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Hawley J A - - 1997
Despite their best efforts, sports scientists have found it difficult to persuade elite athletes to experiment with their training regimens. Thus, until recently, exercise physiologists have had limited impact on the training practices of successful athletes, with most of the innovations in the training patterns of the best athletes coming ...
Wang D - - 1997
Syncopal episodes in an athlete require a thorough evaluation because some of the possible causes are life-threatening. Two case studies demonstrate the diagnostic work-up, which typically involves electrocardiography, echocardiography, and exercise testing. Tilt-table testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of vasovagal syncope, but only after structural heart disease ...
Jones G R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To present an overview and models of the potential causes and implications of sport-related hematuria in an athletic population as provided by a literature review. DATA SOURCES: A total of 64 published scientific articles have been utilized to provide a review of sport-related hematuria. STUDY SELECTION: Reviewed studies were ...
Zeppilli P - - 1997
In the past myocarditis has been suggested as a possible cause of repolarization abnormalities in sportsmen, but, to our knowledge, no direct in-vivo demonstration of this relationship has so far been found. We report the cases of three professional athletes with repolarization changes at rest and/or during exercise and mild ...
Kesavachandran C - - 1997
The theme of the present study is to stress the importance of duration of warm-up exercise on respiratory functions in athletes. Significant improvements in athletic performance was achieved due to warm-up exercise owing to increase in blood flow, muscle and core temperature. The optimum intensity and duration are required to ...
Yamauchi M - - 1997
Local sweat rates (Msw) at the chest and thigh and the frequency of sweat expulsions (Fsw) were determined in human subjects with (athletes) or without (non-athletes) long-term physical training during moderate bicycle exercise (80 W for 30 min) at ambient thermoneutrality (23 degrees C) and 60% relative humidity. There was ...
Campbell I G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Wheelchair athletes often select a percentage of their top speed (%TS) to determine training intensity. The aim of the study was to determine whether choosing a %TS corresponds to the physiological concept of relative exercise intensity (% peak oxygen uptake: %VO2 peak) and to examine selected physiological and metabolic ...
Hopkins S R - - 1997
The blood-gas barrier must be very thin to allow gas exchange and it is therefore subjected to high mechanical stresses when the capillary pressure rises. In some animals, such as the thoroughbred race-horse during intense exercise, the stresses are so large that the capillaries fail and bleeding occurs. We tested ...
Fisman E Z - - 1997
It is unclear whether cardiovascular responses to heavy isometric exercise are changed by intensive training. We evaluated the effects of this type of exercise on left ventricular (LV) function in athletes engaged in static and dynamic sport, compared with sedentary persons, and looked for peculiarities in static athletes' responses that ...
Toler S M - - 1997
Throughout history, athletes have searched for performance-enhancing agents. Recently, creatine (N-[aminoiminomethyl]-N-methyl glycine) has been marketed as an ergogenic dietary supplement. There appears to be scientific merit to the claim that creatine is ergogenic when taken in large amounts. However, several issues regarding its use need to be addressed.
Ylikoski T - - 1997
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation (Bio-Qinon Pharma Nord, 90 mg/day) was studied in a double-blind cross-over study of 25 Finnish top-level cross-country skiers. With CoQ10 supplementation, all measured indexes of physical performance (AET, ANT and VO2Max) improved significantly. During verum supplementation, 94% of the athletes felt that the preparation had been beneficial ...
Préfaut C - - 1997
During exercise in highly-trained older master athletes (MA), the impairment of pulmonary gas exchanges has been shown to be associated with a concomitant increase in histamine release (2). To determine the role of the histamine released (% H) during exercise-induced hypoxemia, seven MA (age 63.2 yr +/- 1.9), all of ...
Babineau C - - 1997
A great number of specialists and coaches believe that conventional laboratory measurements lack specificity and that more practical testing should be instituted. The majority of studies have addressed this issue by looking at the relationship between physiological variables and time trials (TT). However, few have examined the pertinence of standardized ...
Price M J - - 1997
The thermoregulatory responses of ten paraplegic (PA; T3/4-L4) and nine able-bodied (AB) upper body trained athletes were examined at rest and during prolonged arm-cranking exercise and passive recovery. Exercise was performed for 90 min at 80% peak heart rate, and at 21.5 (1.7) degrees C and 47.0 (7.8)% relative humidity ...
Parente E J - - 1996
The many testing methods available and the increasing sophistication of diagnostic equipment have enhanced greatly our capabilities to diagnose causes of exercise intolerance in the equine athlete during the last several years. High-speed treadmill examination has become the focus of this form of evaluation. Not all clinicians perform or have ...
Thompson P D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To review the cardiovascular risks of exercise for practicing physicians. DATA SOURCES: Relevant medical literature as well as the author's clinical and research experience on the topic. RESULTS: The predominant causes of exercise-related cardiovascular complications are congenital abnormalities in young subjects and atherosclerotic coronary disease in adults. The absolute ...
