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Beloka Sofia - - 2008
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced dyspnea in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases may be related to sympathetic nervous system activation, with increased metabo- and/or chemosensitivities. Whether this mechanism plays a role in exercising normal subjects remains unclear. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), HR, ventilation (V(E)), O2 saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal PCO2 (PetCO2) were ...
Servili Maurizio - - 2008
The sensory and health properties of virgin olive oil (VOO) are highly related to its volatile and phenolic composition. Oxygen control in the pastes during malaxation may be a new technological parameter to regulate enzymatic activities, such as polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, and lipoxygenase, which affect the phenolic and volatile composition of ...
Arimitsu Takuma - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to establish a numerical computation model for estimation of oxygen uptake (V(.)O2) kinetics in decremental load exercise (DLE) starting from a work rate (WR) above the ventilatory threshold (>VT). In the model, WR in DLE were separated into several steps (constant load exercise, CLE) ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2008
Although lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) is a widely used test of diffusive O2 transfer, few studies have directly related DL(CO) to O2-diffusing capacity (DL(O2)); none has used the components of Dl(CO), i.e., conductance of alveolar membrane and capillary blood, to predict DL(O2) from rest to exercise. To ...
Hadas Eran - - 2008
Oxygen consumption of the Red Sea coral reef sponge Negombata magnifica was measured using both incubation and steady-state methods. The latter method was found to be the more reliable because sponge activity remained stable over time. Oxygen consumption rate was measured during three levels of sponge activity: full activity, reduced ...
Scott Graham R - - 2008
This study determined the respiratory responses to progressive hypoxia in oscar, an extremely hypoxia-tolerant Amazonian cichlid. Oscar depressed oxygen consumption rates (MO2), beginning at a critical O2 tension (Pcrit) of 46Torr, to only 14% of normoxic rates at 10Torr. Total ventilation (Vw) increased up to 4-fold, entirely due to a ...
Vogiatzis Ioannis - - 2008
Exercise is well known to cause arterial PO2 to fall and the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference(Aa PO2 ) to increase. Until recently, the physiological basis for this was considered to be mostly ventilation/perfusion ((.)VA/(.)Q) inequality and alveolar-capillary diffusion limitation. Recently, arterio-venous shunting through dilated pulmonary blood vessels has been proposed to ...
Poole David C - - 2008
Other than during sleep and contrived laboratory testing protocols, humans rarely exist in prolonged metabolic steady states; rather, they transition among different metabolic rates (V O2). The dynamic transition of V O2 (V O2 kinetics), initiated, for example, at exercise onset, provides a unique window into understanding metabolic control. This ...
Mollard Pascal - - 2008
We assessed the ability of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope, whether calculated on 100 and 80% of maximal exercise test duration (OUES(100) and OUES(80)), to identify the change in cardiorespiratory capacities in response to hypoxia in subjects with a broad range of V(O2 peak). Four maximal exercise tests were performed ...
Leung Terence S - - 2008
Oxy- (HbO2) and deoxy- (HHb) haemoglobin signals measured by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy over the human frontal lobes frequently contain respiratory and low frequency oscillations (LFOs). It has been suggested previously that venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) can be calculated from these respiratory oscillations. In this paper, we investigated the use ...
Bradford Kent J - - 2008
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds (grains) exhibit dormancy at maturity that is largely due to the presence of the glumellae (hulls) that reduce the availability of oxygen (O2) to the embryo. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAS) interact with O2 to regulate barley seed dormancy. A population-based threshold ...
Dujic Zelijko - - 2008
Exercising before, during, or after diving is proscribed because of the assumption that it would increase incidence of decompression sickness. Our findings show that exercise performed in a timely fashion before diving or during decompression will reduce the number of venous gas bubbles formed. Exercise after diving did not increase ...
Momenah Tarek S - - 2008
Baffle fenestration is associated with a significantly better outcome in standard and high-risk patients undergoing completion of Fontan. We report the effects of subsequent transcatheter closure of fenestration on exercise capacity and oxygen saturation. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 10.3 years underwent Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) device transcatheter ...
Blatteau J-E - - 2008
Paradoxical gas embolism through right-to-left (R/L) shunts is considered as a potential cause of certain types of decompression sickness. To assess whether 4 months of repetitive diving and strenuous exercises would lead to an increased prevalence of R/L shunting in a group of military divers. Using a standardised contrast-enhanced transcranial ...
Cimsit Maide - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) is a type of aseptic bone necrosis of long bones such as the humerus, femur, and tibia. It is observed in workers who perform in high-pressure environments. METHODS: There were 58 volunteer divers included in this study who had performed at least 500 dives, were working ...
Truijens Martin J - - 2008
To evaluate the effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia combined with sea level training on exercise economy, 23 well-trained athletes (13 swimmers, 10 runners) were assigned to either hypobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude of 4,000-5,500 m) or normobaric normoxia (0-500 m) in a randomized, double-blind design. Both groups rested in a hypobaric ...
