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Results 451 - 500 of 795
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Ku H H - - 1993
The objective of this study was to examine the possible involvement of oxygen free radicals in the aging process. Rates of mitochondrial O2.- and H2O2 production and oxygen consumption in the kidney and the heart were compared among seven different mammalian species namely, mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, pig, ...
Escourrou P - - 1993
We previously reported that O2 diffusion was limited in piglets. To test the hypothesis of an inadequacy between diffusion and perfusion in piglets (< 4 wk) vs. older pigs (> 8 wk), we compared in these two age groups the effect of an increase (by opening an arteriovenous fistula) or ...
Knight D R - - 1993
We studied O2 transport in the leg to determine if hyperoxia will increase the maximal rate of O2 uptake (VO2max) in exercising muscle. An increase in inspired O2 fraction (FIO2) from 0.21 to 1.00 was postulated to have the following effects: 1) increase the leg VO2max by approximately 5-10%, 2) ...
Fischer B - - 1993
Oxygen tension was measured using flexible polarographic microelectrodes within the oviductal and uterine lumen in rhesus monkeys (n = 9), golden hamsters (n = 21) and rabbits (n = 6), during the reproductive cycle (monkey), during oestrus and pseudopregnancy (hamsters, rabbits) and during pregnancy (hamsters). In general, oxygen tensions in ...
Steinbeck M J - - 1993
We wished to assess whether the previously developed 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-Mn++ cytochemical method, purportedly specific for superoxide localization, is detecting superoxide O2.- and/or the superoxide product, O2(1 delta g). We show here that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) produce O2(1 delta g) extracellularly in response to non-phagocytic stimuli and that this production is ...
Mannix E T - - 1993
Inspiratory muscle fatigue, a common event in patients in the intensive care unit, is under multifactorial control. To test the hypothesis that systemic oxygenation is a factor in this event, we subjected five healthy males (age 42 +/- 3 yr) to continuous inspiratory pressure (75% of maximal inspiratory pressure, -95 ...
Richardson R S - - 1993
During conventional cycle ergometry, as work rate (WR) is increased toward maximum, O2 extraction increases hyperbolically, typically achieving values of 80-90% at peak O2 uptake (VO2). In contrast, studies using isolated knee-extensor exercise report much higher mass-specific blood flows (Q) and lower maximal O2 extractions (approximately 70%), which have been ...
Linér M H - - 1993
Breath-by-breath gas exchange was studied in 10 subjects during and after transitions between dry conditions and head-out immersion in thermoneutral conditions. Cardiac index (CI) was estimated by means of impedance cardiography. Previous largely qualitative models of changes in tissue gas stores after blood volume shifts could be confirmed and extended ...
Moore G E - - 1993
Eleven end-stage renal disease patients trained by stationary cycling during their hemodialysis treatments. After a 6-week control period, 12 weeks of training began and was increased to 30 to 60 minutes at > or = 70% of peak heart rate. Baseline, pretraining and, posttraining exercise tests were performed. Workload (WL), ...
Schaffartzik W - - 1993
Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is affected by hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Whether this is simply due to altered convection of O2 into the muscle microcirculation or also to [Hb]-dependent diffusive transport of O2 out of the muscle capillary is unknown in humans. To examine this, seven healthy volunteers performed four maximal ...
Hatcher M E - - 1993
The stratum corneum, the outer 10 microns of the skin, serves as a permeability barrier regulating the transport of molecules between the body and the environment. The purpose of this study is to understand this permeability barrier function as it pertains to the diffusion of molecular oxygen. The stratum corneum ...
Kamiya A - - 1993
The efficiency of the vascular-tissue system in mammals for oxygen (O2) transport to tissue was evaluated by employing the following simulation models; (i) the spherical tissue model for assessing the maximum tissue mass for which a certain number of capillaries located in the center of each sphere can deliver sufficient ...