Pelliccia A - - 1996
Endurance sports lead to physiological enlargement of the heart and to an increase in wall thickness, depending on the kind of endurance sport and on the intensity and extent of training. The adaptation of the heart is modified by several factors. Antropometric parameters (height, body composition), sex and genetic traits ...
Hogervorst E - - 1996
Stimulating as well as detrimental effects of exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported. In the present study, 15 endurance-trained athletes (aged 18 to 42 years) performed a bicycle ergometer endurance test at 75% of their maximal work capacity (Wmax). Psychomotor and cognitive tests were administered before and immediately after ...
Segal K R - - 1996
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has potential in the area of sports and exercise as a method for evaluating body composition in groups of athletes. BIA probably holds less promise for detecting small changes in percentage fat within an individual. Available data in athletes have indicated an urgent need to control ...
Dempsey J A - - 1996
The oxygen cost of breathing and blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles during exercise are discussed along with the implications for limitation of locomotor muscle and exercise performance. Findings show that the oxygen cost of the hyperpnea achieved during very heavy exercise may approach 15% or more of VO2max ...
Hale R W - - 1996
As the opportunities for women to compete in elite sports competition increase, it is inevitable that pregnancy will occur during training and competition. The effect of the high-intensity exercise needed to compete at the elite level will be found in anatomic changes such as ligament relaxation, change in posture, and ...
Halle M - - 1996
Elevated concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] have been shown to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Physical activity and physical fitness have been shown to improve lipoprotein metabolism and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Studies on the influence of physical activity and physical fitness on Lp(a) levels ...
Murray R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To present the recent research that underscores the value of preventing both dehydration and hyperthermia. Such efforts will improve the athlete's capacity to perform physical activity and reduce the risk of heat-related problems. DATA SOURCES: Data were drawn from an extensive review of the scientific literature over the past ...
Dueck C A - - 1996
The cessation of menstrual function in the female athlete may reflect her inability to adapt to the environmental and lifestyle stressors associated with training and competition. As society's emphasis on thinness, dieting, and exercise continues to increase, so will the incidence of menstrual dysfunction in active females. Unfortunately, some individuals ...
Adeyanju S A - - 1996
This study examined the effect of fatigue on the hand flexor muscles. Sixty University Champion athletes in either power or endurance events were used as subjects for the study. For each group there were thirty subjects (Male N = 15, Females N = 15). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) were ...
Ulmer H V - - 1996
Efferent motor signals to skeletal muscles concern not only the space/ time pattern of motion, but also the setting of muscular performance and through this the control of the current metabolic rate. For an optimal adjustment of metabolic rate during heavy exercise-e.g. in athletic competitions-a feedback control system must exist, ...
Kitagawa T - - 1996
In order to define the relationships between ECG-ST level, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), and ventilatory threshold (VT), the treadmill running test was carried out in a symptom-limited manner by increasing the speed and gradient gradually. The ECG-V5ST level, O2 consumption (VO2), and minute ventilation (VE) were successively monitored with ...
McGovern B A BA Cardiac Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, - - 1996
Athletes are subject to the same arrhythmias as the general population, but the frequency and significance of the arrhythmias may be different. Cardiovascular conditioning slows the heart rate and may make athletes more vulnerable to neurocardiogenic syncope and atrial fibrillation. Tachyarrhythmias may be precipitated by vigorous exercise and more severe ...
Weidner T G - - 1996
Upper respiratory illness may cause more disability among athletes than all other diseases combined. This paper presents the essential epidemiology, risks of infection, and transmission features of upper respiratory illness. Those who provide health care for athletes must understand the subsequent implications of an upper respiratory illness on sport performance ...
Travis F - - 1996
This study compared physiologic pattern during conventional aerobic exercise to those during Invincible Athletics--a program emphasizing balance and comfort during exercise to increase strength, endurance, and mind-body coordination gradually without the negative effects of the stress/recovery cycle. While heart rats were similar during both workouts, during Invincible Athletics: (1) perceived ...
Feinstein R A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To pilot test an exercise-induced asthma (EIA) screening program using a submaximal step-test and pulmonary function test (PFT) to identify athletes with EIA and to determine if a physical examination or self-reported history could be used to predict the existence of EIA. DESIGN: Screening and diagnostic testing using a ...
Atkinson G - - 1996
Chronobiology is the science concerned with investigations of time-dependent changes in physiological variables. Circadian rhythms refer to variations that recur every 24 hours. Many physiological circadian rhythms at rest are endogenously controlled, and persist when an individual is isolated from environmental fluctuations. Unlike physiological variables, human performance cannot be monitored ...
Todaro A - - 1996
In most asthmatics muscular effort induces bronchial spasms. However, despite this limitation many of them carry on sports activities even at a high level. It has already been shown that training reduces the bronchial obstruction response while heightening a bronchodilator response. The purpose of this study is to monitor these ...
Provost-Craig M A - - 1996
Pediatric commitment to competitive sports is on the rise. Previous reports of the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) have investigated high school, college, and Olympic athletes in traditional sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of EIB in competitive figure skating, a high-intensity, cold-weather sport performed ...
Castell L M - - 1996
There is an increased risk of infections in athletes undertaking prolonged, strenuous exercise. There is also some evidence that cells of the immune system are less able to mount a defence against infections after such exercise. The level of plasma glutamine, an important fuel for cells of the immune system, ...
Furlanello F - - 1995
Some supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT), particularly if paroxysmal and/or related to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), may in some cases endanger an athlete's professional career due to hemodynamic consequences during athletic activity, which in some instances may be life-threatening. One must also take into account that in Italy the law makes antiarrhythmic drug ...
Roach M C - - 1995
Forty-nine members of a university track team and 80 members of the crew team were surveyed about warts on their hands. They were also questioned about the nature and extent of their exercise, the types of equipment they used, and whether they wore protective gloves. Common hand warts were significantly ...
Kaminer S J - - 1995
Physical fitness is becoming increasingly emphasized in our society. Everyone is encouraged to participate in routine exercise, and many desire to compete in organized athletics. Patients with heart disease are living longer, healthier lives and may also desire sports participation. Because selected patients may be at risk for sudden death, ...
Gleeson M - - 1995
The impact of long-term training on systemic and mucosal immunity was assessed prospectively in a cohort of elite swimmers over a 7-month training season in preparation for national championships. The results indicated significant suppression (P < 0.05) of serum IgA, IgG and IgM and salivary IgA concentration in athletes associated ...
Boone T - - 1995
It is well known that athletes in the United States are told to abstain from sexual intercourse prior to athletic competition. The rationale for such a policy appears to be related to the hypothesis that sexual intercourse decreases the athletes' ability to perform efficiently and/or maximally. But the effect that ...
Hardin D S - - 1995
Exercise is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. To better understand mechanisms that could be responsible for this association, we studied seven controls and seven endurance-trained athletes. A 600 mU/m2.min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp with the limb balance technique assessed insulin sensitivity as whole body glucose uptake (WBGU) and leg glucose ...
Naessens G - - 1995
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a well known entity in highly trained female athletes. In male sportsmen, resting testosterone levels may be lowered especially in well endurance trained athletes and during high intensity training periods, frequently in combination with excessive weight reduction. However, only few reports illustrate a clinical pathology related to ...
Kyröläinen H - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to compare the external mechanical efficiency (ME) between power-trained athletes (n = 5) and endurance-trained athletes (n = 5). The relationships between biomechanical variables and metabolic cost were also investigated. The subjects ran at 3 different speeds (2.50 m.s-1, 3.25 m.s-1 and 4.00 m.s-1) ...
Van de Loo D A - - 1995
It is important that girls and young women participate in sports and develop skills that promote lifelong athletic participation, because of the psychological, sociologic, and physiologic benefits associated with exercise. When an athlete begins intensive, competitive exercise training at a young age, or when the preoccupation with thinness supersedes a ...
Coutts K D - - 1995
The ventilatory thresholds of 30 male wheelchair athletes were determined from their respiratory and metabolic responses to a continuously progressive exercise protocol to peak oxygen uptake on a wheelchair ergometer. The peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), ventilatory threshold in 1 min-1 (VTL), and ventilatory threshold expressed as a percentage of ...
Rifat S F - - 1995
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to demonstrate the relative frequency of disqualifying criteria in a complete history and physical sports examination. METHODS: A review was conducted of 2574 preparticipation physical evaluations (PPEs) performed on 11- to 18-year-old student athletes to determine which factors are associated with denial of unrestricted sports ...
Todaro A - - 1995
Hypoxaemia that is induced by physical exercise (EIH) in some athletes, who are however capable of enduring intense muscolar work, is a phenomenon that has been known for some time. However, assumptions such as alveolar hypoventilation, veno-arterial shunt, limitation of diffusion, or mismarch of the VA/Q ratio, have not to ...
Horswill C A - - 1995
Since the 1930s, scientists have attempted to determine if increasing the body's ability to buffer metabolic acids will enhance physical performance. The buffer of major interest has been bicarbonate; to a lesser degree, citrate and phosphate salts have been investigated. In theory, the buffers facilitate performance by decreasing the accumulation ...
Plante T G - - 1995
This study investigated the association of nine biopsychosocial variables and athletic performance among 40 elite collegiate baseball players. High scores on confidence and perceived fitness and low scores on repressive denial, strength of religious faith, and sensitivity to glare were reliably associated with ratings of superior athletic performance by four ...
Kerk J K - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of an abdominal binder would affect oxygen uptake, trunk range of motion, and duration of the stroke phase during wheelchair propulsion. The subjects were six paraplegic wheelchair athletes with T1-T6 injuries and no abdominal muscle function. Each subject performed two ...
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