Reinstrup P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in man have shown that cerebral blood flow increases during inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2O), a finding which is believed to be a result of an increased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR). However, this has not previously been evaluated in man. METHODS: Regional CMR(glu) (rCMR(glu)) was measured three ...
Andersson Johan P A - - 2008
The diving response reduces the pulmonary O(2) uptake in exercising humans, but it has been debated whether this effect is present at rest. Therefore, respiratory and cardiovascular responses were recorded in 16 resting subjects, performing apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 degrees C). Duration ...
Halsey Lewis G - - 2007
Cormorants hunt both benthic (sedentary) and pelagic (motile) prey but it is not known if the energy costs of foraging on these prey differ. We used respirometry to measure the costs of diving in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) foraging either for sedentary (fish pieces) or motile (juvenile salmon) prey in ...
Shykoff, B.
The U.S. Navy Diving Manual authorizes divers to breathe oxygen for up to 240 minutes per day at depths of 20 feet of seawater (fsw) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. When we conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) ...
Shykoff, B.
Pulmonary effects of the MK 25 rebreather underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) were compared to those of the MK 20 open circuit UBA in single dives performed by 23 U.S. Navy divers. The apparatus was then used for split six-hour exercise dives on each of two days (three-hour dive, four-hour surface ...
Obad Ante - - 2007
We report a case of right-to-left intrapulmonary (IP) shunting of venous gas bubbles at a high level of exercise after diving. The diagnosis was made using a 4-chamber view of the heart via echocardiography during exercise. This case is the first in which we could find evidence of IP shunt ...
Kilding Andrew E - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions ...
Prommer Nicole - - 2007
In diving mammals splenic contraction increases circulating red cell volume, whereas in humans increased haemoglobin concentrations have been reported. It is unknown, however, whether repetitive apnea diving also comprises an adaptive increase in total red cell volume as reported in endurance athletes. The first aim of the study therefore was ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2007
In athletic animals the spleen induces acute polycythemia by dynamic contraction that releases red blood cells into the circulation in response to increased O(2) demand and metabolic stress; when energy demand is relieved, the polycythemia is rapidly reversed by splenic relaxation. We have shown in adult foxhounds that splenectomy eliminates ...
Preis Kimberly A - - 2007
Reduced atmospheric oxygen concentration is beneficial to embryo development; however, optimal oxygen concentration for oocyte maturation remains undetermined. Likewise, there is no consensus of appropriate medium supplementation during maturation. The objective of this study was to determine whether oxygen tension (20% or 5% O2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) affect ...
Mollard Pascal - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting factors of maximal aerobic performance in endurance trained (TW) and sedentary (UW) women. Subjects performed four incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at sea level and in normobaric hypoxia corresponding to 1000, 2500 and 4500 m. Maximal oxygen uptake decrement ...
Barja Gustavo - - 2007
Various recent investigations relevant to the study of aging mechanisms have recently found that increases in longevity during dietary restriction can occur together with lack of decreases or even increases in O2 consumption. This is frequently interpreted as contradictory with the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging. But this is ...
Zoladz J A - - 2007
For the last decade there have been considerable discussion concerning the linearity / non-linearity of the oxygen uptake (V(O2)) - power output (W) relationship with strong experimental evidence of non-linearity provided mainly by breath-by-breath measurements. In this study, we attempted to answer the question whether the V(O2) - W relationship ...
Klotz J L - - 2007
Ergovaline has been proposed as a toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue. As many of the symptoms of fescue toxicosis are a result of compromised circulation, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergovaline and a more documented ergopeptine, ergotamine, using a bovine, lateral (cranial ...
Marciniuk Darcy D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that breathing helium-hyperoxia (HeO2) would significantly improve 6-min walking test (6MWT) distance in COPD subjects. METHODS: This was a blinded, randomized crossover study. At visit 1, we assessed pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and 6MWT distance. Visits 2 and 3 consisted of four 6MWTs in which the following ...
Woorons Xavier - - 2007
The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a prolonged expiration (PE) carried out down to the residual volume (RV) during a submaximal exercise and consider whether it would be worth including this respiratory technique in a training programme to evaluate its effects on performance. Ten male ...
Wein Jens - - 2007
This study was to elucidate the physiological effects of dynamic apneas, as performed as a discipline in breath-hold diving for recreational or competitive purposes. Therefore, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of apneas with simultaneously initiated exercise were investigated in ten trained breath-hold divers. They performed maximum duration apneas with face immersion ...
Kemps Hareld M C - - 2007
Oxygen (O2) kinetics reflect the ability to adapt to or recover from exercise that is indicative of daily life. In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), parameters of O2 kinetics have shown to be useful for clinical purposes like grading of functional impairment and assessment of prognosis. This study compared ...
