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Taylor Lee L 1Muscle Cellular and Molecular Physiology (MCMP) & Applied Sport and Exercise Science (ASEP) Research Groups, Institute of Sport and Physical Activity Research (ISPAR), Department of Sport Science and Physical Activity, University of Bedfordshire, Bedford, UK 2Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Chatham Maritime, Kent, UK 3University of Brighton, School of Sport and Service Management, Denton Road, Eastbourne, BN20 7SR, UK Bedford Campus, University Of Bedfordshire, - - 2014
Precooling lowers skin (Tsk) and core temperature (Tre) and can improve performance in hot conditions, but has predominantly been studied in males. This study investigated the effects of precooling on self-paced 2000 m rowing performance, within females, in hot, humid conditions. Eight physically active females (19.9 ± 1.5 yrs, 66.8 ...
De Sousa Justin J Western Michigan University, 1903 W. Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study investigated the effects that a form fitted, moisture-wicking fabric shirt, promoted to have improved evaporative and ventilation properties, has on the physiological and perceptual responses during exercise in the heat. Ten healthy male participants completed two heat stress tests consisting of 45 min of exercise (50% VO2peak) in a ...
Girard Olivier O Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, PO Box 29222, Doha, Qatar, - - 2014
This study investigated the isolated and combined effects of heat [temperate (22 °C/30 % rH) vs. hot (35 °C/40 % rH)] and hypoxia [sea level (FiO2 0.21) vs. moderate altitude (FiO2 0.15)] on exercise capacity and neuromuscular fatigue characteristics. Eleven physically active subjects cycled to exhaustion at constant workload (66 % of the power output ...
Girard Olivier O Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, - - 2014
To assess the time course of changes in physical performance in response to match-play tennis under heat stress. Two matches consisting of 20 min of effective playing time (2×10 min segments) were played in COOL (∼102 min; ∼22°C and 70% relative humidity (RH)) and HOT (∼119 min; ∼36°C and 35% ...
Wright Heather E HE a Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics , University of Ottawa , Ottawa , - - 2014
Older individuals may be more susceptible to the negative thermal and cardiovascular consequences of dehydration during intermittent work in the heat. This study examined the hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 14 Young (Y, Mean ± SE; 25.8 ± 0.8 years), Middle-age (MA, 43.6 ± ...
Moyen Nicole E NE Department of Kinesiology, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, - - 2014
Many jobs require working or exercising at low intensities for extended periods in hot-humid climates; however, in these conditions the isolated effects of relative humidity (RH) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how RH influenced thermoregulation and perception during low-intensity exercise in the heat. There ...
Mears Stephen A SA School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, - - 2014
Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, ...
Kurose Satoshi S Health Science Center, Kanasai Medical University, 2-3-1, Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1191, Japan. Electronic - - 2014
Summary: A new method to evaluate endothelial function, namely, reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT), has been developed. RH-PAT is an index of endothelial function, indicating initial atherosclerotic lesions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of lifestyle modification with a focus on exercise training on RH-PAT in obese ...
Mogera Umesha U 1] Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and Thematic Unit on Nanochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India - - 2014
Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in ...
Taylor Lee L Sport Science and Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Science Laboratory, University of Bedfordshire Bedford, - - 2014
Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g., Moscow ~ -5°C, Madrid ~30°C). Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well-documented; however, little is known ...
Best Stuart - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the capacity to acclimatise to exercise-heat stress. This study hypothesised that age would not affect body temperature and heat loss effector responses to short-term exercise-heat acclimation in trained subjects. Seven young subjects (19-32 years) were matched with ...
Gibson Oliver R - - 2013
Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) concentration increases during exercise-heat stress when conditions elicit physiological strain. Differences in severity of environmental and exercise stimuli have elicited varied response to stress. The present study aimed to quantify the extent of increased eHsp72 with increased exogenous heat stress, and determine related endogenous ...
Sandage Mary J MJ Department of Communication Disorders, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA. - - 2013
There is little known about how physical exercise may alter physiological parameters of voice production. In this investigation, vocal function and upper airway temperature were examined following a bout of submaximal exercise and compared with a resting breathing condition. It was hypothesized that phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and perceived phonatory ...
Xu Xiaojiang - - 2013
PURPOSE: This paper investigates the relationship between core temperature (T c), skin temperature (T s) and heat flux (HF) during exercise in hot conditions. METHOD: Nine test volunteers, wearing an Army Combat Uniform and body armor, participated in three sessions at 25 °C/50 % relative humidity (RH); 35 °C/70 % RH; and 42 °C/20 % RH. ...
Findlay Briar B - - 2013
Smoking is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has also been shown to result in endothelial dysfunction as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to reactive hyperemia (RH)-induced increases in shear stress. Handgrip exercise (HGEX) is an emerging alternative method to increase shear stress for FMD assessment ...
