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Koutedakis Y - - 1995
In many sports, training for successful competition has become virtually a year-round endeavour. To assist in better preparation, a competitor's year may be divided into phases such as off-season and in-season, indicating reduced or increased competition commitments, respectively. A number of studies have described the effects of seasons or periods ...
Patterson D F - - 1995
The reported incidence of exercise induced menstrual dysfunction varies among adolescent athletes from 12% to 66%. Women who experience amenorrhea associated with exercise are at risk for irretrievable bone mineral density loss and increased rate of stress fractures. Nurses should provide information to parents, coaches, and athletes about changes in ...
Moroe K - - 1995
Our objectives in this study were to determine the incidence of abnormal signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) and its relation to the extent and type of exercise in young healthy athletes, and to evaluate the association, if any, between the development of abnormal SAECGs and vigorous exercise. The presence of abnormal SAECG ...
Kyröläinen H - - 1995
Differences in neuromuscular function between power athletes (n = 10) and endurance athletes (n = 10) were investigated in six different experimental conditions. In drop jumps and in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercises on the sledge (sledge jumps), the subjects performed about 10 maximal jumps from the optimum dropping height (O) ...
Pezzullo D J - - 1995
In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric ...
Wuyam B - - 1995
1. The cardiorespiratory response to imagination of previously performed treadmill exercise was measured in six competitive sportsmen and six non-athletic males. This was compared with the response to a control task (imaging letters) and a task not involving imagination ('treadmill sound only'). 2. In athletes, imagined exercise produced increases in ...
Rowbottom D G - - 1995
To help clarify the overtraining syndrome (OTS), a combination of parameters were measured in ten athletes who were suffering from OTS. Blood samples were obtained at rest and a range of haematological, biochemical and immunological tests were carried out on the samples. For each parameter, the mean value for the ...
Hooper S L - - 1995
Physiological and mood state parameters were monitored during a 6-month swimming season in an attempt to determine markers of overtraining and recovery. Fourteen elite male and female swimmers were tested early-, mid-, and late-season and shortly before and after major competition. Training details and subjective ratings of well-being were compiled ...
Perna F M - - 1995
Life-event stress (LES) was used to classify elite athletes (n = 39) into high- and low-LES groups. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed higher cortisol concentration after a graded exercise lest among the high-LES group relative to the low-LES group, which was maintained for up to 20 hr. Subsequent ...
Clarkson P M - - 1995
Exercise has been shown to increase indirect measures of lipid peroxidation. However, exercise and training appear to augment the body's anti-oxidant defence system. Whether this augmented defence system can keep up with the increase in lipid peroxidation with exercise is not known. Iron depletion is experienced by many athletes, especially ...
Smith D J - - 1994
The goal of athletic training is to provide the body with a stimulus to adapt, increasing the capacity of the various systems to perform increased work loads. However, the magnitude of the stress must be large enough to induce the synthesis of new enzymes, tissues, and yet not so large ...
Davis C - - 1994
This study was intended to establish the pathogenic significance of sport and exercise in the development of eating disorders. Hospitalized eating disordered patients and an age-matched control group were assessed. Historical and current physical activity data were collected. An indepth interview was also conducted to ascertain the age of onset ...
Becker N - - 1994
Previous research has yielded a contradictory picture of the effects of music on athletic performance. While athletes frequently report using music while training or during or before an event, laboratory studies have generally not detected a beneficial effect of music. The influence of music, judged mellow and frenetic, played before ...
Ng A V - - 1994
We tested the hypothesis that endurance training is associated with altered basal levels of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and responses to acute stress in healthy older adults. MSNA (peroneal microneurography) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during supine rest, a cold pressor test, and isometric handgrip (40% maximal ...
Fleg J L - - 1994
It is unclear whether the markedly enhanced aerobic exercise capacity of older endurance-trained men relative to their sedentary age peers is mediated primarily by central or peripheral cardiovascular mechanisms. To address this question, we performed radionuclide ventriculography with respiratory gas exchange measurements during exhaustive upright cycle ergometry in 16 endurance-trained ...
Puffer J C - - 1994
Athletic amenorrhea is seen frequently in competitive athletes and is strongly associated with diminished bone mineral density and disordered eating behavior. It is important, however, to note that most of the studies performed to date have been influenced significantly by selection bias. A recent Scandinavian study has shown that the ...
Clarkson P M - - 1994
This paper reviews information pertaining to zinc, copper, chromium, and selenium requirements of athletes. Exercise increases zinc loss from the body, and dietary intake for some athletes, especially females, may be inadequate. Blood copper levels are altered by exercise, but there is no information to suggest that copper ingestion or ...
Bonen A - - 1994
Chronic exercise is now known to alter the menstrual cycle. Yet, we do not yet know the true incidence of menstrual cycle alterations in athletes, because good normative data do not exist and the metabolic cost of training has not been considered in many studies. Secondary amenorrhoea is not easily ...