Holmberg H-C - - 2007
Pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange were determined during prolonged skiing (approximately 76% of V(O2, max); cardiac output=26-27 L min(-1)) using diagonal technique (DIA) for 40 min followed by 10 min of double poling (DPOL) and 10 min of leg skiing (LEG). Exercise caused approximately 2-5% reduction of arterial oxygen saturation ...
Jonk Amy M - - 2007
Acetazolamide (ACZ) is used to prevent acute mountain sickness at altitude. Because it could affect O2 transport in several different and potentially conflicting ways, we examined its effects on pulmonary and muscle gas exchange and acid-base status during cycle exercise at approximately 30, 50 and 90% VO2max in normoxia (F(IO2) ...
Cettolo V - - 2007
Coupling of oxidation to ATP synthesis (P/O2 ratio) is a critical step in the conversion of carbon substrates to fuel (ATP) for cellular activity. The ability to quantitatively assess mitochondrial coupling in vivo can be a valuable tool for basic research and clinical purposes. At the onset of a square ...
Williams Simon T B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Direct evidence that dehydration results from scuba diving is scanty. Increased hematocrit (Ht) is a commonly used proxy measure for dehydration. This study sought evidence that an increase in Ht occurs over the course of a scuba dive in tropical conditions. As a secondary outcome, evidence was sought that ...
Lovering Andrew T - - 2007
A 27-year-old male subject (V(O2 max)), 92% predicted) with a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and a clinically documented case of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) was examined at rest and during exercise. Pulmonary function testing revealed a normal forced vital capacity (FVC, 98.1% predicted) and diffusion capacity for carbon ...
Abele Eoris - - 2007
The marine environment confronts its inhabitants with a wide variety of O2 concentrations, as well as with fluctuations of small scale local O2 availability over time. This review analyzes the respiratory response of marine animal ectotherms to fluctuating environmental O2 availability in their specific habitats and reactive O2 species generation ...
Spicer Rachel - - 2007
The gaseous environment surrounding parenchyma in woody tissue is low in O2 and high in CO2, but it is not known to what extent this affects respiration or might play a role in cell death during heartwood formation. Sapwood respiration was measured in two conifers and three angiosperms following equilibration ...
Boveris Dante L - - 2007
In mammals, the O2 transport from the inspired air to the tissues is made by convective and diffusive mechanisms. The convective mechanisms are provided by the cardio-respiratory system and comprised by the basic variables of cardiac output and blood O2 content. Microcirculation in arterioles and capillaries is adjusted to match ...
Yano T - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine whether excessive oxygen uptake (Vo2) occurs not only during exercise but also during recovery after heavy exercise. After previous exercise at zero watts for 4 min, the main exercise was performed for 10 min. Then recovery exercise at zero watts was performed ...
Ferri Alessandra - - 2007
During exercises with relatively small muscle masses, limitations to exercise performance by the cardiovascular system should be significantly reduced, allowing one to fully-test the "oxidative potential" of the investigated muscles. Ten elderly males (E, 77.8 +/- 2.9 years [x +/- SD]) and eight young controls (Y, 26.6 +/- 3.0) underwent ...
Fukuba Yoshiyuki - - 2007
It has frequently been demonstrated that prior high-intensity exercise facilitates pulmonary oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] response at the onset of subsequent identical exercise. To clarify the roles of central O(2) delivery and/or peripheral O(2) extraction in determining this phenomenon, we investigated the relative contributions of cardiac output (CO) and ...
Yasuda Kenji - - 2007
We evaluated exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in patients with atrioventricular discordance (AVD) and abnormal ventriculoarterial connection after anatomic repair. Cardiopulmonary treadmill exercise testing with gas measurement was done 62 times in 19 patients with AVD who had undergone anatomic repair at the National Cardiovascular Center. Exercise duration, ...
Jakovljevic V Lj - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Ca2+ channel antagonist nimodipine (in concentration which competitive inhibited phosphodiesterase 1--PDE1) on oxidative stress alone or under inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME in isolated rat heart. The hearts from male Wistar albino rats (n=18, BM about 200 ...
Blatteau Jean-Eric - - 2007
To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2 h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400 kPa for 30 min and decompressed at a rate ...
Tyack Peter L - - 2006
Sound-and-orientation recording tags (DTAGs) were used to study 10 beaked whales of two poorly known species, Ziphius cavirostris (Zc) and Mesoplodon densirostris (Md). Acoustic behaviour in the deep foraging dives performed by both species (Zc: 28 dives by seven individuals; Md: 16 dives by three individuals) shows that they hunt ...
Arieli R - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: There is a dearth of information regarding CNS oxygen toxicity accidents in closed-circuit oxygen diving. The aims of the present study were to report the sensations and symptoms that accompany CNS oxygen toxicity accidents, and to evaluate whether loss of consciousness can occur without any warning signs. METHODS: We ...
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