Search Results
Results 801 - 850 of 940
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >
Chen J D - - 1990
On the basis of studying the problems and experimental data of athletes training in hot environments, we designed an athletic drink choosing actinidia sinensis planch (ASP), also known as kiwi fruit, as the basic component, and assessed its effects in athletes both at site of training and in the laboratory. ...
Loucks A B - - 1990
This review evaluates the status of the evidence that exercise training affects the menstrual cycle beginning with evidence for the existence of delayed menarche, amenorrhea, and luteal suppression in athletes. A later age of menarche and a higher prevalence of amenorrhea and luteal suppression have been observed in athletes, but ...
Smith A M - - 1990
Epidemiological reports of sports injury confirm a high incidence of injuries occurring at all levels of sport participation, ranging in severity from cuts and bruises to spinal cord injury. The psychosocial dynamics accompanying sport injury should be known to ensure psychological recovery, an important aspect in rehabilitating the injured athlete. ...
Baumgartl P - - 1990
In a retrospective study in elite biathletes we investigated to what extent spiroergometric data, determinations of the anaerobic threshold and measurements of heart volume were related to former training programs, respectively subsequent achievements in competition. Between 1980 and 1987 top athletes of international (team A) as well as of national ...
Rogers M A - - 1990
Fifteen well-trained master endurance athletes [62.0 +/- 2.3 (SE) yr] and 14 sedentary control subjects (61.4 +/- 1.4 yr) were reevaluated after an average follow-up period of approximately 8 yr to obtain information regarding the effects of physical activity on the age-related decline in maximal O2 uptake capacity (VO2max). The ...
Noakes T D - - 1990
Recent studies have shown that potentially fatal hyponatremia can develop during prolonged exercise. To determine the incidence of hyponatremia in athletes competing in ultradistance events, we measured serum sodium levels in 315 of 626 (50%) runners who were treated for collapse after two 90 km ultramarathon footraces (total starters 20,335; ...
Pavlov H - - 1990
While athletic pursuits and exercise are intended to yield the physical rewards of endurance and muscular strength, abuse and overuse can result in musculoskeletal breakdown. The specific location and severity of an athletic injury depend on the activity or exercise, the age of the patient, and the enthusiasm and determination ...
Wilson B R - - 1990
A longitudinal study was conducted on 398 athletes and 369 nonathletes who were born before 1920 and attended Michigan State University. The subjects were compared to determine if intercollegiate athletic competition accounts for significant variation in longevity when considered with somatotype. Because some of the subjects were still alive at ...
Häkkinen K - - 1990
Acute effects of fatigue produced by a maintained 60% isometric loading on force production and relaxation characteristics of the leg extensor muscles were studied in male endurance (n = 9), power (n = 6) and strength athletes (n = 9). The initial non-fatigued isometric force-time curves differed considerably (p less ...
Fisman E Z - - 1990
Two-dimensional echocardiography was used to determine the responses of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction and segmental left ventricular motion to supine dynamic exercise in 22 professional athletes, comparing these responses with those in 22 age- and gender-matched healthy untrained individuals. End-systolic volume was significantly greater at rest and during exercise ...
Hubbard R W - - 1990
Exertional heatstroke usually occurs among healthy, fit individuals who are motivated to perform strenuous exercise because of peer pressure, discipline, or athletic competition. In fact, exertional heatstroke deaths among high school athletes in the United States (ranked third only to head and neck injuries and heart failures), and the reluctance ...
Ohyabu Y - - 1990
Fifty-four male track-and-field athletes and 18 male non-athletes were examined by isocapnic progressive hypoxia and CO2 rebreathing tests. Ventilatory and heart rate (HR) responses to hypoxia were analysed by a hyperbolic relationship and the ventilatory response to hypercapnia by a linear regression. The results showed that ventilatory sensitivity during hypoxia ...
Coutts K D - - 1990
Eight international caliber wheelchair male athletes (3 basketball, 5 distance track) performed an all-out propulsion effort from a standing start for 10 seconds on a wheelchair ergometer. Comparisons between the basketball and track athletes on linear wheelchair and push rim velocity during the first 3 pushes and the peak value ...
Freeman W - - 1990
Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The ...
Reilly T - - 1990
Many biological functions change cyclically over a 24-h period, such cycles being referred to as circadian rhythms. The major rhythms of relevance to examine performance are those of body temperature and the sleep-wake cycle. Many components of exercise performance are closely related to the body temperature curve which peaks in ...
Sommers D K - - 1990
Twelve trained male athletes were subjected to a progressive intensity treadmill exercise test to total exhaustion and at a later date took part in the Comrades Marathon. Blood was taken in order to determine whether plasma met-enkephalin levels increase in an exercise-intensity dependent manner. The mean concentrations in f mol/ml ...
Kruss J J Department of Physiotherapy, University of Cape - - 1989
Twenty physiotherapy and 15 pharmacology students from the 2nd-year paramedical class were studied to determine whether inborn athletic potential had influenced their choice of profession. Each subject completed a questionnaire and performed a graded treadmill test to exhaustion to determine maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity and ventilation ...