Robbins S - - 1994
Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we ...
Williams S J - - 1994
A group of 129 subjects (67 men and 62 women) experiencing sports headache was established using a questionnaire. A wide range of information was gathered, focusing on the mode of onset, time course, characteristic features and associated symptoms of sports-related headache. Criteria for the varieties of sports headaches were established ...
Rivier A - - 1994
During strenuous exercise in endurance athletes, monocytes are activated and there is an acute inflammation and hypoxemia possibly due to lesional pulmonary edema. IL-6 and TNF-alpha released by monocytes may be implicated in the acute phase of lesional pulmonary edema. A study was carried out to determine whether TNF-alpha and ...
Wheeler G - - 1994
Episodes of short high intensity exercise are associated with an increase in circulating total testosterone (T) in men. Mechanisms may include hemoconcentration, decreased metabolic clearance and/or increased synthesis. Beta-blockade abolishes the T response suggesting a direct beta-adrenergic effect on the testes. Some spinal cord injured (SCI) athletes deliberately induce autonomic ...
Kyle J M - - 1994
When respiratory distress occurs in the exercise arena, the clinician must differentiate between a potential serious bout of EIA or the commoner EIB. The physician's game day medical kit should include epinephrine for initial treatment in suspected EIA. Sports medicine personnel need to maintain a high index of suspicion for ...
Partin N B - - 1994
Proprioception following lower extremity injuries is commonly recommended, but there is little information on proprioception training following upper extremity injuries. No studies have evaluated whether proprioception programs for athletes in open kinetic chain activities (throwing, shot putting) should be different than programs for athletes in closed kinetic chain activities (gymnastics, ...
Putukian M - - 1994
There are certainly challenges facing all of those involved in athletics in the years to come. Eating disorders and amenorrhea and their increased long-term risks of developing osteoporosis are concerns that face female athletes and are are areas where further research is needed. At this point in time, so little ...
Brenner I K - - 1994
Coaches and athletic team physicians have provided anecdotal information and case studies to support their beliefs that athletes may be unusually prone to illness during strenuous training or competition. Many athletes, in contrast, believe that physical activity improves their resistance to infectious disease. However, it is generally agreed that the ...
Raglin J S - - 1994
In an attempt to identify athletes at risk of training-induced distress, a scale was developed using items from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). POMS data were collected monthly from 170 varsity college swimmers (70 female, 100 male) during four competitive training seasons. The team coaches identified swimmers who showed ...
Mengelkoch L J - - 1994
This article reviews the principles of pulse oximetry and assesses the accuracy of pulse oximeter measurements obtained during exercise, based on reports of 10 studies that evaluated 24 pulse oximeters. Nine of the studies used cycle exercise, and 1 study utilized treadmill running for mode of activity. Subject populations included ...
Anselme F - - 1994
To determine whether exercise-induced hypoxemia in extreme athletes results from an increase in histamine level during maximal incremental exercise, seven young athletes [YA; age 22.2 +/- 1.23 (SE) yr] and seven master athletes (MA; age 66.2 +/- 2.94 yr), all of whom were known to develop exercise-induced hypoxemia, were compared ...
Weidner T G - - 1994
Upper respiratory illness (URI) may cause more acute disability among athletes than all other diseases combined. This paper presents the essential epidemiological, infectious, and transmission features of URI. Those who provide health care for athletes must also understand the subsequent implications of URI on sport and exercise participation. While there ...
Smith C A - - 1994
Stretching exercises are either performed alone or with other exercises as part of the athlete's warm-up. The warm-up is designed to increased muscle/tendon suppleness, stimulate blood flow to the periphery, increase body temperature, and enhance free, coordinated movement. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding stretching, ...
Lebrun C M - - 1993
The female athlete, during her reproductive years, has a complex and ever-changing milieu of female steroid hormones, whether it is the endogenous variations in estradiol and progesterone of a regular menstrual cycle, or the exogenous synthetic hormones of the oral contraceptives. Both estrogens and progestins have individual, interactive and sometimes ...
Pelliccia A - - 1993
There is a widely held perception that power training increases left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. Consequently, in individual power-trained athletes, confusion may legitimately occur with regard to the differential diagnosis of athlete's heart and nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. To investigate the effects of systematic strength training on cardiac dimensions (particularly absolute ...
Phillips S M - - 1993
The current Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for protein (0.86 g.kg-1.day-1) makes no allowance for an effect of habitual physical activity. In addition, Tarnopolsky et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 302-308, 1990) showed that males may catabolize more protein than females consequent to endurance exercise. We examined nitrogen (N) balance ...
Paul D W - - 1993
In competitive speed skating healthy athletes complain of subjective variants of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction such as coughing, chest tightness and excessive mucus production. This is especially so after a 1500 m race which can be considered as extremely strenuous. We compared peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements 3, 10, 20, 60, 90 ...
