Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1025
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Petropoulos Ioannis K - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether prostaglandins are mediators of the hypercapnia-associated vasodilation of the optic nerve head vessels. METHODS: We measured the PO(2) at intervascular areas of the optic disc in 9 anaesthetized miniature pigs using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed at <50 mum from the optic disc. PO(2) was measured continuously under ...
Kluess Heidi A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The exercise pressor reflex is thought to be an important cardiovascular control mechanism that may be compromised in disease states such as congestive heart failure and other metabolic syndromes. The purpose was to describe the exercise pressor reflex by observing heart rate variability and blood pressure responses to handgrip-exercise ...
Mansy H A - - 2005
Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are used to establish airway access in patients with ventilatory failure and during general anaesthesia. Tube malpositioning can compromise respiratory function and can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical assessment of ETT position normally involves chest auscultation, which is highly skill-dependent and can be misleading. ...
Montmerle Stéphanie - - 2005
We hypothesized that the perfusion heterogeneity in the human, upright lung is determined by nongravitational more than gravitational factors. Twelve and six subjects were studied during two series of parabolic flights. We used cardiogenic oscillations of O(2)/SF(6) as an indirect estimate of intraregional perfusion heterogeneity (series 1) and phase IV ...
Mortola Jacopo P - - 2005
In cattle, sheep and goats, during resting conditions, breathing frequency (f) greatly exceeds the value expected for their body weight (W, kg) from the allometric curve of other land mammals. It was postulated that this was the effect of the production of CO2 during rumen fermentation. If this were the ...
West Bruce J - - 2005
To test the hypothesis that the fractal character of breathing and heart rate are independent, inter-breath intervals (IBI) and R-R intervals (RRI) were measured during rest and two levels of exercise at 1 and 2.8 ATA in a hyperbaric chamber in 18 male and female subjects (ages 19-74 years). Both ...
Weiskopf Richard B - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Acute anemia slows the responses to clinical tests of cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that these slowed responses during acute severe isovolemic anemia in healthy unmedicated humans result from impaired central processing. METHODS: A blinded operator measured the latency of the P300 peak in nine healthy volunteers at ...
Bell Harold J - - 2005
Increased wakefulness is known to suppress the initial ventilatory response to passive movement and the steady-state ventilatory response to exercise. However, the effect of increased wakefulness upon the integrated ventilatory response at the onset of exercise is not known. We hypothesized that increasing wakefulness via a cognitive task would attenuate ...
Todd David C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We have observed that dosimeter-run nebulizers have a much smaller output when manually activated than when breath activated; however, this has not been adequately investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different calibration methods on nebulizer output. METHODS: Six healthy subjects performed all calibrations. The nebulizers were operated by ...
Cone David C - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels can be estimated by chemical analysis of exhaled alveolar breath. Such noninvasive measurement could be used on the fireground to screen both firefighters (FFs) and victims. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a hand-held carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring device to ...
Chkaidze M - - 2005
Inhaled Nitric oxide is a selective and potent pulmonary vasodilator with minimal influence on systemic vascular resistance. Due to these properties NO becomes widespread treatment for pulmonary hypertension of different etiologies. However, during inhalation via inspiratory limb of breathing circuit NO reacts with oxygen, producing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is ...
Perkins Gavin D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Current international resuscitation guidelines for lay people rely on the assessment of "normal breathing" as a key sign of breathing and circulation. However, it is not known how accurately laypersons can discriminate between "normal" and "abnormal" breathing. The aim of this study was to test the ability of medical ...
Hustad John T P - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of retrospective estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) for re-creating intoxication resulting from a naturally occurring drinking event. This study identified five eBAC equations, applied them to self-report data and compared the results to actual blood alcohol concentration obtained by ...
Thakkar Kalpesh - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a common problem in critically ill patients. Our patients are fed a high-carbohydrate enteral formula. We hypothesized that diarrhea in our patients may be related to the osmotic effects of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the small intestine and colon. METHODS: We studied 19 patients, 3 months to 17 ...
Barbosa Tiago M - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement (dV) and the energy cost (EC) in butterfly stroke. Five Portuguese national level swimmers performed one maximal and two sub-maximal 200-m butterfly swims. The oxygen consumption was measured breath-by-breath by ...
Lindholm Peter - - 2005
Hyperventilation prior to breath-hold diving increases the risk of syncope as a result of hypoxia. Recently, a number of cases of near-drownings in which the swimmers did not hyperventilate before breath-hold diving have come to our attention. These individuals had engaged in prolonged exercise prior to breath-hold diving and it ...
Salerno Francesco G - - 2005
The effects of breathing depth in attenuating induced bronchoconstriction were studied in 12 healthy subjects. On four separate, randomized occasions, the depth of a series of five breaths taken soon (approximately 1 min) after methacholine (MCh) inhalation was varied from spontaneous tidal volume to lung volumes terminating at approximately 80, ...