Hiller W D - - 1989
In ultraendurance triathlons, dehydration and electrolyte balance are important factors in race completion and level of performance. Dehydration is the most common reason for a triathlete in the Hawaii Ironman Triathlon to need medical assistance. Hyponatremia is the predominant electrolyte disturbance. We have previously described exercise-induced hyponatremia and documented its ...
Mack D - - 1989
A 14-year-old athletic boy with a 1-year history of decreased exercise tolerance presented with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Panendoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract were normal. However, persistent uptake of radionuclide using a 99mtechnetium-sucralfate scan suggested inflammation localized to the stomach. Mucosal biopsies demonstrated acute and ...
Burke L M - - 1989
A sophisticated appreciation of the role of nutrition in athletic performance has been made possible by increasing knowledge of the physiology of exercise. The nutritional issues of training are of primary importance, since this occupies most of the athlete's effort. The nutritional support of an intense daily training programme includes ...
Kibler W B - - 1989
Preparticipation physical examinations provide information concerning an athlete's ability to participate safely in sports. By collecting information specific to the musculoskeletal system in addition to that from a general medical examination, information can be gained that may improve performance and help prevent certain injuries. Two thousand one hundred seven athletes ...
Dickhuth H H - - 1989
The long-term involution of physiological cardiomegaly and cardiac hypertrophy. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 244-249, 1989. Forty-five former athletes in endurance disciplines, primarily Olympic medalists and World Cup, European Cup, and German champions, for whom results of an exercise ECG and radiological heart volume measurement were ...
Hurley J K - - 1989
Two well conditioned high school athletes developed rhabdomyolysis after rather modest exercise in activities for which they had not specifically trained-weight lifting and playing bongo drums. Neither patient had a history of exercise intolerance or rhabdomyolysis before. The extent of the rhabdomyolysis in the first patient was extreme (CPK 181,690), ...
Pierson W E - - 1989
Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true ...
Northcote R J - - 1989
Twenty male veteran endurance runners and 20 controls underwent resting, exercise, and ambulatory electrocardiography. Four athletes and three controls satisfied voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy. The PR interval was longer in the athletes and they had longer mean (SD) treadmill exercise times (19 (4) v 16 (2) min) than ...
De Sommers K - - 1989
Twenty-four unfit volunteers and twenty-three superfit athletes were subjected to a progressive intensity treadmill exercise to total exhaustion in order to study the plasma met-enkephalin response to exercise. Blood samples were collected before and 5 min post-exercise. The basal met-enkephalin levels were significantly higher in the superfit individuals (180 fmol.ml-1) ...
Adelman D C - - 1989
Exercise and physical fitness are becoming increasingly popular in our society. As a result there are more individuals who are at risk for the development of acute respiratory emergencies associated with sports and athletics. EIB is a common feature of asthma and is characterized by a postexercise fall in FEV1 ...
Booth F W - - 1989
Past progress in exercise biochemical research has often depended on the use of knowledge and techniques which were originally reported from other disciplines. With the advent of newer methodologies in molecular biology, the purpose of this review has been to document the status of information gained from the application of ...
Morton A R - - 1989
Theophylline, a pharmacologic agent presently permitted during international sporting competition, has come under scrutiny because of the suggestion that it may be ergogenic. This study examined the effects of serum theophylline levels of 10 to 20 mg/L and the administration of a placebo on selected measures of physical performance and ...
McNeil D - - 1988
On one occasion, a healthy, male college athlete ate shrimp three and one-half hours before his usual, strenuous exercise. Several minutes after exercise, generalized anaphylaxis occurred which required emergency medical management. Physicians who work at sites where individuals exercise should be prepared for immediate treatment of this rare but important ...
Strauss R H - - 1988
The object of this study was to document the prevalence of illness and absence in members of three men's intercollegiate athletic teams: varsity wrestling, swimming, and gymnastics. Team members (N = 87) were interviewed weekly in January and February during 8 weeks of their competitive season. Symptoms, signs, and their ...
Vergara G - - 1988
Even today there is controversy as regards the best approach to asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic athletes with the WPW syndrome as regards fitness for sports activity, especially in some countries where the doctor is responsible for certifying sports fitness. This study concerns 84 asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic athletes (66 males, ...
Nishiyama S - - 1988
The levels of serum osteocalcin, in addition to other parameters, were monitored in athletic (N = 9) and nonathletic (N = 10) university male students before, immediately after, and 60 min after 30 min of exercise on a running ergometer and at a constant workload of approximately 50% of their ...
Hohtari H - - 1988
The hypothalamic-pituitary response to exercise was studied in 12 amenorrheic and in 9 eumenorrheic athletes by comparing the concentrations of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), corticotropin (ACTH), and endorphins (beta-endorphin + beta-lipotropin) in plasma at rest and during an acute exercise on a bicycle ergometer requiring 80% and 100% of the maximal ...
