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Kukafka D S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 35% of athletes and up to 90% of asthmatics. Asthma morbidity and mortality have increased over the past several decades among residents of Philadelphia, PA. It is possible that a simple free running test for EIB may serve as a tool to study ...
Asami S - - 1998
We investigated the effect of physical exercise on the level of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), a form of oxidative DNA damage, and its repair activity in human peripheral leukocytes. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from 21 healthy male volunteers (10 trained athletes and 13 untrained men), aged 19-50 years, both ...
Uusitalo A L - - 1998
We investigated the effects of progressively increased training load and overtraining on resting and intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM), and their relationships to performance variables. Nine athletes (ETG) increased training volume at 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 130% (p<0.01) and training volume at <70% ...
Uusitalo A L - - 1998
We examined heavy training-induced changes in baroreflex sensitivity, plasma volume and resting heart rate and blood pressure variability in female endurance athletes. Nine athletes (experimental training group, ETG) increased intense training (70-90% VO2max) volume by 130% and low-intensity training (< 70% Vo2max) volume by 100% during 6-9 weeks, whereas the ...
Futterman L G - - 1998
The athlete projects the ultimate image of well-being in the health status spectrum. Nevertheless, exercise-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an uncommon, yet tragic, occurrence. Exercise-related SCD is defined by symptoms that arise within 1 hour of participation in sport. The major mechanisms involved in exercise-related SCD are related to ...
O'Toole M L - - 1998
Heart rate monitors are commonly used but little is documented about their use. We have reviewed the available literature and supplemented it with data regarding heart rate responses of a large number of highly trained athletes during cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise tests as well as during and following prolonged ...
Bartram P - - 1998
Exercise ECG and myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are fundamental in the non-invasive evaluation of patients suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on myocardial sestamibi SPET in healthy young and old athletes. ...
Inder W J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Hydration is an important determinant of athletic performance, and glycerol-containing solutions have been demonstrated to produce a state of hyperhydration. Secretions of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and/or other renal mechanisms may account for reduced urine output following glycerol ingestion. This study examined the effect of glycerol and the AVP analog ...
Furlanello F - - 1998
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rare event in people younger than 25 years of age, but is probably more frequent in competitive athletes. We analyzed the presence of AF, paroxysmal or chronic, in a population of young elite athletes, including previous Olympic and World champions, who were studied for ...
Rowland T - - 1998
Cardiovascular responses to exercise in trained endurance child athletes have been largely unexplored. Doppler echocardiography was utilized to compare cardiac variables during progressive upright cycle exercise to exhaustion in trained male prepubertal distance runners (n = 8) and untrained control boys (n = 14). Athletes demonstrated a greater maximal stroke ...
Skarda S T - - 1998
Exercise-induced hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is well recognized among female endurance athletes but is less commonly observed in male endurance athletes. We have reported a well-characterized case of severe acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a male distance runner with osteopenia, stress fracture, and sexual dysfunction. Using this case as an index, we hypothesized ...
Clinkenbeard D - - 1998
Every year several thousands of preparticipation physical examinations (PPE) are performed for high school athletes. The main goal is to provide health and safety for the high school athletes. A 1997 monograph sets forth recommended guidelines for the PPE. The objective of this paper is to review the monograph and ...
Bolotte C P - - 1998
Creatine as a supplement to athletic training has been available for a number of years. Although there are proven benefits in short-term exercise, recent questions have arisen regarding side effects and safety. Many scientific studies have addressed it efficacy in certain athletic events but no deleterious effects have been proven ...
Turaclar U T - - 1998
Endosomatic electrodermal activity (skin potential level and skin potential response) as an indirect indicator of sympathetic nervous system activity was measured in 35 sedentary male students and 22 trained athletes of two groups during resting and after an acute exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference ...
Chapman R F - - 1998
Increasing ventilation (VE) during hypoxic exercise may help to defend arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) and VO2max however, many athletes experience limitations to ventilatory flow and are not able to increase VE at high workrates. Five of 19 highly trained endurance athletes screened had < 5% of their tidal flow volume ...
Budgett R - - 1998
The overtraining syndrome affects mainly endurance athletes. It is a condition of chronic fatigue, underperformance, and an increased vulnerability to infection leading to recurrent infections. It is not yet known exactly how the stress of hard training and competition leads to the observed spectrum of symptoms. Psychological, endocrinogical, physiological, and ...
Spataro A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the T-wave pattern alterations during vigorous training in elite athletes. SETTING: Institute of Sport Science in Rome and National Rowing Center in Piediluco, Italy. STUDY POPULATION: Nine male and 7 female rowers of the national team were examined prospectively at different times of their conditioning period. METHODS: ...
