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Sheel A W - - 2000
Decreases in oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) are frequently observed in highly trained male endurance athletes during heavy work and has been termed exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH). Ventilation perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching and diffusion limitations are thought to be responsible. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, is present in the exhaled air of resting ...
Mucci P - - 2000
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) in highly trained athletes is associated with an increase in histamine release (%H) during exercise. Certain cytokines, known as histamine-releasing factors, are capable of interacting with basophils and/or mast cells to cause the release of histamine. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ...
Stein R - - 2000
Little is known about the sinoatrial automatism and atrioventricular conduction of trained individuals who present a normal resting electrocardiogram. We used transesophageal atrial stimulation, a minimally invasive technique, to evaluate aerobically trained athletes (n = 10) and sedentary individuals (n = 10) with normal resting electrocardiograms, to test the hypothesis ...
Gleeson M - - 2000
Immunosuppression in athletes involved in heavy training is undoubtedly multifactorial in origin. Training and competitive surroundings may increase the athlete's exposure to pathogens and provide optimal conditions for pathogen transmission. Heavy prolonged exertion is associated with numerous hormonal and biochemical changes, many of which potentially have detrimental effects on immune ...
Perron A D - - 2000
Octylcyanoacrylate (Dermabond) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for laceration closure. International studies have shown its utility in wound closure and have shown it to be as good or better than suture closure for speed, patient preference, and cosmesis, with no difference in the rate of dehiscence or ...
Durand F - - 2000
PURPOSE: The majority of highly trained endurance athletes with a maximal oxygen uptake greater than 60 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) develop exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH). Yet some of them apparently do not. The pathophysiology of EIH seems to be multifactorial, and one explanatory hypothesis is a relative hypoventilation. Nevertheless, conflicting ...
Nieman D C - - 2000
This article examines three questions related to exercise immunology: 1) Can exercise attenuate changes in the immune system related to aging? The few research papers available suggest that the answer may be "yes", but exercise training may have to be long-term and of sufficient volume to induce changes in body ...
Price D T - - 2000
The effect of long-term arm exercise on cardiac morphology and function is unknown. To study these effects, highly trained wheelchair athletes were compared with long-distance runners and controls. In addition, the wheelchair athletes were compared with the long-distance runners to determine if long-term leg exercise confers a training effect during ...
Wilber R L - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to determine the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) among U.S. Olympic winter sport athletes. METHODS: Subjects included female and male members of the 1998 U.S. Winter Olympic Team from the following sports: biathlon, cross-country ski, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, long-track speedskating, ...
Ribeyre J - - 2000
The objectives of the present study were to determine whether differences in usual physical activity affect BMR, sleeping energy expenditure (EE), and EE during seated activities between athletic and non-athletic adolescents, and to establish individual relationships between heart rate and EE. Adolescents (n 49, four groups of eleven to fifteen ...
Gritti I - - 2000
Human gastric mucosa contains aspartic proteinases that can be separated electrophoretically on the basis of their physical properties into two major groups: Pepsinogen I (PGA, PGI); and Pepsinogen II (PGC, PGII). Pepsinogens consist of a single polypeptide chain with molecular weight of approximately 42,000 Da. Pepsinogens are mainly synthesized and ...
Fehrenbach E - - 2000
PURPOSE: Temperature increase, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reactions after endurance exercise were expected to stimulate the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSP) in peripheral blood leukocytes. Furthermore, it was of interest whether regular endurance training influences HSP expression. METHODS: The expression of HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, constitutive HSC70, and HSP90 in ...
Warren M P - - 2000
Over the past 30 years, the number of women participating in organized sports has grown dramatically. Several forms of menstrual irregularities have been described in the female athlete: primary and secondary amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, short luteal phases and anovulation. The incidence of menstrual irregularities is much higher in activities where a ...
Smith D J - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose was to monitor high-performance athletes throughout training macrocycles and competitions and examine the changes in plasma glutamine (Gm) and glutamate (Ga) concentrations in order to develop a model of tolerance to training. METHODS: Plasma glutamine and glutamate concentrations of 52 National team athletes (31 male and 21 ...
Rundell K W - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare a laboratory based exercise challenge (LBC) to a field based exercise challenge (FBC) for pulmonary function test (PFT) exercise-induced asthma (EIA) screening of elite athletes. METHODS: Twenty-three elite cold weather athletes (14 men, 9 women) PFT positive for EIA (FBC screened) ...
Pluim B M - - 2000
It has been postulated that depending on the type of exercise performed, 2 different morphological forms of athlete's heart may be distinguished: a strength-trained heart and an endurance-trained heart. Individual studies have not tested this hypothesis satisfactorily. The hypothesis of divergent cardiac adaptations in endurance-trained and strength-trained athletes was tested ...
