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Results 251 - 300 of 1190
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Dunnett C E - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to relate changes in muscle oxidative capacity and free fatty acid flux in response to oil supplementation to fuel utilisation during subsequent exercise of varying intensities. Following 10 weeks of oil supplementation there was an increased capacity for fat utilisation during low and ...
Plecko Barbara - - 2002
In persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, ketone body concentrations are abnormally low at times of hypoglycemia, depriving the brain of its most important alternative fuel. The neuroprotective effect of endogenous ketone bodies is evidenced by animal and human studies, but knowledge about exogenous supply is limited. Assuming that exogenous ketone ...
Janssen Paul M L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of inhibitory G proteins have been observed in heart failure, but their physiological relevance in mediating the reduced beta-adrenergic response is largely unknown. METHODS: To evaluate the functional consequences of Galpha(i2) overexpression, we studied myocardial contraction in intact isometric contracting cardiac rabbit trabeculae and isolated myocytes after ...
Lurie Susan - - 2002
The rapidly ripening summer apple cultivar Anna was treated with 0.1 micro L(-1) and 1 microL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) at harvest and kept at 20 degrees C, or stored for 5 weeks at 0 degrees C and then transferred to 20 degrees C. Total volatiles were not reduced by treatment ...
Lee Hyoung S - - 2002
Color changes in red grapefruit juice concentrates during storage at -23 degrees C for 12 months were studied. Concentrate (38 degrees Brix) was packed in both plastic (16 oz) and metal (6 oz) cans. Decrease in red intensity (CIE a) in juice color and slight increases in CIE L*, b*, ...
Gobbetti Anna - - 2002
The aim of the present work was to study the possible role of adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38 in the testicular intracellular mechanism regulating steroidogenesis of crested newt, Triturus carnifex. Gonads were incubated in vitro with PACAP 38 and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) alone or with inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), adenylate ...
Stewart William C - - 2002
PURPOSE: To compare the cardiovascular effects of unoprostone 0.15%, timolol 0.5% and placebo in healthy adults during exercise using a treadmill test. METHODS: Thirty subjects aged 18-37 years (mean age = 24.1 years) were randomized to one of six treatment sequences in a three-treatment, three-period crossover study (William's design). Study ...
Nowicki M - - 2002
Non-selective beta-adrenergic blockers may cause hyperkalemia in patients with end-stage renal failure. In contrast, alpha-adrenergic blockade has been found to decrease the hyperkalemic effect of physical exercise in healthy subjects, although we were unable to confirm this effect in hemodialysis patients. In a crossover design, we studied the effect of ...
Monmeneu Menadas J V - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aim was to determine whether beta-blocker treatment (atenolol) improves cardiopulmonary exercise performance and ventilatory response in patients with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm. METHODS: A prospective study comparing the results of cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) was performed before and after atenolol therapy ...
Stoschitzky Kurt - - 2002
In vitro studies have shown that beta-blockers are taken up into and released from adrenergic cells. As a consequence, plasma concentrations of beta-blockers increase during exercise together with those of epinephrine and norepinephrine. However, effects of exercise on plasma concentrations of (R)- and (S)-carvedilol are unknown. Twelve healthy males received ...
Arai Masanao - - 2002
To investigate the detailed actions of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the brain, which increase accompanied with continuity of exercise, the authors performed electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis for 2 h after intracranial injection of TGF-beta in rats and compared with the effects of swimming exercise. Relative power values (power percent) ...
Courneya Kerry S - - 2002
In this study, we examined correlates of adherence and contamination in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of exercise in cancer survivors using the theory of planned behavior and the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM). We randomly assigned cancer survivors in group psychotherapy classes to either a waiting-list control group ...
Güngör K - - 2002
Effects of mutations in the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) gene on intraocular pressure (IOP), in response to acute dynamic exercise, were investigated in 19 healthy males (age 22.6 +/- 2.8 years). Intraocular pressures were measured pre- and post-exercise. Weight, height, body mass index, and maximal oxygen (VO2max) uptake were ...