Masaoka Yuri - - 2004
Idiopathic hyperventilation (IH) is a condition of uncertain aetiology characterized by sustained arterial and alveolar hypocapnia and a plethora of symptoms, the most commonly reported being shortness of breath, and breathlessness. We previously reported that anxiety increases respiratory frequency and minute ventilation with no change in metabolism in normal subjects. ...
Reid Stephen G - - 2004
This study examined the role of phasic pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) feedback in ventilatory control, breath clustering and breath timing in decerebrate, paralysed and artificially-ventilated cane toads (Bufo marinus) under conditions designed to minimise tonic PSR feedback. Fictive breathing was recorded as trigeminal motor output to the buccal musculature. Artificial ...
Seymour R S - - 2004
The evolution of air-breathing organs (ABOs) is associated not only with hypoxic environments but also with activity. This investigation examines the effects of hypoxia and exercise on the partitioning of aquatic and aerial oxygen uptake in the Pacific tarpon. The two-species cosmopolitan genus Megalops is unique among teleosts in using ...
Cerny Frank J - - 2004
Arm work, by limiting movement of the chest wall and use of the respiratory muscles, may alter breathing pattern and gas exchange sufficiently to interfere with the ability to perform certain tasks. To determine the effects of arm work on breathing pattern during a well-controlled work task, depth of breathing, ...
Jucá-Chagas R - - 2004
The present study investigated the respiratory rates, frequency of air breathing and ability to extract oxygen from air compared to body mass of three neotropical air-breathing fishes (Lepidosiren paradoxa, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplosternum littorale) with different accessory organs, under the same conditions of hypoxia (PO(2)<5 mm Hg) and temperature (25 ...
Caron Olivier - - 2004
Body sway was studied in standing with eyes closed during quiet breathing and apnoea. The hypothesis was that absence of ventilation improved balance. Performance and control of balance were assessed by centre of gravity and centre of pressure motions respectively. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the study. The analysis ...
Pal G K - - 2004
Practice of breathing exercises like pranayama is known to improve autonomic function by changing sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Therefore, in the present study the effect of breathing exercises on autonomic functions was performed in young volunteers in the age group of 17-19 yr. A total of 60 male undergraduate medical ...
Wang Chuji - - 2004
We report a study on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy of acetone in both the ultraviolet (UV) and the near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions to explore the potential for development of a breath analyzer for disease diagnostics. The ringdown spectrum of acetone in the UV (282.4-285.0 nm) region is recorded and the ...
Peng C-K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to quantify and compare the instantaneous heart rate dynamics and cardiopulmonary interactions during sequential performance of three meditation protocols with different breathing patterns. BACKGROUND: We analyzed beat-to-beat heart rate and continuous breathing signals from 10 experienced meditators (4 females; 6 males; mean age 42 years; ...
Peppard Paul E - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The degree to which physical exercise habits are related to sleep-disordered breathing is not known. We sought to investigate the association between a single-item exercise question and laboratory-assessed sleep-disordered breathing. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study of adults measured the association between exercise and sleep-disordered breathing. Hours of ...
Tong Tom K - - 2004
To identify the effect of normal breathlessness sensation elicited during intense intermittent exercise at exhaustion on limitation of exercise maintenance (Ex), the contribution of the flow-resistive unloading effect of normoxic helium-oxygen breathing on the breathlessness sensation to the change in the Ex was examined. Seven men repeatedly performed 12-s exercise ...
Khayat Rami N - - 2004
We reasoned that, if the lung inflation reflex contributes importantly to apnea-induced sympathetic activation, such activation would be attenuated in bilateral lung transplant recipients (LTX). We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; intraneural electrodes), heart rate, mean arterial pressure, tidal volume, end-tidal Pco(2), and arterial oxygen saturation in seven LTX ...
Cysarz Dirk - - 2004
The objective of this study was to investigate the synchronization between low-frequency breathing patterns and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate during guided recitation of poetry, i.e., recitation of hexameter verse from ancient Greek literature performed in a therapeutic setting. Twenty healthy volunteers performed three different types of exercises ...
Bowers Emma J - - 2004
Baroreflex sensitivity is becoming an important clinical measurement. Nevertheless there is no recommend standard measurement protocol. This study assessed the ability of eight protocols to induce regular changes in cardiac beat-to-beat interval and systolic pressure (SP), and the effect each protocol had on baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Twelve subjects had changes ...
Gurevich T Yu - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the cardiac R-R interval variation (RRIV) is of value in differentiating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA). BACKGROUND: RRIV assessment is a simple procedure, reflecting mainly vagal efferent activity. Reduced RRIV was reported in MSA. METHODS: RRIV at rest and after 120 ...
Nikkola E M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Only a few methods for the measurement of breathing are non-invasive and do not interfere with measured parameters. The static-charge-sensitive bed (SCSB) could be such a monitor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the SCSB compared with the respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) using a ...
Larsson P U - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the MetaMax II portable metabolic measurement system against the Douglas Bag technique. Nine recreationally active male subjects were included in a validation at 100 W, 10 well-trained male subjects at 200 W and 10 well-trained males at 250 W ...
Dellacà R L - - 2004
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during tidal breathing is a major determinant of dynamic hyperinflation and exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current methods of detecting this are either invasive or unsuited to following changes breath-by-breath. It was hypothesised that tidal flow limitation would substantially reduce the total respiratory ...
Connaghan Kathryn P KP Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6246, - - 2004
The development of respiratory drive for vocalization was studied by observing chest wall kinematics longitudinally in 4 typically developing children from the age of 9 to 48 months. Measurements of the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal movement during vocalization (i.e., babbling and true words) and rest breathing were ...
Reychler Gregory G Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, - - 2004
So-called intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV), frequently coupled with a nebulizer, is increasingly used as a physiotherapy technique; however, its physiologic and clinical values have not been rigorously assessed. To compare in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the nebulizer of the IPV device (Percussionaire; Percussionaire Corporation; Sandpoint, ID) with those ...
Ben Lamine Samia - - 2004
To investigate the interindividual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), recordings of ventilation and electrocardiogram were obtained from 12 healthy subjects for five imposed breathing periods (T(TOT)) surrounding each individual's spontaneous breathing period. In addition to the spectral analysis of the R-R interval signal at each breathing period, RSA characteristics ...
Beck Jennifer - - 2004
Mechanical ventilation may interfere with the spontaneous breathing pattern in infants because they have strong reflexes that play a large role in the control of breathing. This study aimed to answer the following questions: does a ventilator-assisted breath 1) reduce neural inspiratory time, 2) reduce the amplitude of the diaphragm ...
Leaf David Alexander - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility to exercise-induced lipid peroxidation of patients on chronic maintenance dialysis (CMD) and non-CMD control subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of exercise-induced changes in breath ethane and pentane flux between patients on CMD (group A) and an age-, gender-, medical diagnosis-, ...
Risberg J - - 2004
An initial occupational survey (OS) was initiated to investigate the prevalence of venous gas embolism (VGE) in chamber attendants assisting hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatments. Nine female subjects were exposed for three consecutive days to the routine hospital procedure of compressed air exposure to 240 kPa for approximately 115 min with ...
Schneider Rainer - - 2003
When electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings are controlled for artifacts, i.e., electrodermal reactions [EDRs] elicited by breathing irregularities, several problems arise. For example, respiration is difficult to evaluate because there are no clear-cut criteria for its values, e.g., wave form, depth. Furthermore, respiration and EDA are rather complexly intertwined, and there ...
Pilmanis Andrew A - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: The current extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit at 4.3 psia causes hand and arm fatigue and is too heavy for Martian EVA. A 3.5 psia EVA pressure suit requires increased preoxygenation time but would reduce structural complexity, leak rate, and weight while increasing mobility, comfort, and maintainability. On Mars, ...
Nicol Stewart - - 2003
Resting non-hibernating echidnas are characterised by low metabolic rates, but also have a very low respiratory frequency and a variable respiratory minute volume, often resulting in low levels of arterial O(2) and high CO(2). As the echidna lies at one physiological extreme among the hibernators, in terms of its large ...
Eves Neil D - - 2003
Maximal exercise performance is decreased when breathing from a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), owing to a ventilatory limitation imposed by the increased expiratory resistance. To test the hypothesis that decreasing the density of the breathing gas would improve maximal exercise performance, we studied 15 men during four graded exercise tests ...
Houtveen Jan H - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study tested whether functional somatic symptoms are associated with exaggerated increases in self-reported anxiety and somatic complaints in response to stress and CO(2)-enriched air breathing, and whether this association exists in parallel to or in the absence of exaggerated physiological responses. METHODS: Out of 499 young somatically healthy ...
KopczyƄska Beata - - 2003
Mediation of the respiratory reflex effects of an exogenous serotonin challenge goes beyond the lung vagi and is suggested to involve the nodose ganglia. In the present experiments the effects of an intravenous serotonin challenge on breathing pattern were studied in 8 pentobarbitone-chloralose anaesthetised cats. Bolus injection of serotonin oxalate ...
Simon Ron - - 2003
Respiration rate (RR) and minute ventilation (MV) provide important clinical information on the state of the patient. This study evaluated the accuracy of determining these using a pacemaker impedance sensor. In 20 patients who were previously implanted with a Guidant PULSAR MAX group of pacemakers, the telemetered impedance sensor waveform ...
Proquitté H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Perfluorocarbon (PFC) has been widely used in the treatment of respiratory diseases; however, PFC content of the breathing gases remains unknown. Therefore, we developed an absorber using PFC selective zeolites for PFC measurement in gases and investigated its accuracy. METHODS: To generate a breathing gas with different PFC contents ...
Aquino-Parsons C - - 2003
AIM: To investigate the influence of deep inspiration breath-hold on the oxygen tension of in-vivo tumours measured using an Eppendorf pO2 histograph. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with accessible primary or metastatic tumours > or = 2 cm diameter were entered into a protocol measuring tumour oxygenation with an Eppendorf pO2 ...
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