Hayes Mark - - 2013
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of a hot humid (HH) compared to a hot dry (HD) environment, matched for heat stress, on intermittent sprint performance. In comparison to HD, HH environments compromise evaporative heat loss and decrease exercise tolerance.6 It was hypothesized HH would produce greater physiological strain and ...
Hotta Kazuki - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effects of a single session of stretching exercises on vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluated 32 patients (mean age, 66 ± 9 years) who received phase I cardiac rehabilitation after acute ...
Samawi Hani M HM Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University Statesboro, GA, - - 2013
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the hypothesis that outdoor daily walking, as an exercise, has an effect on the rate of mortality among those elderly people in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (RHS). RHS is a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 8 years follow-up from 1981 to ...
Distefano Lindsay J - - 2012
PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of hypohydration and hyperthermia during exercise on movement technique and postural control. METHODS: Twelve healthy males (age=20±2 y, height=182±8 cm, mass=74.0±8.2 kg, VO2max=57.0±6.0 mL·kg·min) completed four randomized test sessions: Euhydrated Temperate (EUT), Euhydrated Hot (EUH), Hypohydrated Temperate (HYT), Hypohydrated Hot (HYH). Temperate and hot conditions were ...
Szijgyarto Ingrid C - - 2013
Acute mental stress can impair brachial artery (BA) flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to reactive hyperemia (RH) induced increases in shear stress. Handgrip exercise (HGEX) is emerging as a useful tool to increase shear stress for FMD assessment; however, the impact of acute mental stress on HGEX-FMD is unknown. The ...
O'Brien Catherine - - 2012
The head's capacity for evaporative heat loss is important for design of protective helmets for use in hot environments. This study quantified head sweating rate (m (sw)) in eight males during rest and exercise at three metabolic rates (338 ± 36, 481 ± 24, 622 ± 28 W) in hot-dry (HD: 45 °C, 21 % RH) and hot-wet (HW: 35 °C, ...
Whiteley Jessica A - - 2012
Vigorous-intensity exercise has been shown to aid in smoking cessation, especially among women. In a previous trial, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation plus regular vigorous aerobic exercise enhanced cessation rates, improved exercise capacity, and reduced weight gain compared to CBT plus equal contact time. This study examined the ...
Punakallio Anne - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: To describe changes in aging firefighters' aerobic capacity at 3- and 13-year follow-ups, and to investigate the lifestyle factors predicting them. We evaluated the sufficiency of aerobic capacity for the demands of rescue diving. METHODS:: We studied 78 male Finnish firefighters aged 30 to 44 years at baseline. The ...
Laveneziana Pierantonio - - 2012
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may exhibit reduced expiratory flows at low lung volumes, which could promote exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation (DH). This study aimed at examining the impact of a potential exercise-related DH on the intensity of dyspnoea in patients with PAH undergoing symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary cycle exercise testing ...
Kitahara Yoshihiro - - 2012
To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on exercise capacity, respiratory responses and dynamic changes in lung volume during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty-one men with type, 2 diabetes without cardiopulmonary disease were recruited and divided into 28 non-current smokers and 13 current smokers. All subjects received ...
Roberts Vaughan - - 2012
RATIONALE: Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the ...
Barmaki S - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of 10-day methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage. Eighteen healthy, non-smoking, active young men were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: MSM (M) (N.=9) and placebo (P) (N.=9). Subjects ...
Al-Obaidi S - - 2012
Nicotine appears to be the primary pharmacologic agent that causes smoking-related pulmonary diseases. An understanding of the effect of nicotine on lungs is essential to develop interventions that can be used to counter smoking-related diseases. Further, it is shown that physical exercise may partially reverse smoking-induced pathological changes in experimental ...
Yu Y-B - - 2012
AIM: Environmental cigarette smoke (CS) contains many compounds that are harmful to the respiratory system and lead to chronic lung inflammation and other lung diseases. Exercise training is known to confer protection against diseases with chronic inflammation by reducing inflammatory response in human or experimental animals. In this study, we ...
Fischer Maarten J - - 2012
Although international guidelines on pulmonary rehabilitation acknowledge that psychological factors contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the few empirical studies investigating this association have found inconsistent results. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether negative affect and beliefs about exercise of patients ...
Arjomandi Mehrdad - - 2012
Flight attendants who worked on commercial aircraft before the smoking ban in flights (pre-ban FAs) were exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS). We previously showed never-smoking pre-ban FAs to have reduced diffusing capacity (Dco) at rest. To determine whether pre-ban FAs increase their Dco and pulmonary blood flow ...
