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Greiwe J S JS Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. - - 2000
The aim of this investigation was to compare the physiological and subjective responses during treadmill walking and jogging at several corresponding speeds in physically active young women. Maximal oxygen uptake was determined during a continuous treadmill test to exhaustion. The walking protocol consisted of treadmill walking for five min at ...
Muir G D - - 2000
The focus of this review is to examine the physiological and behavioural differences between the early ontogeny of locomotion in precocial and altricial species. Both groups of animals are capable of performing alternating stepping movements upon birth or hatching, indicating that the basic elements underlying locomotor synergy are present prior ...
Hesse S - - 2000
The newly developed gait trainer allows wheel-chair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstressing therapists. The device simulates the phases of gait, supports the subjects according to their abilities, and controls the center of mass (CoM) in the vertical and horizontal directions. The patterns of sagittal lower ...
Colombo G - - 2000
Recent studies have confirmed that regular treadmill training can improve walking capabilities in incomplete spinal cord-injured subjects. At the beginning of this training the leg movements of the patients have to be assisted by physiotherapists during gait on the moving treadmill. The physical capabilities and the individual experience of the ...
Knebel A R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) can lead to pulmonary disease in middle-aged adults in whom dyspnea management can be a significant issue. OBJECTIVE: The research addressed whether short-term oxygen (O2) administration during activities might decrease dyspnea and improve exercise performance in nonhypoxemic patients with emphysema caused by a ...
Genova J M - - 2000
STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures analysis of intervention. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of foot orthotics and shoewear on calcaneal eversion for standing and treadmill walking. BACKGROUND: Foot orthotics are commonly used as an intervention for treating lower extremity musculoskeletal pathology. Qualitative research regarding the benefit of foot orthotics tends to ...
Cavagna G A - - 2000
During walking on Earth, at 1.0 g of gravity, the work done by the muscles to maintain the motion of the centre of mass of the body (W(ext)) is reduced by a pendulum-like exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. The weight-specific W(ext) per unit distance attains a minimum ...
Croteau K A - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Navy remedial exercise program (REP) in improving the physical fitness levels of its participants. Subjects were 27 Navy personnel assigned to a Northeast naval air station who had failed to pass either the body composition (circumference measures) or ...
Sagiv M - - 2000
This study examined the effects of different loads carried and gradients, on haemodynamic and cardiovascular responses during 45 min of treadmill walking. A group of 20 male endurance-trained athletes [mean maximal oxygen uptake 61.4 (SD 4) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] volunteered for this study. The subjects took part in ...
Schmidt J A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To identify reasons for dropout and factors that may predict dropout from an exercise intervention aimed at improving physical function in frail older persons. DESIGN/SETTING: An 18-month randomized controlled intervention in a community setting. The intervention comprised 2 groups: class-based and self-paced exercise. PARTICIPANTS: 155 community-dwelling older persons, mean ...
Vilensky J A - - 2000
Previous studies on cats walking backward have indicated that they adopt a presumably adaptive posture characterized by extreme dorsiflexion of the lumbar spine. Because humans do not show any marked postural changes during backward walking, we questioned whether the posture exhibited by cats during backward walking was in fact adaptive ...
Lökk J - - 2000
Persons suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) show variable motor manifestations such as gait dysfunction and hypokinesia as well as psychosocial manifestations like emotional and social impairment. In order to assess short- and midterm impact on PD persons from a comprehensive training concept, we launched a study with daily walks in ...
Bussmann J B - - 2000
PURPOSE: To study the feasibility of ambulatory accelerometry in the evaluation of physical strain in walking at different speeds and different levels of economy. METHODS: Twelve able-bodied subjects performed a walking test on a treadmill with increasing walking speed. After a 6-wk period, these measurements were repeated, with an additional ...
Boda W L - - 2000
Exercise within an artificial gravity environment may help prevent microgravity-induced deconditioning. We hypothesized that supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exercise simulates physiological and biomechanical features of upright exercise. Walking (4.5 +/- 0.3 km/h) and running (8.0 +/- 1.0 km/h) while supine within a LBNP exerciser were compared with walking ...
Shono T - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses and RPE during water walking using the Flowmill, which has a treadmill at the base of a water flume, in order to obtain basic data for prescribing water walking for people of middle and advanced age. Twenty healthy female ...
Ross C E - - 2000
Neighborhood context could affect health behaviors because of structure or contagion. We expected that residents of US neighborhoods where a high percentage of residents are poor and do not have college degrees would be more likely to smoke and less likely to walk and exercise. We examined the hypotheses using ...