König D - - 2000
Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes, while moderate exercise is believed to be protective. During the past years, many groups have investigated the association between changes within the immune system and exercise at different ...
Hartmann U - - 2000
PURPOSE: Varieties of symptoms are supposed to detect overtraining (OT). Besides the problems of diagnosis and analysis in elite athletes, a daily monitoring of training status takes place with measurement of the parameters serum urea (SU) and serum creatine kinase (CK); therefore, their meaningfulness will be examined, with special respect ...
Jungblut P R - - 2000
Previously published data have suggested that endurance training does not retard the normative aging impairment of early left ventricular diastolic filling (LVDF). Those studies, suggesting no effect of exercise training, have not examined highly trained endurance athletes or their LVDF responses after exercise. We therefore compared LVDF characteristics in a ...
Shaskey D J - - 2000
While the crucial role of haemoglobin in aerobic exercise has been well accepted, there is still a great deal of controversy about the optimal haematological parameters in the athletic population. The initial part of this review will examine the question of anaemia in athletes. The most common finding in athletes ...
- - 2000
It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal ...
Gleeson M - - 2000
This review focuses on studies of mucosal immunity in elite athletes and specifically addresses the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness and associations with the intensity, volume, and duration of exercise. Habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters. Salivary IgA and IgM concentrations ...
Maughan R J - - 1999
The use of nutritional supplements in sport is widespread and few serious athletes do not, at some stage in their career, succumb to the temptation to experiment with one or more nutritional supplements. Nutritional ergogenic aids are aimed primarily at enhancing performance (either by affecting energy metabolism or by an ...
Price M J - - 1999
Single trial, two factor repeated measures design. England, Cheshire. To examine the thermoregulatory responses of able-bodied (AB) athletes, paraplegic (PA) athletes and a tetraplegic (TP) athlete at rest, during prolonged upper body exercise and recovery. Exercise was performed on a Monark cycle ergometer (Ergomedic 814E) adapted for arm exercise at ...
O'Connor F G - - 1999
A common event in young adults, syncope is usually benign and only rarely requires more than simple reassurance. However, exercise-related syncope always requires investigation because it may be the only symptom that precedes a sudden cardiac death. Syncope that occurs during exercise tends to be more ominous than that occurring ...
Goldhammer E - - 1999
Typical structural features of the athlete's heart as defined by echocardiography have been extensively described; however, information concerning extracardiac structures such as the inferior vena cava (IVC) is scarce. Fifty-eight top-level athletes and 30 healthy members of a matched control group underwent a complete Doppler echocardiographic study. IVC diameter was ...
Anderson J M - - 1999
The Female Athlete Triad is a common clinical entity amongst female athletes. The physician caring for such athletes needs to keep the symptoms of the triad in mind and recognize their potential severity. Still more needs to be done in the areas of prevention, early detection, and early treatment. Education ...
Urhausen A - - 1999
Although the sports-specific adaptations and differentiation of an athlete's heart (AH) were first described 100 years ago, the condition is still an area of active debate. In clinical practice, there is often an obvious lack of basic knowledge concerning the prerequisites and well established extent of the structural and functional ...
Gutgesell M - - 1999
Abstract In this review we consider some of the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on human exercise and sport performance. The 1982 position stand of the American College of Sport Medicine on the use of alcohol in sport emphasized that there was little benefit for an athlete. Subsequent literature ...
Sharma S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the spectrum of electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in 1000 junior (18 or under) elite athletes. METHODS: A total of 1000 (73% male) junior elite athletes (mean (SD) age 15.7 (1.4) years (range 14-18); mean (SD) body surface area 1.73 (0.17) m2 (range 1.09-2.25)) and 300 non-athletic controls matched ...
O'Kane J W - - 1999
A nasal corticosteroid is the most effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, but delayed improvement can reduce compliance. Topical vasoconstrictors, cromolyn, and NSAIDs are recommended for allergic conjunctivitis. Some athletes who have exercise-induced or exercise-exacerbated asthma may have a refractory period, which, along with short- and long-term beta-2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, ...
Carrington C A - - 1999
In this study, the influence of athletic training status and the contractile character of the active muscle on the magnitude of the pressor response (PR) to voluntary and electrically evoked isometric plantar flexion was investigated. Subjects were 10 sprint-trained athletes (sprint) (100-m, 200-m and 400-m) [mean (SD) age, 21 (2) ...
Thong F S - - 1999
Exercise-associated reproductive disorders are frequently reported among recreationally active and elite female athletes. Although an association between exercise and menstrual disorders has been established, the mechanism by which exercise disrupts reproductive function remains unknown. Recent findings suggest that low energy availability rather than inadequate body fatness or exercise stress is ...
