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Kirscher D W - - 1993
Eye exercises have been designed to provide an opportunity for athletes to practice the visual skills essential to popular sports activities. These exercises, which may be used at home or in the office, emphasize visual recognition, motor coordination, and concentration. Home exercises that are commonly employed include the Brock string, ...
Mackinnon L T - - 1993
Endurance athletes have been shown to suffer a high incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; e.g. colds, sore throat) during intense training and after competition. Previous studies have shown that concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), the major effector of host defense against micro-organisms causing URTI, decrease after intense ...
Grubb B P - - 1993
Recurrent idiopathic exercise-related syncope in the young athlete is often a challenging and frustrating condition. Vasovagally mediated hypotension and bradycardia is believed to be a common, but difficult to prove, cause of this form of syncope. This study evaluated the usefulness of head-upright tilt table testing in the evaluation and ...
Wright J P JP Gastro-intestinal Clinic, Groote Schuur - - 1993
Approximately 50% of athletes will develop gastrointestinal symptoms at some stage in their careers. These range in severity from heartburn to gastro-intestinal bleeding. Fortunately symptoms are usually mild and inconvenient, but in certain individuals they can be incapacitating. It is important to exclude the more common gastro-intestinal conditions before diagnosing ...
Fisher A C - - 1993
In a follow-up study to certified athletic trainers' (ATCs') attitudes and judgments toward injury rehabilitation adherence, previously injured and rehabilitated athletes (n=36) were administered the Athletic Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Questionnaire. The purpose of the study was to compare the results collected from athletes with those collected previously from ATCs. The ...
Störk T - - 1992
To evaluate the impact of different training levels on left ventricular (LV) filling dynamics, Doppler mitral flow was derived in 25 amateur endurance-trained athletes (amateurs) aged 31 +/- 9 years, with a personal marathon record > 200 min, and in 26 ultra endurance athletes (top athletes) aged 32 +/- 8 ...
Laurent D - - 1992
Sedentary human subjects (n = 6) and two homogeneous groups of athletes, trained for down-hill skiing (n = 5) and cross-country skiing (n = 7), were subjected to cardiorespiratory testing and to evaluation of the bioenergetics of calf muscles by means of Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The exercise consisted ...
Conlay L A - - 1992
Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent ...
Cerretelli P - - 1992
The basic energy yielding mechanisms of muscle contraction are reviewed and the main structural and functional features of human muscle are compared with those of some common athletic animal species. Sex and age related muscle power (alactic) characteristics are examined in both sedentary and athletic subjects. Recent measurements of the ...
Noakes T D - - 1992
The hyponatremia of exercise may exist in symptomatic and asymptomatic forms. Symptomatic hyponatremia is usually characterized by severe alterations in cerebral function including coma and grand mal seizures; it develops especially in less competitive athletes who have maintained high rates of fluid intake during endurance events lasting at least 5 ...
Williams M H - - 1992
Genetic endowment and proper training are the major factors contributing to athletic success in endurance and ultraendurance events. Proper nutrition, primarily adequate carbohydrate and fluid, prior to and during the event is also critical. Endurance athletes often utilize other nutritional substances or practices, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts ...
Eichner E R - - 1992
1) Athletes tend to have lower hemoglobin concentrations than sedentary counterparts. This has been called sports anemia, a misnomer. 2) Sports anemia is a false anemia and a beneficial adaptation to aerobic exercise, caused by an expanded plasma volume that dilutes red blood cells. 3) Athletes, however, can also develop ...
Prior J C - - 1992
A physically active and athletic lifestyle is not only a healthy but a fulfilling choice for women. Although there is extensive literature on 'athletic amenorrhoea' which implies that exercise causes loss of the menstrual cycle, there is inadequate scientific evidence for a causal relationship. The reproductive system adapts to environmental, ...
Cooper R A - - 1992
The maximal metabolic responses of 11 paraplegic wheelchair road racers were evaluated with 2 wheelchair exercise protocols: increasing speed and increasing resistance. The maximal heart rates, minute ventilations and oxygen uptakes were similar for the 2 tests, indicating that either protocol is suitable for maximal wheelchair dynamometer exercise tests for ...
Kamal A F - - 1992
A closed skill, maximal effort on a bicycle ergometer was used to study the effects of noncontingent external feedback on performance, perceived effort, and the subject's assessment of the quality and accuracy of the feedback. The 47 subjects included elite athletes as well as physical education majors. They were asked ...
Kyle J M - - 1992
Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) commonly occurs several minutes into or following an exercise event. Respiratory heat loss and respiratory water loss have been suspected as the precursor to exercise-induced bronchospasm. Obstructive EIB has been reported in elite Olympic athletes as well as the recreational athlete. Although exercise-induced bronchospasm presents as ...