Pierson W E - - 1988
The U.S. Olympic Team demonstrated a significant prevalence of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm (EIB) among world-class athletes (11.2). Nearly all sports were involved but endurance events seemed to have the highest prevalence of team members with EIB. Resting pulmonary function studies were poor discriminators of athletes affected with EIB. The 67 athletes ...
Priest J D - - 1988
A depression of the exercised shoulder was found among highly trained tennis players, and in other athletes employing the overhand motion. This deformity is attributed to stretching of the shoulder elevating muscles, and to hypertrophy of the racket-holding extremity. Most symptoms in the shoulders studied were in the region of ...
Koceja D M - - 1988
Tendon reflex characteristics were examined in endurance-trained, sprint-trained, and control subjects (10 SS/group) using a conditioned patellar tendon reflex (PTR) paradigm. Paired PTRs were administered using inter-tap intervals of 0, 25, 50, 75, 150, and 300 ms, with the left leg reflex elicited first, followed by a right leg PTR. ...
Murphy R J - - 1988
Any athlete, regardless of the sport or exercise, should allow an appropriate period to get in condition before exerting maximal effort. Athletes should be encouraged to observe environmental conditions and sharply curtail or postpone activity if the humidity reaches 95 per cent at any temperature. In addition, athletes should expose ...
Noakes T D TD Department of Physiology, University of Cape - - 1988
A critical review of factors considered to cause menstrual dysfunction is women athletes with no overt organic cause for the abnormality is presented. Evidence suggests that although regular exercise can produce a specific change in hypothalamic-pituitary function, in particular reduced pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion, this is not associated with amenorrhoea ...
McDonald R - - 1988
During the last decade there has been considerable interest in the idea that dietary trace elements supplementation can result in an improvement in athletic performance. The current paper discusses this idea as it relates to 3 elements: iron, zinc and magnesium. Emphasis has been placed on examining the implicit assumptions ...
Weight L M - - 1988
There is limited scientific justification for the widespread use of vitamin and mineral supplements by athletes. We used a 9-mo, placebo-controlled crossover study design to determine whether a multivitamin and mineral supplement influenced the athletic performance of 30 competitive male athletes. At 0, 3, 6, and 9 mo the runners ...
Powers S K - - 1988
Recent evidence suggests that exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) may occur in healthy trained endurance athletes. However, at present, no data exist to describe the regularity of EIH in athletes or non-athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the incidence of EIH during exercise in healthy subjects varying ...
Bain M A - - 1987
A 20-year-old man had a spontaneous rupture of the ascending aorta while exercising. The diagnosis of Marfan syndrome, established by the gross and microscopic autopsy findings, was further supported by review of the autopsy report of the father, who had died at age 26 of a nearly identical aortic rupture. ...
Giammarco R A - - 1987
The muscular makeup of the sprint-trained athlete may make him especially susceptible to severe lactic acidosis from cocaine-induced seizures. Because of a high percentage of glycolytic muscle fibers (compared to the muscle fiber type of the endurance-trained athlete), the lactic acidosis and heat generated from muscular activity is much greater ...
Cantwell J D - - 1987
The athlete's heart is a benign condition, associated with physiologic alterations that can be detected on physical and laboratory examination. Echocardiography is a particularly useful technique is quantitating cardiac adaptation to exercise training and in screening for cardiovascular disorders that can be deleterious to the athlete. Cardiomyopathies are common causes ...
Drăgan A M - - 1987
Acute effects of l-carnitine (vials of 1 g endovenous) were recorded in a group of elite athletes (17 swimmers) by a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial and cross over. Significant changes were registered after l-carnitine injection, compared to placebo, for FFA, triglycerides, lactic acid after exercise, evoked muscular potential, 90 to ...
Kibble M W - - 1987
The effects of anabolic steroid use on athletic performance and the adverse effects associated with the use of anabolic steroids are reviewed. Anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscles and reverse catabolic processes. Because of these properties, some athletes use anabolic steroids in an attempt to improve their athletic ...
Carù B - - 1987
The presence of arrhythmias in athletes is not infrequent. Bradyarrhythmias are more frequent in sportsmen than in the general population. This fact is often due to a 'relative vagal hypertony', owing to a training effect. Tachyarrhythmias are also present in sportsmen in almost the same percentage as in sedentary people. ...
Kinoshita S - - 1987
In 37 athletes with atrioventricular (AV) Wenckebach periodicity, the relationship between PP and RR intervals was investigated. In most athletes, when PP intervals gradually lengthened, RR as well as PR intervals usually also gradually lengthened until a blocked P wave occurred, resulting in the occurrence of an atypical Wenckebach period ...
Birrer R B - - 1987
Success in sports, as measured by competitive performance, is dependent upon a number of significant mental and physical components. Somatotype, motor skills, age, nutritional status, physiology, psychology, training level, genetic endowment, and injury risk are the major independent variables influencing performance. Unfortunately, the data available in this area of sports ...
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >