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Results 501 - 550 of 947
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Thole R T - - 2001
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in collegiate cross-country runners using a protocol involving an intense exercise challenge conducted in the same environment in which the athletes train and compete. METHODS: One-hundred eighteen collegiate cross-country runners from the Los Angeles, California, ...
Powers M E - - 2001
The ma huang herb, otherwise known as ephedra, has gained widespread popularity as an ergogenic supplement. With the sympathomimetic alkaloid ephedrine as its primary active ingredient, ma huang is marketed to reduce fatigue; increase strength, power, and speed; decrease reaction time; and improve body composition. Although numerous side effects have ...
Rowdon G A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that athletes with chronic anterior exertional compartment syndrome (CAECS) would demonstrate an impairment in deep peroneal nerve function, as determined by electrodiagnostic studies or neuromuscular examination, either at baseline as compared with control athletes or after exercise. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled study comparing athletes with CAECS to asymptomatic ...
Anderson S D - - 2001
The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOC-MC) requires notification for use of a beta(2) agonist at the Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City. This notification will be required seven days before the event and must be accompanied by objective evidence that justifies the need to use one. The IOC-MC ...
Speedy D B - - 2001
PURPOSE: To determine whether athletes who had previously developed hyponatremia during an ultradistance triathlon show an impaired ability to excrete a large fluid load compared with athletes who had completed the same race without developing hyponatremia. METHODS: Six athletes who had developed hyponatremia ([Na] < 135 mmol x L(-1)) in ...
Goubault C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 agonists such as salbutamol are used, not only by asthmatic athletes to prevent exercise induced asthma, but also by non-asthmatic athletes as a potentially ergogenic agent. We have investigated whether inhaled salbutamol enhances endurance performance in non-asthmatic athletes. METHODS: A prospective double blind, randomised, three way crossover design ...
Carlisle A J - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. METHODS: Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide ...
Jones G R - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to establish if middle distance track athletes experience hematuria during their competitive season interval workouts and, if so, what type of workout based on intensity and distance was most associated with hematuria. During a 4-week observational period, athletes (n = 10) underwent reagent strip ...
Kita Y - - 2001
We compared the occurrence patterns of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) preceding wrist extension in athletes (kendoists and gymnasts) and non-athletes. The MRCPs of the non-athletes started approximately 1.5 s before the EMG onset of wrist extension. In the athletes, the duration of the MRCPs was shorter and the amplitudes of ...
SmorawiƄski J - - 2001
To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise ...
Di Luigi L - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of physical exercise on seminal parameters of male athletes with varicocele. Sixty healthy male volunteers (athletes and non-athletes, n = 30 + 30) and 60 volunteers affected by varicocele (athletes and non-athletes, n = 30 + 30) were randomly ...
Swaine I L - - 2001
A male athlete suffered complete respiratory arrest after collapsing at the entrance to an Accident and Emergency Department of a hospital. He was resuscitated and recovered fully after several hours. He had multiple wheals on both legs and had complained of severe breathlessness before collapsing. The athlete had run through ...
Bouvier F - - 2001
PURPOSE: To study the extent to which lifelong physical training can affect cardiovascular capacity, left ventricular function, and myocardial perfusion in elderly men. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy male veteran endurance athletes aged 73 +/- 3 yr (mean +/- SD) and a control group of 12 sedentary or moderately physically ...
Kondo T - - 2001
This study was conducted to determine whether and under what circumstances exercise causes nausea. Twelve healthy volunteers (20-37 years), including six athletes, participated in the study. Subjects were studied on seven occasions. Each subject performed low and high-intensity exercise without eating, immediately after eating a beef patty and 60 min ...
Speedy D B - - 2001
This paper reviews the extensive literature on hyponatremia, a common and potentially serious complication of ultra-distance exercise. Fluid overload is the likely aetiology. Fluid intakes are typically high in athletes who develop hyponatremia, although hyponatremia can occur with relatively modest fluid intakes. The development of fluid overload and hyponatremia in ...
Peters H P - - 2001
This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms ...
Delaney J S - - 2001
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is used in a sports medicine setting to reduce hypoxia and edema and appears to be particularly effective for treating crush injuries and acute traumatic peripheral ischemias. When used clinically, HBO2 should be considered as an adjunctive therapy as soon as possible after injury diagnosis. Treatment pressures ...
Marolf G A - - 2001
Exercise testing in special populations such as athletes, women, and the elderly requires additional considerations from the clinician. Different protocols, as well as special accommodations, may be necessary for performing the test. Symptomatic athletes may have a number of cardiac conditions that lead to ischemic changes on the exercise test. ...
Mucci P - - 2001
This study examined whether the increase in histamine release (%H, i.e., plasma histamine expressed as a percentage of whole blood histamine) associated with exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) is related to high training-induced changes in basophil and osmolarity factors in arterial blood. All parameters were measured in 20 endurance athletes, 11 of ...
Rundell K W - - 2001
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported symptoms for exercise-induced asthma (EIA) to postexercise challenge pulmonary function test results in elite athletes. METHODS: Elite athletes (N = 158; 83 men and 75 women; age: 22 +/- 4.4 yr) performed pre- and post-exercise spirometry and were grouped according ...
Sternberg W F - - 2001
Competing in various athletic events (track meet, basketball game, or fencing match) can produce analgesia to cold pressor stimuli in male and female college athletes compared with baseline assessments. This competition-induced analgesia has been attributed to the stress associated with competition, which has components related to both physical exercise and ...
Aubert A E - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of training in a young population differentiates heart rate variability parameters between athlete groups and sedentary subjects. METHODS: The effect of different types of physical training on heart rate variability was evaluated in 10 aerobic trained athletes, in ...
Maquirriain J - - 2001
Some strength athletes use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to improve body dimensions, though the drugs' long- and short-term effects have not been definitively established.
Frenkl R - - 2001
Body size, physique, body composition and physiological performance of elite athletes are independent aspects, have aroused the interest of exercise scientists, but studies that combine these aspects in elite athletes are scarcely available. The aim of the present study was to describe the selected anthropometric and exercise physiological characteristics of ...
Clow A - - 2001
In many ways, the physiological and immune consequences of acute bursts of physical exercise parallel the effect of an acute psychological stressor. Similarly, the net effects of endurance training resemble chronic psychological stress, whereas the physiological milieu associated with overtraining resembles that of melancholic depression. We suggest that the prolonged ...
Rettig A C - - 2001
Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the elbow in throwing athletes is a common occurrence, and either operative or nonoperative treatment is an option. The results of operative repairs and reconstructions have been well documented in the literature; however, little information has been reported on the outcome of nonoperative treatment. From ...
Andrews J R - - 2001
The treatment of the throwing athlete is complex. Many factors enter into the decision regarding the nature and timing of appropriate intervention. Because of the nature of the mechanical aspects of the throwing motion, increased external rotation (overrotation) is often necessary to throw at a highly competitive level. This increased ...
Weicker H - - 2001
Implications of exercise on serotonergic neuromodulation in the brain have been investigated in two studies. Acute paroxetine (selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor) administration to endurance athletes, who performed a cycle ergometer test to exhaustion at moderate intensity, reduced time to exhaustion and post exercise cognitive performance in comparison to trials ...
Abzalov R A - - 2000
We studied the rate of sulfamethazine acetylation in athletes and untrained controls aging 18-22 years. The rate of sulfamethazine acetylation in controls was characterized by a bimodal distribution: rapid and slow acetylators constituted 42 and 58%, respectively. The rate of sulfamethazine biotransformation in athletes was characterized by a trimodal distribution: ...
- - 2000
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal ...
- - 2000
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal ...
Smith J J Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2000
To determine the prevalence, frequency, and patterns of creatine use among a local population of high school athletes. Male and female high school athletes completed an anonymous questionnaire on creatine use during the August 1999 preparticipation examinations at a single institutional sports medicine center. A total of 328 students (182 ...
Chamari K - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on athletes' cardiorespiratory responses to a brief intense intermittent effort, using the force-velocity test as an exercise model. Twelve young athletes (24.8 +/- 1.3 years) and twelve master athletes (65.1 +/- 1.2 years) with similar heights, body masses, ...
MacKinnon L T - - 2000
Overtraining is a process of excessive exercise training in high-performance athletes that may lead to overtraining syndrome. Overtraining syndrome is a neuroendocrine disorder characterized by poor performance in competition, inability to maintain training loads, persistent fatigue, reduced catecholamine excretion, frequent illness, disturbed sleep and alterations in mood state. Although high-performance ...
Gleeson M - - 2000
Immunosuppression in athletes involved in heavy training is undoubtedly multifactorial in origin. Training and competitive surroundings may increase the athlete's exposure to pathogens and provide optimal conditions for pathogen transmission. Heavy prolonged exertion is associated with numerous hormonal and biochemical changes, many of which potentially have detrimental effects on immune ...