Danielsson A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare oxygen consumption during walking with body weight support (BWS) with oxygen consumption during unsupported treadmill walking. DESIGN: Patient and reference group. Comparisons between two walking conditions within each group. SETTING: Research laboratory of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nonrandom convenience sample of 9 hemiparetic and 9 healthy subjects, ...
Wickler S J - - 2000
Preferred speed is the behavioral tendency of animals to utilize a relatively narrow set of speeds near the middle of a much broader range that they are capable of using within a particular gait. Possible explanations for this behavior include minimizing musculoskeletal stresses and maximizing energetic economy. If preferred speed ...
- - 2000
Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis. The 1996 Surgeon General's report (1) recommended that persons of all ages obtain "a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity (e.g., brisk walking) on most, if not all, ...
Voloshin A - - 2000
PURPOSE: A study was conducted to investigate the effects of walking speed on the magnitude of the heel strike initiated shock waves that propagate throughout the human musculoskeletal system. METHODS: Subjects walking on a treadmill at various speeds were used to acquire the experimental data regarding the heel strike-initiated shock ...
Sekine M - - 2000
In this study, we attempted to discriminate the acceleration signal for horizontal level and stairway walking using wavelet-based fractal analysis method. The acceleration signal was measured close to the center of gravity of the body, while the subjects walked continuously in the corridor and up and down the stairs. We ...
Tryba A K - - 2000
Cockroaches were induced to walk or search for a foothold while they were tethered above a glass plate made slick with microtome oil. We combined kinematic analysis of leg joint movements with electromyographic (EMG) recordings from leg extensor muscles during tethered walking and searching to characterize these behaviors. The tethered ...
Friedrich M - - 2000
STUDY DESIGN: Simultaneous spine kinematic variables in sewage workers were quantified using a two-dimensional video-based gait analysis system. OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of spinal posture in a population of sewage workers pushing waste matter through tunnels while walking stooped under various height constraints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Working with stooped ...
Knapik J J - - 2000
Transporting a casualty on a stretcher is a common task for medical and military personnel. Stretchers are usually carried by hand, but distributing the load to other parts of the body may have advantages. To examine alternative carriage methods, 11 soldiers walked on a treadmill at 4.8 km/h while performing ...
Jacobson B - - 2000
Differences in perceptions of comfort, exertion, balance, and heart rate were investigated with two types of backpack. Subjects were 20 male volunteers (M age = 24.3 yr., SD: 3.6, M height = 180.02 cm, SD: 8.0, and M weight = 86.46 kg, SD: 14.84). Following oral briefing and practice trials, ...
Lloyd R - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to assess the energy expenditure associated with load carriage using both a traditional rucksack and a new rucksack design, the AARN rucksack, which incorporates front balance pockets. Nine volunteers walked at 3 km h(-1) at various uphill and downhill gradients on a treadmill without ...
Taguchi O - - 2000
PURPOSE: We evaluated the usefulness of CT for assessing oxygen desaturation during walking in patients with emphysema. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised 32 patients with emphysema (mean age 67+/-6 years). Serial CT images of 5 mm were obtained from the apex to the basal regions of the lung during ...
Ladouceur M - - 2000
This study investigated the changes in maximal overground walking speed (MOWS) that occurred during walking training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis by chronic spinal cord injured persons with incomplete motor function loss. The average walking speed over a distance of 10 m was calculated while the participants (n ...
Brissot R - - 2000
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical evaluation of the Parastep method, a six-channel transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation device, in spinal cord-injured patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the motor performances of this new technique regarding energy expenditure and to evaluate its advantages and limitations, especially in social activities involving ambulation. METHODS: This study was conducted ...
Laukkanen R M - - 2000
The aim was to study the 2-km walk test's accuracy in predicting maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and its changes during 15-week walking training in 108 healthy middle-aged adults. Training prescription was 65-75% of VO2max 50 min/session, four times weekly. VO2max was measured walking on a treadmill and predicted from the ...
Miyamoto S - - 2000
The six-minute walk test is a submaximal exercise test that can be performed even by a patient with heart failure not tolerating maximal exercise testing. To elucidate the clinical significance and prognostic value of the six-minute walk test in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), we sought (1) to assess ...
Freter S H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship between the timed 'up and go' (TUG) and gait time in an elderly orthopaedic population, in order to determine whether additional useful information is obtained by measuring both. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital, Laval, Quebec. SUBJECTS: Seventy-nine consecutive inpatients in the orthopaedic programme ...
Aruin A S - - 2000
The hypotheses have been tested that 1) symmetry of weightbearing in persons who have sustained a stroke could be improved by the addition of a lift to the shoe on the non-paretic lower limb and 2) compelled weightbearing resulting from the addition of a lift in conjunction with targeted exercise ...