Brouns F - - 1998
Since the last two decades substantial interest has been given to the effects of dehydration and rehydration in the exercising athlete. This has resulted in numerous studies which, to a large extent, have been reviewed in a number of excellent papers (5,10,12,18,24). In the present article we will give a ...
Horswill C A - - 1998
As a result of exercise-induced sweating, athletes and trained individuals can lose up to 3 L of fluid per hour. Fluid replacement is required to maintain hydration and allow the athlete to continue to perform. Inadequate fluid intake will adversely affect temperature regulation, cardiovascular function, and muscle metabolism. To maximize ...
Smith B W - - 1998
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a complex disorder affecting a sizeable minority of athletes. Proper pharmacologic management allows most every athlete at any level to participate with EIA. This article briefly addresses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and basic treatment principles, including nonpharmacologic management for EIA. Most of the article details the current ...
Schott H C HC - - 1998
A number of feeding and management practices, dietary electrolyte supplements, and medications may affect fluid and electrolyte status in resting and exercising horses. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract of the equine athlete, unlike its human counterpart, are responsible for more than 10% of body weight. Although ingesta traditionally has ...
Hopkins S R - - 1998
The extreme thinness of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier results in high mechanical stresses in the capillary wall when the capillary pressure rises during exercise. We have previously shown that, in elite cyclists, 6-8 min of maximal exercise increase blood-gas barrier permeability and result in higher concentrations of red blood cells, ...
Gastmann U - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Objective of this study was to get more insight in hematology, biochemistry, and endocrinology of ultra-endurance exercise, to improve knowledge in this field, supplementation, and medical care of affected athletes. METHODS: A large body of individual hematological, biochemical, and endocrinological parameters was analyzed in the blood taken from ultra-athletes ...
Jensen-Urstad K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To characterise cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac autonomic function in 11 elderly men (mean (SD) age 73.2 (2.8) years) with a lifelong history of regular very strenuous, exercise. A control group of 12 healthy sedentary or moderately physically active men (74.5 (2.7) years) was also studied. DESIGN: 48 hour ambulatory ...
Hilberg T - - 1998
In a routine checkup the family history of an elite female mogul skier was found to contain an unusually high number of thrombotic incidents. This prompted us to do diagnostic thrombophilia studies, which revealed a resistance to activated protein C, a heterozygous factor V Leiden disorder. This is the first ...
Katzel L I - - 1998
High-physical activity levels are associated with reduced risk of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are a number of reports of exercise-related sudden death and myocardial infarction in aerobically trained athletes. This study compared the prevalence of exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia on maximum graded exercise tests with tomographic thallium ...
Camus G - - 1998
To address the question of whether translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the blood could be involved in the process of exercise-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation, 12 healthy male subjects who took part in a sprint triathlon (1.5 km river swim, 40 km bicycle race, 10 km road race) were ...
Furlanello F - - 1998
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a predisposing factor for sport-related cardiac arrest (CA), sudden cardiac death (SD), and life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). The aim of this study was the assessment of athletes with ARVD, particularly the CA survivors. From 1974 to January 1996, 1642 competitive athletes (aver. 25.5 yr.), ...
Woodfin B A - - 1998
Prevention is the key to healthy long-term participation in sports and requires the education and cooperation of the athlete to minimize these risks and maximize the intended benefits of fitness programs. With careful understanding of the needs of our patients with respect to their physical and emotional well-being, we can ...
Ayres S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine plasma lipid peroxidation parameters in eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and to evaluate differences in their response to exercise-induced oxidative stress. In female athletes, intense physical exercise has been shown to be associated with an increased occurrence of menstrual dysfunction with lower levels of E2. Recently, a protective ...
Córdova A - - 1998
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of daily physical training on serum and sweat zinc concentrations in professional sportsmen between October and December, during the competing season. Twelve volleyball players and another 12 control subjects have participated in this study. Tests were made in October and ...
Lambert M I - - 1998
Heart rate monitors are used widely by scientists, coaches and sports participants to monitor heart rate during physical activity. Although there are data that show that heart rate monitors measure heart rate accurately during a range of physical activities, there is less consensus on the interpretation of heart rate data. ...
Larsson K - - 1997
Beta2-agonists are frequently used by elite cross-country skiers, a group of athletes with a high prevalence of asthma. It has been claimed that beta2-agonists have a positive effect on physical performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhalation of a beta2-agonist increases physical performance at low ...
Poveda J J - - 1997
Endothelium plays a central role in the regulation of regional blood flow through the release of certain vasoactive substances. We conducted this study to test whether an increase in the production of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and plasma and intraplatelet cyclic guanosine 3':5' monophosphate (cGMP) is ...
Mujika I - - 1997
Creatine supplementation has become a common practice among competition athletes participating in different sports over the last few years. The mechanism by which supplementary creatine could have potential ergogenic effects would be an increased muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentration, leading to a higher rate of ATP resynthesis, a delay in ...
Hand J - - 1997
To present the case of an 18-year-old collegiate wrestler diagnosed with vasodepressor syncope. Vasodepressor syncope and the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. It is postulated that a sudden, rapid reduction in venous return to the heart allows for quite forceful ventricular contractions. Hypotension, bradycardia, and possible cerebral hypoxia ...
Mills J D - - 1997
We have provided an overview of the athlete's heart, focusing on the young athlete. Primary caretakers of athletes should know the major causes of exercise-related cardiac complications and sudden cardiac death and look for these conditions during preparticipation evaluations. We strongly suggest that coaches and other athletic personnel be required ...
Nieman D C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The chronic and acute immune responses to both heavy and moderate exercise are reviewed, with guidelines provided for the prevention and management of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in athletes. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiologic and experimental exercise immunology research data were used. The MEDLINE database was searched for the years ...
Schoene R B - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To characterize spirometry and to document the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) during competition in elite track and field athletes. DESIGN: Spirometry was performed in 120 men and 69 women athletes before competition and peak expiratory flows in 50 men and 23 women athletes before and after competition. SETTING: ...
Kvernmo H D - - 1997
Acute exercise evokes a transient increase in procoagulant activity. We evaluated the effect of physical conditioning on the activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Two groups of subjects of different aerobic endurance levels (athletes and controls with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 68.4 and 52.6 ml kg-1 min-1, respectively), were ...
Weston S B - - 1997
The effect of orally supplemented coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on plasma CoQ10 concentration and aerobic capacity in endurance athletes was evaluated. Eighteen volunteer male road cyclists and triathletes, 8 in a CoQ10 supplementation group (QG) and 10 in a placebo group (PG), successfully completed the experimental protocol. Subjects were evaluated during ...
Rowbottom D G - - 1997
The distinction between training and overtraining responses is an important prerequisite for any potential marker for monitoring overtraining in athletes. In this study, eight well-trained male triathletes undertook physical performance assessments, at 6 weekly intervals, throughout a 9-month intensive training season. At each assessment, a resting blood sample was obtained ...
Wilber R L - - 1997
There are minimal scientific data describing international caliber off-road cyclists (mountain bikers), particularly as they compare physiologically with international caliber road cyclists. Elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) Cross-Country Team were compared with elite female (N ...
Franklin B A - - 1997
Recent studies have reported ECG anomalies and a high prevalence of exercise-related arrhythmias among well trained, apparently healthy endurance athletes with superior levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The occurrence of sudden and premature cardiac deaths in amateur and professional athletes, who appear to embody all of the virtues of health and ...
Virmani R - - 1997
The incidence of sudden death in athletes is low. Some pathologic conditions may predispose to sudden death during exercise in young athletes. In older individuals, exercise may trigger terminal arrhythmias in patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis. Screening programs with a history and a physical examination are recommended for high school ...
Fagard R H - - 1997
There is overwhelming evidence, particularly from echocardiography, that the heart of competitive athletes may differ from that of nonathletes, matched for age, gender, and body size. A larger left ventricular mass has been shown in athletes performing predominantly dynamic aerobic and anaerobic sports, in athletes engaged in static training, and ...
Strong L R - - 1997
STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed as an ex post facto study using volunteers. OBJECTIVES: To compare sagittal back motion of male college athletes with that of nonathletes and to compare data from both groups with normative data. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Few studies have evaluated athletic demands on the ...
Lewis J F - - 1997
Athletic training is often associated with modest increases in left ventricular chamber size, wall thickness, and mass, which appear to be related to the level and intensity of training as well as the type of activity performed. It appears that for given levels and types of training, some individuals show ...
Abe H - - 1997
We describe a 16-year-old female referred for evaluation of syncope associated with competitive long distance running. She had experienced 4 episodes of syncope during competitive long distance racing. The syncope associated with marked bradycardia and asystole was demonstrated by head-up tilt testing without isoproterenol infusion. Oral propranolol therapy failed to ...
De Souza M J - - 1997
Investigations on reproductive function in male athletes are not as abundant in the literature as the research available on female athletes. The primary reason for this is the absence of an obvious clinical sign indicative of an alteration in reproductive function in male athletes. While alterations in the reproductive status ...
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