Mayer F - - 1999
Dystonias occur frequently as repetitive movements, persistent elevations of muscle tone, or tonic contortions, whereby the cause is assumed to be an impairment of basal ganglia function. Focal dystonias are especially known in musicians, although little is reported on focal dystonias in athletic stress. The present case report describes the ...
Hood S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Sustained aerobic dynamic exercise is beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease. The effect of lifelong endurance exercise on cardiac structure and function is less well documented, however. A 12 year follow up of 20 veteran athletes was performed, as longitudinal studies in such cohorts are rare. METHODS: Routine echocardiography was ...
Muster Alexander J. - - 1999
Thirteen elderly male high intensity endurance athletes and 12 healthy age matched nonathletes were evaluated to determine differences in their cardiovascular physiology. Contrary to several pervious reports, this study did not demonstrate superiority of left ventricular (LV) systolic or diastolic function in athletes compared with controls, either at rest or ...
Myers J B - - 1999
To present the case of a 20-year-old collegiate wrestler who suffered from atypical chest pains and syncope after rigorous exercise, dehydration, and ingestion of a metabolic stimulant. As a result of pressure to obtain a lower body weight for competition, wrestlers often pursue practices to lose a substantial amount of ...
Weinberg J - - 1999
A case of myotonia congenita in an adolescent athlete was presented. Although this is a rare condition unknown to many treating physicians, the key to diagnosis was provocation of the patient's symptoms of muscle "tightening" and "cramping" during sustained exercise. The diagnosis would have been missed in routine office examinations ...
Roberts D - - 1999
The aim of this study was to determine if the hypoxaemic stimulus generated by intense exercise results in the physiological response of increased erythropoietin production. Twenty athletes exercised for 3 min at 109 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- s) maximal oxygen consumption. Estimated oxyhaemoglobin saturation was measured by reflective probe pulse ...
Bailey D M - - 1999
Cardiovascular function was determined at rest and during exercise in twenty-eight healthy, elite distance runners. Maximum heart rate was 184 +/- 6 b x min(-1), which was more than one SD lower than the age predicted value (p < 0.001), and an inverse correlation was observed between maximum heart rate ...
Jensen-Urstad K - - 1999
The objective was to characterise function and morphology of the arterial wall in 9 elderly men (mean age 75 +/- 3.4 years) with a history of lifelong regular strenuous exercise. A control group of 11 healthy sedentary or moderately physically active men (74.5 +/- 2.7 years) was also studied. With ...
Bell G W - - 1999
Athletic trainers are continually bombarded with requests to assist aquatic athletes with the management of musculoskeletal concerns involved with training and overtraining. The trainer has options for initial training management through the administration of massage, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, and injury-preventative strengthening exercises. This article describes and illustrates athletic training techniques such ...
Mucci P - - 1999
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced hypoxemia in highly trained athletes is associated with an increase in histamine release during exercise. The cells most implicated in blood histamine release are basophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-level endurance training induces modifications in histamine releasability from human basophils. METHODS: Seven young ...
Kopp-Woodroffe S A - - 1999
Chronic energy deficit is one of the strongest factors contributors to exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction. In such cases, macro- and micronutrient intakes may also be low. This study presents the results of a diet and exercise training intervention program. designed to reverse athletic amenorrhea, on improving energy balance and nutritional status ...
Panossian A G - - 1999
Since heavy physical exercise increases the content of nitric oxide and cortisol in blood and saliva, standardized extracts of the adaptogen herbal drugs Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba roots were applied to several groups of athletes in a placebo controlled double blind study. In the beginning of a test with ...
Durand F - - 1999
The pathophysiology of exercise-induced hypoxaemia in elite athletes is still unclear but several studies indicate that a diffusion limitation, which could be explained by an interstitial pulmonary oedema, is a major contributing factor. Stress failure would induce a haemodynamical interstitial oedema with inflammatory reaction and release of mediators like histamine. ...
McKenzie D C - - 1999
Overtraining is of serious concern to long-distance runners and will affect 65% of them at some time in their competitive career. The clinical presentation is nonspecific but the classical symptoms include fatigue, mood disturbances, frequent upper respiratory infections and injury, and a decrease in performance. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary ...
Wien M F - - 1999
After spinal cord injury (SCI), breathlessness during daily activities is common. In 308 individuals with SCI, the authors measured pulmonary function and administered a survey regarding health status, participation in wheelchair athletics, and breathlessness during different activities. The following questions were included: A. Are you troubled by shortness of breath ...
Chen E C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. DESIGN: A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, ...
Nüesch R - - 1999
L-carnitine is essential to cellular energy production mainly because of its acyl- and acetyl-carrier properties. Athletes commonly take L-carnitine, which is thought to improve exercise performance. There are no reports on carnitine plasma concentrations and carnitine excretion in short-duration maximal exercise in well-trained athletes taking this substance. We measured plasma ...
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