Barber F A - - 1992
The iliotibial band syndrome is most often diagnosed in runners but can be found in athletes who participate in other sports. From our experience most patients are high mileage runners with shoes either worn out or with insufficient cushioning. A total of 19 athletes with this condition have been seen ...
Creatsas G - - 1992
The endocrinological profile of 20 strenuously exercising oligomenorrheic adolescents divided into 2 groups (groups A and B), was correlated with that of 10 athletes (group C) with normal menstrual cycles and without strenuous exercise. Group A LH serum baseline values were found to be statistically significantly lower than those of ...
Rost R - - 1992
Even an athlete's heart may be affected by clinical conditions. Regarding the extreme performances of the athlete's heart in training and competition, even conditions that might be harmless in sedentary people can be fatal for the athlete. Looking back on the history of the athlete's heart, some common mistakes in ...
Lewis J F - - 1992
Exercise training is associated with changes in left ventricular morphology commonly referred to as the athlete's heart. The magnitude of these changes appears to be due in part to the type, intensity, and duration of training. Certain athletes develop more marked alterations in left ventricular morphology, however. This raises the ...
Miyachi M - - 1992
Recent evidence suggested that exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation may occur in highly trained endurance athletes. So, Dempsey brought the hypothesis that the pulmonary capacity for oxygen transport cannot meet superior demands imposed by cardiovascular system in highly trained endurance athletes, and endurance training primarily causes adaptation in the skeletal muscles ...
Kanaley J A - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day ...
Burke A P - - 1992
The incidence of sudden death in athletes is low. Some pathologic conditions, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery anomalies, and right ventricular dysplasia may predispose to sudden death during exercise in young athletes. In older individuals, exercise may trigger terminal arrhythmias in patients with atherosclerosis. Screening programs for young individuals ...
Cianflocco A J - - 1992
Exercise-related conditions such as proteinuria and hematuria are relatively common and represent diagnoses of exclusion. A variety of renal disorders with identical presenting signs and symptoms must be excluded as underlying disorders. The relationship of the onset to and clearance after exercise of the findings is key to making the ...
Dimeff R J - - 1992
Headache is one of the most common entities to affect mankind. In addition to headaches seen in the general population, there are numerous types of headaches that are related to physical activity and sports. This article discusses the mechanism, presentation, evaluation, treatment, and prevention of the most common causes of ...
Urhausen A - - 1992
Assessment of echocardiographic measurements in athletes should take into account the specific sport and the quantity and quality of training. In addition, values corrected for body dimensions, especially the active body mass, should be used rather than absolute values. All parts of the athlete's heart are enlarged and its performance ...
Otis C L - - 1992
Currently, more is unknown than is known about the complex interactions of exercise and the female reproductive system. Three types of menstrual changes are observed in athletes: luteal phase deficiency, anovulation, and exercise-associated amenorrhea. This article presents a clinically oriented update on the hypothesized causes, evaluation, and management of menstrual ...
Lehmann M - - 1992
The effectiveness of high performance training should be examined at short intervals in order to recognize overtraining promptly. Field or laboratory tests can usually not be performed with such frequency. Easy-to-measure biological, training-relevant parameters are being sought to use in their place. Since the importance of the sympathetic nervous system ...
Biancotti P P - - 1992
Suboptimal hematological status has been often recorded in athletes involved in intense physical activity, particularly in middle and long distance runners. It appeared therefore interesting the study and comparison of athletes groups of different sports. One hundred eighty-one male athletes were tested and divided into seven groups according to sport ...
Cahill B R - - 1992
Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle (AODC) in athletes is a stress failure syndrome of the distal clavicle. It is related to intolerable exercise doses. For some athletes, the acromioclavicular joint is the weak link in the musculoskeletal system. There is never a history of a major injury to the ...
Kvernmo H - - 1992
The generation of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and tissue factor activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated blood were studied in 25 healthy subjects before and after physical exercise of different intensities. Of the subjects a group of 9 were athletes who trained once to twice every day of the week, a ...
Toy B J - - 1992
Hyponatremia is a medical condition characterized by decreased concentration of sodium in the blood, which may occur in participants in endurance and ultraendurance athletic events. Slower competitors and nonacclimatized individuals appear to be at greater risk of becoming hyponatremic, especially if they experience salt depletion as a result of sweating ...
Décombaz J - - 1992
This study compared the acceptance of two beverages (5% carbohydrate) of distinct osmolarities (hypotonic, 180 mOsm/kg and isotonic, 295 mOsm/kg) during the usual training practice of 97 athletes. A quantitative sensory profile by independent tasters ensured that organoleptic recognition would be unlikely during the tests. Each drink was consumed ad ...
Weight L M - - 1992
Erythropoietic adaptations involving the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) and erythropoietin production have been implicated in the etiology of reduced blood haemoglobin concentrations in sportspersons (known as sports anaemia). A significant increase in the half-saturation pressure indicating a right-shift in the ODC was measured in 34 male [25.8-27.4 mmHg (3.44-3.65 kPa)] ...