Lusa S - - 1993
While wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, 35 healthy firefighting students aged 19-27 years performed smoke-diving (entry into a smoke-filled room) during a simulated shipboard fire. The mean (+/- SD) ambient temperature inside the simulator was 119 +/- 12 degrees C, and the task lasted 17 +/- 4 ...
López Calbet J A - - 1993
The purpose of this work was to study the seasonal salivary cortisol and testosterone changes, and their relationships with lean body mass variations, in highly trained cyclists. Physical fitness, body composition (6 skinfolds) and basal salivary testosterone were evaluated in 7 male cyclists, on two separate occasions. The first assessment ...
Naeije R - - 1993
Almitrine, a peripheral chemoreceptor agonist, has been reported to increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) without changing minute ventilation (VE) during hypoxic exercise (Giesbrecht et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 1770-1774, 1991). To explain this finding, we studied pulmonary hemodynamics (right heart catheterization) and gas exchange (multiple inert gas elimination technique) ...
Bebout D E - - 1993
To investigate the effects of exercise training and immobilization on peak O2 uptake (VO2) and effective O2 diffusive conductance (DO2) in skeletal muscle, three groups of purpose-bred hounds [control (C), exercise trained (E), and immobilized (I)] were studied. Group E exercised on a treadmill 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 8 ...
Buerk D G - - 1993
Tissue O2 partial pressure (PtiO2) and O2 disappearance rates (dPO2/dt) after bilateral carotid artery occlusion were measured with recessed cathode O2 microelectrodes (tips < 3 microns) in gerbil brains (n = 38) from three age groups: young (Y, 3-6 mo), mature (M, 10-12 mo), and older (O, 18-21 mo). Mean ...
Soffer E E - - 1993
We evaluated the effect of graded exercise on esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux. We studied eight trained cyclists using a catheter with three strain-gauge transducers connected to a solid-state datalogger and an ambulatory intraesophageal pH monitor. Each study lasted 4 hr during which subjects exercised on a stationary bike for ...
Hagen K B - - 1993
To establish safe levels for physical strain in occupational repetitive lifting, it is of interest to know the specific maximal working capacity. Power output, O2 consumption, heart rate and ventilation were measured in ten experienced forestry workers during maximal squat and stoop repetitive lifting. The two modes of repetitive lifting ...
Meixensberger J - - 1993
Brain cortex PO2 was measured after craniotomy and opening of the dura mater in 26 patients. We determined the brain tissue PO2 under standard narcotic conditions and after changing arterial PO2 and PCO2. Patients were divided into two groups (normal and pathological), depending on the aspect of their cortex on ...
Klausen T - - 1993
The effects of short and long duration exercise on serum erythropoietin concentrations [EPO]s were studied in seven male cross-country skiers of national team standard and eight male marathon runners, respectively. The short duration exercise was performed as 60 min of cycling at an intensity of 80%-95% of maximal heart rate. ...
Hooker S P - - 1993
This study compared metabolic and cardiopulmonary responses to incremental supine and upright sitting arm crank ergometry (ACE) in nine men with spinal cord injured paraplegia ranging from T1-T5. Both tests consisted of continuous graded ACE from rest to volitional fatigue on a modified electronically braked cycle ergometer with the work ...
Dodd S L - - 1993
This investigation was designed to describe alterations in O2 uptake (VO2) and tension development in a contracting in situ gastrocnemious-plantaris muscle preparation during three conditions of reduced O2 delivery [arterial O2 concentration X blood flow (Q)]. The three conditions, hypoxemia (H), ischemia (I), and anemia (A), were matched for O2 ...
Miyachi M - - 1992
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of ventilation to arterial O2 desaturation during maximal exercise. Nine untrained subjects and 22 trained long-distance runners [age 18-36 yr, maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 48-74 ml.min-1 x kg-1] volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects performed an incremental ...
Alvaro R - - 1992
We have shown previously that continuous fetal breathing can be induced by 100% O2 alone or combined with umbilical cord occlusion (Baier, Hasan, Cates, Hooper, Nowaczyk & Rigatto, 1990). To know whether it could also be induced by lower O2 concentrations plus cord occlusion, we studied 9 chronically instrumented fetal ...