Marsolais E B - - 2000
Six individuals with paraplegia and injury levels from C-1 through T-12 participated in a study to evaluate the functional capabilities of a hybrid gait orthotic system. Subjects learned to use a custom-built reciprocal gait orthosis without stimulation and with electrical stimulation activating between 4 and 16 muscles. Outcomes were scored ...
Minetti A E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the energy cost and the mechanical work of locomotion in a group of adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD). SUBJECTS: Eight males with childhood-onset GHD (mean age+/-s.d.: 31.7+/-3.6 years; mean height: 145.1+/-6.7cm) and six age-, sex- and exercise-matched normal subjects ...
Smothers C L - - 2000
The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of utilizing treadmills in human gait studies--to investigate the correlation between heel strike data obtained while walking on a treadmill to that obtained while walking on carpet and vinyl tile. The impact data were recorded using accelerometers located in the ...
Silver K H - - 2000
It is widely assumed that only limited improvement in functional mobility is possible beyond the subacute period following ischemic stroke. Contrary to this notion, we studied "neurologically plateaued" stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis to assess whether a "task-oriented" treadmill-training regimen would improve walking speed, cadence, and gait cycle symmetry on ...
Woolf-May K - - 1999
Fifty-six subjects (19 men and 37 woman) aged between 40 and 66 completed the study. They were allocated into three walking groups and a control group (C). The three walking groups performed the same total amount of walking for 18 weeks, but completed it in bouts of differing durations and ...
Mortimer M - - 1999
The aim of the study was to validate interview data concerning the duration of four work postures (1) sitting, (2) standing/walking with hands above shoulder level, (3) standing/walking with hands between shoulder and knuckle level, and (4) standing/walking with hands below knuckle level. The self-reported time spent in each posture ...
Mishina M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible abnormal regional brain metabolism during ataxic gait in olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), and to evaluate the response of the cerebellar subregions to instability during bipedal gait. MATERIAL AND METHODS: On 9 patients with OPCA in early phase and on 10 age-matched normal subjects, we performed positron ...
Oberman A S - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to assess the hemodynamic effects of a postmeal walk in frail elderly patients with postprandial hypotension. We demonstrated that frail elderly patients with postprandial hypotension are able to increase their blood pressure and heart rate in response to a postmeal walking exercise, but this ...
Reilly D F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance during formal testing is predictive of perioperative complications. However, for most patients, formal exercise testing is not indicated, and exercise tolerance is assessed by history. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between self-reported exercise tolerance and serious perioperative complications. METHODS: Our study group consisted of 600 consecutive ...
Wax D - - 1999
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether long-term IV prostacyclin (PGI(2)) use improves exercise capacity in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). DESIGN: Cycle ergometry and the 6-min walk was used to evaluate the exercise performance of patients with PPH. The patients underwent serial exercise testing after starting continuous IV PGI(2) and ...
Hsu M J - - 1999
STUDY DESIGN: A 3-factor (foot type, speed, and mode of ambulation) repeated-measures experimental design was used. OBJECTIVES: To compare the differences in energy expenditure, gait efficiency, and relative exercise intensity in persons with transtibial amputations with various prostheses. BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved prosthetic designs to accommodate physically ...
Simkin P A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether extended use of continuous passive motion (CPM) may allay the pain of walking, diminish disease effect, and increase the usual walking speed in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. METHODS: This pilot study comprised 21 patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2-4 OA of the hip who ...
Wernig A - - 1999
Recent reports indicate that intensive training of upright walking on a treadmill (German: Laufband, LB), significantly improves walking capability in spinal cord-damaged persons. The aids provided initially are body weight support by a harness and passive setting of one or both limbs by therapists. To facilitate stepping and evoke motor ...
Stein R B - - 1999
This article reviews work mainly from my own laboratory on the effects of electrical stimulation for therapy and function following spinal cord injury. One to two hours per day of intermittent stimulation can increase muscle strength and endurance and also reverse some of the osteoporosis in bones that are stressed ...
Iwao M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the advantages of qigong walking, a mild and slow exercise that uses all the muscles of the body, in comparison with conventional walking in patients with diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Ten inpatients with diabetes mellitus and associated complications were studied on 3 different days. ...
Groh W J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: In patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). inappropriate shocks have been reported with exposure to electronic article surveillance systems. The risk to patients with ICDs of walking through or lingering near surveillance systems requires further investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the response in ICD function in 170 subjects during ...
Rodgers M M - - 1999
Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic ...
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