Alon Tal - - 2002
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, more commonly referred to as HMB, is derived from the amino acid, leucine, and its keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaproate. In several studies combining HMB supplementation and resistance exercise, researchers have concluded that HMB may play an important role in reducing protein degradation and/or increasing recovery of damaged muscle cells. These ...
Brull D J - - 2002
We have examined the effect of two beta-fibrinogen gene promoter polymorphisms (-455G>A and -854G>A) on the fibrinogen response to severe exercise in a group of male army recruits undergoing basic training. Fibrinogen was measured pre-training and again serially after severe 48 h final military exercise (FME). Out of 884 subjects, ...
Stoschitzky Kurt - - 2002
In vitro studies have shown that beta-blockers are taken up into and released from adrenergic cells together with epinephrine and norepinephrine. Consequently, studies in humans revealed an increase in plasma concentrations of propranolol and atenolol during physical exercise. However, carvedilol has not been investigated in a similar fashion. Eleven hypertensive ...
Jamurtas A Z - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-endorphin infusion influences liver or muscle glycogen concentration during exercise. Thirty-two rats (Harlan Co., IN, USA) with a body mass of 265-290 g were assigned at random to four groups, each of eight rats: (1) beta-endorphin infusion for 90 min at ...
Aubert B - - 2001
We present the results of searches for B decays to charmless two-body final states containing eta(') or omega mesons, based on 20.7 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector. We find the branching fractions Beta(B(+)-->eta(')K(+)) = (70+/-8+/-5) x 10(-6), Beta(B(0)-->eta(')K(0)) = (42(+13)(-11) +/- 4) x 10(-6), and Beta(B(+)-->omega pi(+)) ...
Angelopoulos T J - - 2001
Nine highly fit men [mean (SE) maximum oxygen uptake, VO2max: 63.9 (1.7) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); age 27.6 (1.6) years] were studied during two treadmill exercise trials to determine plasma beta-endorphin immunoreactivity during intense exercise (80% VO2max). A double-blind experimental design was used, and subjects performed the two exercise ...
Wang T - - 2001
Reptiles, particularly snakes, exhibit large and quantitatively similar increments in metabolic rate during muscular exercise and following a meal, when they are apparently inactive. The cardiovascular responses are similar during these two states, but the underlying autonomic control of the heart remains unknown. We describe both adrenergic and cholinergic tonus ...
Ohuchi H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Elevated neurohumoral activity and an abnormal cardiopulmonary response to exercise are well-established characteristics in patients after the Fontan operation. However, there have been few studies addressing cardiac autonomic nervous activity (CANA) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated CANA in 63 post-Fontan patients and 44 controls. Cardiac parasympathetic ...
Zarzeczny R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This study examined the hypothesis that prolonged (12 hrs) stimulation of adrenergic receptors by adrenaline and their blockade by regitine (alpha-blockade) or propranolol (beta-blockade) affect lactate thresh-old (T(LA)) and exercise tolerance in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four untrained male Wistar rats performed a multistage running test on a treadmill with an ...
Le Mellédo J M - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Review of the literature equivocally suggests that subjects with Type A behavioral pattern (TABP) compared to subjects with Type B behavioral pattern display an increased sympathetic activity, a condition associated with sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study was to determine whether healthy subjects classified as Type A ...
Júnior P B - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between blood lactate and glucose during an incremental test after exercise induced lactic acidosis, under normal and acute beta-adrenergic blockade. Eight fit males (cyclists or triathletes) performed a protocol to determine the intensity corresponding to the individual equilibrium point between ...
Bell C - - 2001
We recently demonstrated in young adult humans that the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate via tonic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. In the present follow-up study we determined the respective effects of age, habitual exercise status, and sex on this regulatory mechanism. Resting metabolic rate (ventilated ...
Otto K A - - 2001
Haemodynamic responses are routinely used for monitoring anaesthesia, but they can be elicited at spinal or brainstem levels and therefore do not provide information on cerebrocortical activity. To test the possibility that electroencephalography (EEG) might provide an objective assessment of unconsciousness and depth of anaesthesia the haemodynamic and EEG data ...