Ishikawa H - - 1992
We compared face immersion and exercise stress testing by diving and swimming as screening methods for arrhythmias induced by immersion in water. The subjects were 64 children with various arrhythmias who were tested using 5 methods: diving, swimming, face immersion in 25 degrees C water, face immersion in 6 degrees ...
Ferretti G - - 1992
1. Recently it was suggested that submaximal cardiac output (Q) could vary in response to changes in arterial O2 concentration (Ca,O2), so that arterial O2 delivery (Qa,O2 = Q x Ca,O2, in ml min-1) is kept constant. 2. This hypothesis was tested on eight healthy male subjects, at rest and ...
Roca J - - 1992
To quantify the relative contributions of convective and peripheral diffusive components of O2 transport to the increase in leg O2 uptake (VO2leg) at maximum O2 uptake (VO2max) after 9 wk of endurance training, 12 sedentary subjects (age 21.8 +/- 3.4 yr, VO2max 36.9 +/- 5.9 ml.min-1.kg-1) were studied. VO2max, leg ...
Morrison D A - - 1992
Low-flow continuous oxygen can lead to significant improvement in exercise capacity in selected patients with stable hypoxemic pulmonary disease. Although the mechanisms of improvement are incompletely understood, two tenable hypotheses are (1) the relief of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and (2) improved peripheral oxygen delivery. This prospective study was performed to ...
Alvaro R E - - 1992
To measure the response time of the peripheral chemoreceptors, we studied 13 preterm infants [birth weight 1602 +/- 230 g (mean +/- SEM); gestational age 31 +/- 1 wk; postnatal age 15 +/- 1 d] during inhalation of 21% O2 (15 +/- 5 s) followed by 100% O2 (1 min). ...
Boekkooi P F - - 1992
Fetal peripheral chemoreceptor responses to arterial O2 saturation and changes in PCO2 have not yet been quantitated. In 24 late-term chronically instrumented fetal sheep, we measured the heart rate response to acute hypoxemia induced by uterine arterial occlusion at various resting O2 saturations (25-86%) and at induced reductions and increases ...
Bengtson J P - - 1992
In order to evaluate the value of the inspiratory to end-tidal oxygen concentration difference (Io2-E'o2) as a monitor during general anaesthesia, we studied 40 orthopaedic patients allocated randomly to four groups: anaesthesia with enflurane or isoflurane in nitrous oxide with either spontaneous or controlled ventilation. (Io2-E'o2) followed an asymptotically increasing ...
di Prampero P E - - 1992
The factors limiting maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in humans are analyzed according to a multifactorial model derived from the O2 conductance equation. The alveolar ventilation (VA) and lung O2 transfer (GL) are not considered to be limiting, at least at sea level in healthy subjects, because changes in VA and/or ...
McDermott J J - - 1992
The standard treatment for cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is an initial recompression to 6 atm abs on air for 30 min followed by oxygen breathing at 2.8 and 1.9 atm abs. It has been suggested that initial recompression to 2.8 atm abs on O2 may be as beneficial, thus ...
Wagner P D - - 1992
In normal subjects, exercise widens the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (P[A-a]O2) despite a more uniform topographic distribution of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratios. While part of the increase in P(A-a)O2 (especially during heavy exercise) is due to diffusion limitation, a considerable amount is caused by an increase in VA/Q mismatch as detected by ...
Walsh M L - - 1992
The VO2 response to a step change in work rate resembles a first order exponential function. This suggests that a single site of the many which link ATP demand to VO2 is limiting. The location of this site is controversial. Some authors suggest that O2 delivery regulates the VO2 response. ...
Sherson D - - 1992
Superoxide anion release (O2-) after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate was measured in alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and in blood monocytes from 47 patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (N = 15), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (N = 7), pneumoconiosis (N = 6) and sarcoidosis (N ...
Aaron E A - - 1992
We addressed two questions concerned with the metabolic cost and performance of respiratory muscles in healthy young subjects during exercise: 1) does exercise hyperpnea ever attain a "critical useful level"? and 2) is the work of breathing (WV) at maximum O2 uptake (VO2max) fatiguing to the respiratory muscles? During progressive ...
Aaron E A - - 1992
To quantitate the O2 cost of maximal exercise hyperpnea, we required eight healthy adult subjects to mimic, at rest, the important mechanical components of submaximal and maximal exercise hyperpnea. Expired minute ventilation (VE), transpulmonary and transdiaphragmatic (Pdi) pressures, and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) were measured during exercise at 70 and ...
Braun R D - - 1992
We have studied the conditions under which a perfluorocarbon emulsion of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB; Alliance Pharmaceutical, San Diego, CA) enhances tissue O2 delivery. Measurements of retinal tissue O2 tension (PO2) were made in anesthetized, artificially respirated, dark-adapted, normovolemic cats before, during, and after the infusion of three successive doses of ...
Castellini M A - - 1992
The metabolic rates of freely diving Weddell seals were measured using modern methods of on-line computer analysis coupled to oxygen consumption instrumentation. Oxygen consumption values were collected during sleep, resting periods while awake and during diving periods with the seals breathing at the surface of the water in an experimental ...
Mannix E T - - 1992
It is known that the O2 COV in COLD is high; O2 administration to these patients lowers airway resistance, a major determinant of the COV. Thus, O2 should lower the COV. We measured the COV in ten stable COLD patients and five normal control subjects breathing room air and 30 ...
Mohsenifar Z - - 1992
STUDY SETTINGS AND INTERVENTIONS: Sixty individuals complaining of dyspnea on exertion, but with normal spirometry and lung volumes and normal chest roentgenograms were reviewed for this study. These individuals were selected from a large group of outpatients (552 individuals over a seven-year period) who were referred to our laboratory for ...
Wouters E F - - 1992
1. The forced oscillation technique is an effort-independent method used to characterize the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system. To support the hypothesis that non-invasive partitioning of total pulmonary resistance is possible by this technique, impedance was measured during air breathing and after equilibration with a mixture of 80% helium ...
Wagner P D - - 1992
Just what determines maximum O2 uptake (VO2max) has been the subject of much study and discussion over the years, with agreement among investigators still beyond reach. However, the evidence that in normal man VO2max is limited generally by the supply of O2 is substantial. Turning to the well-known steps of ...
Bahr R - - 1992
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of high intensity exercise on the time course and magnitude of excess postexercise O2 consumption (EPOC). Six healthy male subjects performed three intermittent 2-min exercise bouts on a cycle ergometer at 108% of VO2max with 3-min rest periods (3 x 2 min). ...
Marcus C L - - 1992
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and advanced pulmonary disease have pulmonary limitation of exercise, often associated with arterial oxygen desaturation. Improving oxygenation during exercise by providing supplemental oxygen may improve exercise performance in these patients. To test this, we performed graded exercise stress tests in 22 CF patients with severe ...
Honig C R - - 1992
This commentary demonstrates that VO2max depends, in part, on diffusive O2 transport; exercise hyperemia is necessary but not sufficient. Experiments and new mathematical models place the principal site of resistance to O2 diffusion between the surface of a red cell and the sarcolemma. The large drop in PO2 over this ...
Jiang C - - 1991
Brain tissue O2 tension (pO2) was measured in brainstem slices of adult and neonatal rats using carbon fiber polarographic microelectrodes. These studies were performed in order to examine the relation between pO2 and a variety of experimental conditions including temperature, distance from slice surface, brain region, animal age, tissue thickness ...
Stowe D F - - 1991
The authors' aim was to examine direct cardiac responses to isoflurane, enflurane and halothane, as altered during mild hypoxia by the substitution of nitrogen (N2) for oxygen (O2), and additionally by the substitution of nitrous oxide (N2O) for N2. Heart rate, atrioventricular conduction time, left ventricular pressure (LVP), peak positive ...
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