Coetzer P - - 1993
Black athletes currently dominate long-distance running events in South Africa. In an attempt to explain an apparently superior running ability of black South African athletes at distances > 3 km, we compared physiological measurements in the fastest 9 white and 11 black South African middle-to long-distance runners. Whereas both groups ...
Polak A A - - 1993
After the Rotterdam Marathon on 21 April 1991 (ambient temperature 5.8 degrees C, relative humidity 74%, wind velocity 5 m s-1) data from 66 athletes were analysed for information concerning total recovery and recovery from pain, stiffness, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance and fatigue. The pulse rate, body weight and ...
Thompson P D - - 1993
The pathological causes of sudden death during athletics varies with the age of the competitor. Congenital abnormalities are the predominant cause of exercise-related deaths in subjects under age 30 yr whereas atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is the primary cause of such deaths in adults. Cardiovascular screening programs designed to reduce ...
Jakeman P - - 1993
An élite athlete engaged in a longitudinal programme of physiological assessment suffered a loss of performance that was later ascribed to an asymptomatic viral illness. In this 15-month, single subject, repeated measures study it was possible to demonstrate a severe decrease of exercise performance following viral illness. The oxygen uptake ...
Richie D H DH - - 1993
Forty recreational and professional athletes were followed in this prospective study comparing the acceptability and effectiveness of two orthotic component materials commonly used in sports medicine. TL-2100 SF (semiflexible) was compared to 4.0-mm thick polypropylene in six different subjective categories. The subjects were able to perceive a significant difference in ...
Brown D D - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) during maximal exercise in highly trained athletes. Eleven trained cyclists (mean(s.d.) age 23(3.5) years; mean(s.d.) VO2max 66.9(4.8) ml kg-1min-1) performed a continuous, multistage (270 kpm min-1) cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Measurements of arterial oxygen-haemoglobin saturation ...
Davies G J - - 1993
The shoulder complex plays an integral role in performing an athletic skill involving the upper extremity. The intricacy of the neuromotor components controlling shoulder motion and athletic skill is an issue that the sports physical therapist deals with on a daily basis when rehabilitating athletic patients. The purpose of this ...
Ford G A - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Exercising skeletal muscle releases large amounts of potassium into plasma. beta-adrenergic receptors enhance reuptake of potassium into muscle. Since beta-adrenergic responses decline with aging in many tissues, the elderly might be predisposed to hyperkalemia during exercise. METHODS: Venous plasma potassium (K+) was measured during graded bicycle exercise (30 W ...
Foster C - - 1993
Laboratory studies with competitive athletes often use graded exercise protocols to elicit physiologic responses. This pattern of power output is different than ordinarily employed by athletes during competition. To understand the physiologic responses during competition, we studied 24 athletes (speed skaters, cyclists, triathletes) during simulated competition, a 5-km time trial ...
Powers S K - - 1993
Arterial oxygenation is well maintained in healthy untrained or moderately trained individuals during exercise. In contrast, approximately 40 to 50% of healthy elite endurance athletes (cyclists and runners) demonstrate a significant reduction in arterial oxygenation during exercise at work rates approaching VO2max. The mechanism(s) to explain this exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) ...
Schairer J R - - 1993
This investigation examines the hypothesis that hypertrophy attenuates wall stress during exercise, when left ventricular wall tension is highest and most likely to contribute to hypertrophy. Upright bicycle exercise was performed by 17 endurance-trained male athletes and 15 sedentary men. M-mode echocardiograms were obtained during submaximal exercise at predetermined heart ...
Wilk K E - - 1993
Enhanced athletic performance emphasizes the muscle's ability to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time. Exaggerated maximal muscular force develops due to athletic movements producing a repeated series of stretch-shortening cycles. The stretch-shortening cycle occurs when elastic loading, through an eccentric muscular contraction, is followed by a ...
Pierce E F - - 1993
A number of researchers have suggested that the syndrome of exercise dependence (addiction) is paralleled by a tendency towards eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia. As considerable research has reported a high incidence of eating disorders among dancers and as rigorous physical demands are inherent in dance, we ...
Montgomery L C - - 1993
The athlete who suffers from atopic diseases such as seasonal allergic rhinitis has an arsenal of antihistamines from which to choose for relief of symptoms. The decision to select a particular medication involves consideration of its efficacy and its side effects. Many of the standard antihistamines have sedative side effects ...
Palatini P - - 1993
To assess the natural history of ventricular extrasystoles (VE), a 5-year follow-up of 52 professional endurance athletes was made. All remained well during this period. Forty-four accepted to undergo repeat extensive noninvasive cardiologic examination. In the 23 athletes still in activity at the second study the prevalence of total and ...
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