Lemon P W - - 1991
For most of the current century, exercise/nutritional scientists have generally accepted the belief that exercise has little effect on protein/amino acid requirements. However, during the same time period many athletes (especially strength athletes) have routinely consumed diets high in protein. In recent years, the results of a number of investigations ...
Veeger H E - - 1991
To extend the existing data base on the cardiovascular capacity of wheelchair-dependent athletes, a maximum wheelchair exercise test was conducted by 48 athletes (8 females and 40 males) on a motor driven treadmill. Athletes were selected on availability from the representatives of eight different disciplines. For 36 subjects maximal external ...
Das Gupta P K - - 1991
Cardiopulmonary efficiency was studied in 18 Indian medical students and 19 state level athletes by estimating maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), and other parameters related to oxygen transport i.e., heart rate, O2 pulse, respiratory quotient, ventilation volume, breathing reserve and dysponoeic index, following graded exercise on a treadmill. Higher VO2 ...
Morris E - - 1991
Maximal exercise testing is a valuable diagnostic tool for the evaluation of exercise intolerance and level of fitness in the equine athlete. A description of the standardized incremental exercise testing protocol and interpretation of the results of the test is followed by a discussion of more specific diagnostic techniques aimed ...
Applegate E A - - 1991
The nutritional considerations of the ultraendurance athlete center around proper caloric and nutrient intake during training as well as adequate energy and fluid replacement during competition to maintain optimal performance. Energy needs of ultraendurance athletes during training vary widely, depending upon duration, intensity, and type of exercise training. These athletes ...
Soffer S R - - 1991
The following is a case presentation of a 36-yr-old female athlete who presented with the symptoms and signs of chronic anterior compartment syndrome. Pre-exercise and post-exercise tissue pressure measurements revealed increased compartment pressures in both of her anterior leg compartments. Aberrant fascial bands overlying and compressing the anterior compartments were ...
Kreider R B - - 1991
The physiological effects of endurance exercise have been a primary area of research in exercise science for many years. This research has led not only to a greater understanding of human physiology but also the limits of human performance. This is especially true regarding the effects of endurance exercise on ...
De Cree C - - 1991
Osteoporosis and athletic amenorrhea are now well-established findings in top level women athletes. Specifically trabecular bone appears to be affected. Since these two phenomena seem to occur simultaneously, questions have been raised as to the underlying mechanisms and whether physical exercise, which had been proven to exert a positive beneficial ...
Hohtari H - - 1991
We compared pituitary response in the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test between 9 eumenorrheic and 10 amenorrheic endurance athletes. The maximal oxygen capacity (VO2max), determined using an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer, was larger in amenorrheic (62.7 +/- 1.0 SE mL/min per kg) than in eumenorrheic (54.7 +/- 2.3 mL/min ...
Seals D R - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to determine if the state of physical training influences sympathetic neural activation during acute stress in humans. We recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography of the peroneal nerve), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate in 12 highly trained, endurance athletes (25 +/- 1 years, ...
Lemon P W - - 1991
The effect(s) of exercise on dietary protein requirements has (have) been a controversial topic for many years. Although most expert committees on nutrition have not provided an additional allowance of protein for active individuals, a considerable amount of experimental evidence has accumulated during the past 15 years which indicates that ...
Clarkson P M - - 1991
This paper examines whether mineral supplements are necessary for athletes, and whether these supplements will enhance performance. Macrominerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace minerals (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron) are described. Calcium supplements are important for the health of bones. Athletes tend to have enhanced calcium status as ...
Bjørnstad H - - 1991
We have investigated resting electrocardiograms from 1,299 athletic students taken in the same laboratory during the years 1973-1982 and compared them with electrocardiograms recorded in 151 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls. Fifty-two parameters were recorded for each electrocardiogram and computerized. We found that athletic students had a significant lower heart ...
Scheib J S - - 1990
The shoulder apparatus is of elegant structural design, affording great ROM with substantial power in many planes of movement. It is the underlying anatomic relationships that allow great mobility that also render the shoulder susceptible to injury. Injury in repetitive overhand activities is usually in the form of impingement, which ...
De Crée C - - 1990
It is well known that women athletes engaged in strenuous physical exercise and endurance training may develop "athletic menstrual irregularities" (AMI). Although many studies have appeared dealing with the immediate endocrinological and physiological changes in these women, the underlying mechanisms have remained unknown to date. A number of hypotheses have ...
Kris-Etherton P M - - 1990
Energy, CHO and possibly protein needs are higher for athletes than for typical persons. CHO supplementation during and after exercise is important for endurance athletes. A balanced diet, adequate in calories, can meet the vitamin and mineral needs of virtually all athletes. Athletes must be aware of maintaining an optimum ...
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