Lemon P W - - 2000
There has been debate among athletes and nutritionists regarding dietary protein needs for centuries. Although contrary to traditional belief, recent scientific information collected on physically active individuals tends to indicate that regular exercise increases daily protein requirements; however, the precise details remain to be worked out. Based on laboratory measures, ...
Ribeyre J - - 2000
The objectives of the study were to determine: (1) daily energy expenditure (EE) of athletic and non-athletic adolescents of both sexes in free-living conditions; (2) day-to-day variations in daily EE during 1 week; (3) energy costs of the main activities; and (4) the effect of usual activity on EE during ...
Parisotto R - - 2000
This study investigated using reticulocyte (retic) parameters as indirect markers of human recombinant erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) abuse in elite athletes. Absolute reticulocyte count (# retic), the per cell haemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr), reticulocyte haemoglobin mass per litre of blood (RetHb) and red blood cell:reticulocyte haemoglobin (RBCHb:RetHb) ratio were assessed using ...
Gleeson M - - 2000
The review articles in this special feature reflect the current status of knowledge in the field of exercise immunology, with a focus on how exercise affects the human immune system and the health implications for resistance to infections and neoplastic diseases. In an Olympic year, the emphasis of exercise immunology ...
Serra-Grima R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the functional, clinical and prognostic implications of marked repolarization abnormalities (MRA) sometimes seen in athletes' electrocardiograms (ECGs). BACKGROUND: The clinical meaning of ECG MRA in athletes is unknown. No relationship has been drawn between either training intensity or any particular type of sport and MRA. ...
Sharma S - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the role of metabolic (cardiopulmonary gas exchange) exercise testing in differentiating physiologic LVH in athletes from HCM. BACKGROUND: Regular intensive training may cause mild increases in left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT). Although the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is typically less than that seen in ...
Helenius I - - 2000
Exercise may increase ventilation up to 200 L/min for short periods of time in speed and power athletes, and for longer periods in endurance athletes, such as long-distance runners and swimmers. Therefore highly trained athletes are repeatedly and strongly exposed to cold air during winter training and to many pollen ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2000
For many decades researchers did not consider that there were any differences between the genders in the metabolic response to exercise. As a result, nutritional recommendations and exercise training prescriptions have not considered the potential for gender specific responses. More recently, we and others have demonstrated that females oxidize proportionately ...
Pelliccia A - - 2000
BACKGROUND-The prevalence, clinical significance, and determinants of abnormal ECG patterns in trained athletes remain largely unresolved. METHODS AND RESULTS-We compared ECG patterns with cardiac morphology (as assessed by echocardiography) in 1005 consecutive athletes (aged 24+/-6 years; 75% male) who were participating in 38 sporting disciplines. ECG patterns were distinctly abnormal ...
Greenwood M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of creatine use in select Division I collegiate athletes based on recommended dosages according to body weight. Further, to report the perceived effects noted with creatine supplementation. DESIGN: Anonymous open-ended self-report descriptive questionnaire. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred and nineteen male ...
Prefaut C - - 2000
During exercise, healthy individuals are able to maintain arterial oxygenation, whereas highly-trained endurance athletes may exhibit an exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) that seems to reflect a gas exchange abnormality. The effects of EIAH are currently debated, and different hypotheses have been proposed to explain its pathophysiology. For moderate exercise, it ...
Cook J L - - 2000
Patellar tendinopathy causes substantial morbidity in both professional and recreational athletes. The condition is most common in athletes of jumping sports such as basketball and volleyball, but it also occurs in soccer, track, and tennis athletes. The disorder arises most often from collagen breakdown rather than inflammation, a tendinosis rather ...
Begum S - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether exercise-induced silent ischemia in older master athletes following a 3-month period of deconditioning is a predictor of future cardiovascular events. DESIGN: A longitudinal study of a cohort of master athletes. SETTING: The Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: ...
Meyers M C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Physiological testing is extensively used to assess current physical status, target strength/deficiencies, and determine predisposition to injury in athletes. No studies exist regarding these issues on equestrian athletes. The purpose of this study was to quantify the physical, hematological, and exercise response of female equestrian athletes in order to ...
Hobart J A - - 2000
The female athlete triad is defined as the combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This disorder often goes unrecognized. The consequences of lost bone mineral density can be devastating for the female athlete. Premature osteoporotic fractures can occur, and lost bone mineral density may never be regained. Early recognition ...
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