Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1021
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Ritz Thomas - - 2003
Breathing exercises are frequently recommended as an adjunctive treatment for asthma. A review of the current literature found little that is systematic documenting the benefits of these techniques in asthma patients. The physiological rationale of abdominal breathing in asthma is not clear, and adverse effects have been reported in chronic ...
Landberg Tobias - - 2003
The limb girdles and lungs of turtles are both located within the bony shell, and therefore limb movements during locomotion could affect breathing performance. A mechanical conflict between locomotion and lung ventilation has been reported in adult green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in which breathing stops during terrestrial locomotion and ...
Van Houtte Siska - - 2003
Isocapnic hyperpnoea has been shown to reliably produce fatigue of the diaphragm. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether incremental isocapnic hyperpnoea (IH(incr)) impairs the arm exercise performance and alters the breathing pattern during subsequent maximal incremental arm cranking. Nine healthy volunteers performed an arm cranking test ...
Joulia Fabrice - - 2003
Repeated epochs of breath-holding were superimposed to the regular training cycling program of triathletes to reproduce the adaptative responses to hypoxia, already described in elite breath-hold divers [Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 133 (2002) 121]. Before and after a 3-month breath-hold training program, we tested the response to static apnea and to ...
Tattersall Glenn J - - 2003
To examine the changes in breathing that occur during progressive hypothermia and rewarming in neonatal rats, we cooled and rewarmed rat pups during the first 6 days of life. During cooling, breathing stopped when rectal temperature (Tr) fell below 10.7+/-0.24 degrees C, and recovered spontaneously during rewarming when Tr reached ...
Lafortuna Claudio L - - 2003
Twenty-four Mediterranean fin whales were tracked in open sea with a method based on the assessment of the animal differential position in respect of the observer's absolute position aboard a vessel, with the concomitant recording of the respiratory activity. Short distance video recording was also performed in two whales, permitting ...
Finnoff Jonathan T JT Sports Medicien Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2003
To compare the magnitudes of change in heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure, and rate-pressure product (RPP) during 3 abdominal exercises: straight partial sit-up (SPSU), oblique partial sit-up (OPSU), and the AbSculptor(R) sit-up; and to examine the effect of breath holding on these ...
Singhi Sunit - - 2003
The World Health Organization's global programme for the control of acute respiratory infections relies on counting respiratory rate (RR) by observing abdominal and chest movements in order to diagnose pneumonia. However, few studies on the reliability of the observation method have been published. We counted RR simultaneously by observation and ...
Wilson Rory P - - 2003
Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in captivity and free-living Magellanic penguins S. magellanicus were fitted with loggers to determine beak angles during breathing. The Humboldt penguins were also fitted with masks for determining rates of air flow during breathing. During periods of higher gas exchange requirement, Humboldt penguins opened their beaks ...
Jones Alice Y M - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The oxygen demand of breathing exercises and the clinical implications have not been studied in detail. In this study, the oxygen cost of 3 common breathing exercises believed to reduce oxygen cost (ie, work of breathing) was compared with that of spontaneous breathing in patients with chronic ...
Wauer Juliane - - 2003
Ultrasonic transit-time airflow meters (UFM) allow simultaneous measurements of volume flow V'(t) and molar mass MM(t) of the breathing gas in the mainstream. Consequently, by using a suitable tracer gas the functional residual capacity (FRC) of the lungs can be measured by a gas wash-in/wash-out technique. The aim of this ...
Doyle William J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that mastoid volume buffers the rate of change in middle ear pressure caused by transmucosal, inert gas exchange. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve monkeys were randomly assigned to group 1 or group 2. Right ears of group 1 had sham surgery and of group 2 had obstruction ...
Avbelj Viktor - - 2003
The right lateral body position has been proposed as an effective vagal enhancer. However, the possibility of breathing affecting heart rate power spectra in different body positions has not been assessed. The level of vagal modulation in various body positions in normal subjects was estimated by calculating heart rate power ...
Bodin P - - 2003
Cross-sectional, observational, controlled study. To survey breathing patterns during breathing at rest, ordinary deep breathing (DB), positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and inspiratory resistance-positive expiratory pressure (IR-PEP) among individuals with a cervical spinal cord lesion (SCL) compared with able-bodied controls. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Participants consisted of 20 persons with ...
Yokoba M - - 2003
The geniohyoid (Genio) upper airway muscle shows phasic, inspiratory electrical activity in awake humans but no activity and lengthening in anesthetized cats. There is no information about the mechanical action of the Genio, including length and shortening, in any awake, nonanesthetized mammal during respiration (or swallowing). Therefore, we studied four ...
Toklu A S - - 2003
The snorkel, which allows swimmers to keep their face down in the water while breathing, is widely used by divers, spear fishermen and monofin swimmers. A snorkel adds an additional dead space of 160-170 ml and causes an increase in the concentration of CO2 in the inspired gas due to ...
Griefahn Barbara - - 2003
A self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with an innovative rucksack shape that provides a better distribution of its weight over the middle and lower parts of the back (device C: 6l, 13.7 kg) was compared with two conventional SCBA which differed from each other in volume and weight (A: 6l, 15 ...
Seebauer Magdalena - - 2003
PURPOSE: To investigate the gender differences in the effect of increasing workload level and thus of an increasing metabolic drive to ventilation on the degree of coordination between breathing and cycling rhythms. METHODS: Twenty-one men and 21 women cycled on an electromagnetically braked ergometer while breathing through a pneumotachograph at ...
den Hartog E A - - 2003
The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum ...
Lin Hui-Chen - - 2003
Respiration and ion regulation are the two principal functions of teleostean gills. Mainly found in the gill filaments of fish, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) proliferate to increase the ionoregulatory capacity of the gill in response to osmotic challenges. Gill lamellae consist mostly of pavement cells, which are the major site of ...
Schönell L H B - - 2003
Anaesthetic machines are prepared for use with patients who are susceptible to malignant hyperpyrexia (MH) by flushing with oxygen at 10 l/min for ten minutes to reduce the anaesthetic concentration to 1 part per million (ppm) or less. Anaesthetic workstations are now often used in place of traditional machines. Workstations ...
Babb T G - - 2003
The ventilatory response to exercise below ventilatory threshold (VTh) increases with aging, whereas above VTh the ventilatory response declines only slightly. We wondered whether this same ventilatory response would be observed in older runners. We also wondered whether their ventilatory response to exercise while breathing He-O(2) or inspired CO(2) would ...
Harris R J D - - 2003
Many divers report less fatigue following diving breathing oxygen rich N2-O2 mixtures compared with breathing air. In this double blinded, randomized controlled study 11 divers breathed either air or Enriched Air Nitrox 36% (oxygen 36%, nitrogen 64%) during an 18 msw (281 kPa(a)) dry chamber dive for a bottom time ...
Lerda R - - 2003
This study analyzes apnea (A), exhalation (E), and inhalation (I) duration with respect to stroke organization in front crawl as a function of inhalation side, swim velocity and performance level. Thirty-six male subjects comprised two groups based on performance level: more expert (ME) and less expert (LE) swimmers. All swam ...
Bell Christopher - - 2003
PURPOSE: The aims of this investigation were: 1). to establish the day-to-day reproducibility of open-circuit acetylene breathing for measuring exercise cardiac output (Q(c)) in young and older adults; and 2). to compare estimates of Q(c) from open-circuit acetylene breathing with estimates of Q(c) from previously established closed-circuit acetylene rebreathing. METHODS: ...
Martin-Harris Bonnie - - 2003
The critical integration of timing and patterning between respiratory and swallowing events was studied with simultaneous videofluoroscopic and respiratory recording during single liquid swallows. Respiratory phase patterns and the onsets and durations of 12 predetermined swallowing events and associated respiratory activities were studied. Results showed four highly repeatable, temporally oriented ...
Bell Harold J - - 2003
We monitored gas exchange and muscle activity during two commonly used modes of passive leg exercise as a means of assessing the degree of passivity associated with these techniques. Additionally, we measured the rapid changes in ventilation at the start and end of the passive exercise to assess changes that ...
Orenstein David M - - 2002
Our objective was to compare two new objective measures of ease of breathing with the visual analog scale (VAS). Twenty-eight patients with CF, 7-34 years old (FEV(1) 25-114% of predicted), enrolled. Ease of breathing was evaluated by a standard 10-cm VAS, maximum phonation (time, in seconds, to sustain the syllable ...
Ross J A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane (0.25%) in premixed nitrous oxide and oxygen, 50/50, v/v (IN(2)O), has been suggested for pain relief in labour. Possible phase separation of the mixture was studied during simulated administration. METHODS: A sinusoidal pump set at stroke volume of 2 litres and a rate of 20-22 bpm and cycling ...
Tong Tom K - - 2003
To identify the reserve of an individual's tolerance of the sensation of breathlessness and metabolic stress in maintaining intense intermittent exercise at exhaustion under conditions of normal breathing, the contribution of the effect of modest inspiratory load on these two responses to the change in the exercise sustainability (Ex(sus)) were ...
Ehrenpreis Eli D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: There is limited information on the effect of exercise on colonic function. Beneficial effects have been described, including prevention of colon cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that short duration exercise results in enhancement of breath hydrogen excretion after consumption of lactulose. METHODS: Twelve normal volunteers who performed ...
Joulia Fabrice - - 2002
We hypothesized that the repetition of brief epochs of hypoxemia in elite human breath-hold divers could induce an adaptation of their metabolic responses, resulting in reduced blood acidosis and oxidative stress. Trained divers who had a 7-10 year experience in breath-hold diving, and were able to sustain apnea up to ...
Eves Neil D - - 2002
The effects of hyperoxia on submaximal exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) were studied in 25 males. Each participant completed a graded exercise test for the determination of ventilatory threshold (VT) and then a submaximal practice trial with a normoxic gas mixture. The normoxic (20.93 +/- 0.22% O(2); SUB(21)) ...
