loss of body fat and emotional stress are important predisposing factors. Under these circumstances, hypoestrogenism, an altered ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, and elevation of serum ...
Sen Gupta J - - 1983
Marathon running is the most gruelling athletic event in international sport. Success of well trained athlete largely depends upon his perfect coordination of movements in relation to speed and optimum physiological adjustments. In order to identify the physiological factors which play crucial contributory role in successful marathon runners an evaluation ...
Lykken G I - - 1983
Vigorous exercise has been reported to increase the apparent potassium content of athletes measured by whole body gamma ray scintillation counting of 40K. The possibility that this phenomenon is an artifact was evaluated in three cyclists and one nonathlete after exercise on the road (cyclists) or in a room with ...
McKenzie D C - - 1983
Salbutamol and treadmill performance in non-atopic athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 520-522, 1983. Nineteen aerobic, non-atopic, athletes (10 females, 9 males) were studied in a double-blind fashion to determine the effect of a therapeutic dosage of salbutamol on pulmonary function, oxygen consumption (VO2max), heart rate ...
Shangold M M - - 1982
Recent advances in reproductive physiology have led to an understanding that the ovarian follicle controls the entire menstrual cycle. The most mature follicle, which is the best estrogen-producer, is most sensitive to gonadotropin stimulation and is destined to ovulate next. During the course of a training program, an athlete may ...
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