Nguyen Thanh - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) tend to suffer from chronic systemic inflammation and may have impaired growth associated with muscle catabolism. Therefore, investigating which type of exercise can elicit an anabolic response with minimal inflammation is of clinical value. METHODS: Twelve children with CF (mean±SD; age: 14.7±2.3years, predicted FEV(1): ...
Ostrom Nancy K - - 2011
Despite the availability of effective therapies, uncontrolled asthma remains a common problem. Previous large surveys suggest that exercise-related respiratory symptoms may be a significant element of uncontrolled asthma. The Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm (EIB) Landmark Survey is the first comprehensive, national survey evaluating EIB awareness and impact among the general public, asthma ...
Rideau Batista Novais Aline - - 2012
To study the ventilatory response during exercise in 8- to 10-year-old children born in 1998 to 2000 with a birthweight <1500 g (very low birthweight [VLBW]). We studied 19 VLBW children and 20 full-term children paired for age and sex. A physical activity questionnaire was administered. Lean body mass, spirometry, ...
Okuro Renata Tiemi - - 2011
Chronic and persistent mouth or oral breathing (OB) has been associated with postural changes. Although posture changes in OB causes decreased respiratory muscle strength, reduced chest expansion and impaired pulmonary ventilation with consequences in the exercise capacity, few studies have verified all these assumptions. To evaluate exercise tolerance, respiratory muscle ...
Peroni Diego G - - 2011
It has been hypothesized that exhaled breath temperature (EBT) is related to the degree of airway inflammation/remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the level of airway response to exercise and EBT in a group of controlled or partly controlled asthmatic children. Fifty ...
Danduran Michael J - - 2011
Exercise creates a physiologic burden with recovery from such effort crucial to adaptation. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) refers to the body's increased metabolic need after work. This investigation was designed to determine the role of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the description of exercise recovery in healthy controls (NL) ...
Lubrano Riccardo - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness is significantly reduced in children with end-stage renal disease. The role of renal transplantation in improving cardiorespiratory fitness has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: In this work, we wanted to assess whether, in children after a successful renal transplant, the amount of weekly physical exercise affects cardiorespiratory ...
Serra-Grima Ricard - - 2011
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze and discover if stress testing with exhaled gases in children who have had congenital heart surgery is useful so we could make physical exercise recommendations according to heart disease, type of surgery performed, present hemodynamic state and level of exercise practiced. METHODS: Prospective study of ...
de Voogd Jacob N - - 2011
Dyspnea limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is known to induce anxiety. Little is known whether anxiety contributes to exercise-induced dyspnea, which in turn might influence the outcome of diagnostic tests. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between general anxiety ...
Pokhrel B R - - 2011
Background Cigarette smoking is one of the cardinal causes for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among the smokers. Objectives This study was perspectively designed to determine the peripheral bronchial responsiveness to sub-maximal exercise challenge in the asymptomatic smokers. Methods The subjects were between age of 18-25 years without any findings ...
Brockmann P E - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Leukotrienes are among the most important mediators associated with inflammatory responses in patients with exercise induced asthma (EIA). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise on the urinary leukotriene profile. Hence, we compared post exercise changes of urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) concentration between children ...
Aucouturier Julien - - 2011
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exercise induces adaptations in fat metabolism favourable to the treatment of obesity. However, time interval between meal and exercise alters substrate bioavailability and oxidation during exercise. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of time interval between food intake and exercise on substrate ...
Johnston Therese E - - 2011
Aim  To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method  Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, ...
Giardini Alessandro - - 2011
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is increasingly used in children with congenital heart defects. Because of changes related to growth, the interpretation of exercise test results heavily relies on the presence of normative data. There is growing interest in the assessment of the ventilatory response to exercise in children with congenital heart ...
Field Tiffany - - 2012
This paper is a review of studies published during the last several years on exercise effects on overweight, growth, chronic illnesses, depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Although the lion's share of the research involves aerobic exercise, studies on yoga and tai chi are also reviewed. Following exercise, body ...
Lan Chou-Chin - - 2011
Background and objective:  An estimated 20-40% of COPD patients are underweight. We sought to confirm the physiological and psychosocial benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes (PRP) in underweight compared with non-underweight patients with COPD. Methods:  Twenty-two underweight COPD patients with BMI <20 kg/m(2) , and 22 non-underweight COPD patients, who were matched ...
Fragala-Pinkham Maria A - - 2011
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 14-week aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Design: Non-randomized control trial. Methods: Twelve children participated in this pilot study with seven participants in the aquatic exercise group and five in the control group. The programme was held twice per ...
Anderson-Hanley Cay - - 2011
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. ...
Rosa Jaime S - - 2011
Modulation of inflammatory status is considered a key component of the overall health effects of exercise. This may be especially relevant in children with obesity (Ob) or type 1 diabetes (T1DM), in which an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators could accelerate onset and progression of cardiovascular complications. To date, ...
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