Ebert Dietrich - - 2002
6 pianists (age 22 to 43 years) performed a simple finger exercise at a spontaneously chosen most comfortable tempo on a Yamaha-Disklavier piano. Five versions of the exercise, notated in quarter notes, were presented with different types of meters: (1) 3/4, (2) 4/4, (3) 5/4, (4) 6/4, and (5) 7/4. ...
Fagevik Olsén M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are frequently seen after thoracoabdominal resection of the oesophagus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different breathing exercise regimens applied in the immediate postoperative period on the risk of pulmonary insufficiency after thoracoabdominal resection. METHODS: Seventy patients undergoing thoracoabdominal resection for ...
Keyl C - - 2003
We evaluated autonomic cardiovascular regulation in subjects with polycythemia and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) and tested the hypothesis that an increase in arterial oxygen saturation has a beneficial effect on arterial baroreflex sensitivity in these subjects. Ten Andean natives with a Hct >65% and 10 natives with a Hct <60%, ...
Meckel Yoav - - 2002
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of speech production on physiological responses during sub maximal exercise of various intensities. METHODS: Three constant levels running at work intensities corresponding to 65%, 75%, and 85% of the subjects' (N = 14) VO(2) max were performed with and without talking. These loads were chosen ...
Clayton M P - - 2002
The British Standards Institution 'Guide to implementing an effective respiratory protective device programme' (BS 4275) lists assigned protection factors (APFs) for various types of respiratory protective equipment (RPE). The APFs were allocated either on the basis of available workplace studies data which met set criteria or on the basis of ...
Puente-Maestu Luis - - 2002
The purpose of the study was to characterise statistically the inherent fluctuations in breath-by-breath measurements of pulmonary gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output, V*O2 and V*CO2, respectively) and pulmonary ventilation (V*E) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to compare them with those of healthy control ...
Gedeon Andras - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This work attempts to show how pulmonary blood flow (Qp), cardiac output (CO(Fick)) and the lung volume of effective gas exchange (ELV) can be determined from breath-by-breath measurements of the tidal exhaled CO2 elimination V (litre/min) and the end tidal CO2 concentration P (%) using the differential Fick method. ...
Houtveen Jan H - - 2002
This study tested various sources of changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Twenty-two healthy participants participated in three experimental conditions (mental stress, relaxation, and mild physical exercise) that each consisted of three breathing parts (normal breathing, breathing compressed room air, and breathing compressed 5% CO2-enriched air). Independent contributions to changes ...
Russell F E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We studied the effects of an episode of induced apnoea on the dynamic compliance (Crs) and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system in anaesthetized lambs and investigated the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of a timed reexpansion inspiratory manoeuvre (TRIM). METHODS: Following 2 min of apnoea, three manoeuvres were randomly ...
Mansy H A - - 2002
Pneumoperitoneum refers to free air within the abdominal cavity that typically signifies serious abdominal pathology such as a perforated gut. The principal hypothesis of the study was that abdominal structure alterations due to pneumoperitoneum cause diagnostic changes in the sounds induced by abdominal percussion. The current pilot study investigated these ...
Younes Magdy - - 2002
In conventional mechanical ventilation, the inflation cycle often extends into neural expiration (TEN), potentially exacerbating dynamic hyperinflation (DH). We wished to determine the extent to which patients defend against DH when this happens. Such defense may include prolongation of TEN (timing response) and/or expiratory muscle recruitment (neuromuscular response). Fifty patients ...
Gross V - - 2002
The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 ...
Yamamoto Fumiko - - 2002
We investigated the effects of sudden changes in ventilation induced by voluntary hyperpnea and breath-holding on repetitive reflex swallowing elicited by continuous infusion of distilled water into the pharynx in 13 healthy subjects. Ventilation was monitored using a pneumotachograph, and swallowing was identified by submental electromyography with interruption of airflow. ...
Kimmel Edgar C - - 2002
Exposure of naïve guinea pigs for a total of 30 min to aged smoke from pyrolysis of 5, 10 and 100 g of carbon-graphite/epoxy-advanced composite material (cgeCM) elicited changes in the ventilation and breathing pattern reminiscent of an acute, asthmatic episode. The severity of these responses was dose related. Although ...
Cernelc Mateja - - 2002
We investigated whether breath-to-breath fluctuations in tidal volume (VT) and end-tidal O2 and CO2 exhibit long-range correlations and whether parameters describing the correlations can be used as noninvasive descriptors of control of breathing. We measured VT and end-tidal O2 and CO2 over n = 352 +/- 104 breaths in 26 ...
Calay R K - - 2002
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling approach is used to study the unsteady respiratory airflow dynamics within a human lung. The three-dimensional asymmetric bifurcation model of the central airway based on the morphological data given by Horsfield et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 67 (1971) 207) was used in the present ...
Osada T - - 2002
Respiration and the muscle pump play major roles in increasing venous return. However, the relative contribution of each of these factors remains unclear. The present study investigates the quantitative effects of interaction between respiration and the muscle pump on femoral venous blood flow (FVBF) during a single voluntary knee extension-flexion ...
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