Gauri A J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of the exercise test in patients who fail to reach conventional target heart rates and in patients on beta-blockers. BACKGROUND: Exercise test results are often considered "inadequate" or "nondiagnostic" in patients taking beta-blockers and in patients who do not achieve 85% ...
Jandrasits K - - 2001
PURPOSE: There is controversy regarding the nervous control of retinal blood vessels in humans. Most in vitro studies indicate that the intraocular part of the central retinal artery lacks autonomic innervation. We investigated the response of retinal vessels to isometric exercise during blockade of beta-receptors (propranolol) or muscarinic receptors (atropine). ...
Furushima H - - 2001
Beta-blockade is widely reported to reduce the incidence of syncope in 75-80% of patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, despite full-dose beta-blockade, 20-25% of patients continue to have syncopal episodes and remain at high risk for sudden cardiac death. In some patients refractory to beta-blockade, the recurrence of ...
Stoschitzky K - - 2001
Carvedilol is currently used as the racemic mixture, (R,S)-carvedilol, consisting of equal amounts of (R)-carvedilol, an alpha-blocker, and (S)-carvedilol, an alpha- and beta-blocker, which have never been tested in their optically pure forms in human subjects. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects ...
Gallagher K M - - 2001
1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of central command to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during static and dynamic exercise in humans. 2. Thirteen subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen ...
Mora-Rodriguez R - - 2001
We used beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation and blockade as a tool to study substrate metabolism during exercise. Eight moderately trained subjects cycled for 60 min at 45% of VO(2 peak) 1) during a control trial (CON); 2) while epinephrine was intravenously infused at 0.015 microg. kg(-1) x min(-1) (beta-STIM); 3) after ...
Nielsen B - - 2001
We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4.8 +/- 0.1 (SE) 1 min-1] ...
Xie H G - - 2001
There are marked interethnic differences in beta 1-adrenoceptor-mediated responsiveness, with sensitivity decreased in African-Americans and increased in Chinese compared with Caucasians. Therefore, the frequency of a common naturally occurring polymorphism of the human beta 1-adrenoceptor gene (Arg389Gly), which has functional importance in vitro, was determined in 194 African-Americans, 316 Caucasian-Americans, ...
Büscher R - - 2001
beta 1-adrenoceptors play a pivotal role in regulating contractility and heart rate in the human heart. Recently, a polymorphism of the beta 1-adrenoceptor has been detected: at amino acid position 389 either Gly or Arg has been found with the Gly389 exhibiting reduced responsiveness upon agonist-induced stimulation in vitro. In ...
Deli J - - 2001
The changes in the carotenoid pigments of the Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme rubrum during maturation have been investigated quantitatively by means of a HPLC technique. In all of the chromatograms, 40 peaks were detected; 34 carotenoids were identified. The total carotenoid content of the ripe fruits was about 1.3 g/100 ...
Favret F - - 2001
The time course of changes in rat myocardial alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptors and of muscarinic cholinergic (M-Ach) receptor characteristics was studied parallel with the changes in exercise systemic O(2) transport during a 21-day period of hypoxia (barometric pressure 380 Torr) to assess the effects of receptor modification during acclimatization on maximal ...
Goldstein I - - 2001
This paper reviews laboratory and clinical data concerning oral phentolamine mesylate, Vasomax, an alpha-1, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist developed specifically for treatment of erectile dysfunction. A contemporary view of the neurovascular mechanisms in penile erection includes the effects of both smooth muscle relaxation and contraction. Contraction of the cavernosal arteries ...
Marion-Latard F - - 2001
This study was designed to assess whether physiological activation of the sympathetic nervous system induced by exercise changes adipose tissue responsiveness to catecholamines in humans. Lipid mobilization in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was studied with the use of a microdialysis method in 11 nontrained men (age: 22. 3 +/- 1.5 ...
Gazdik F - - 2001
Asthma bronchiale represents serious social and economic problems in all over the world. Financial expenses are elevated every year. THE AIM: Of the presented study was to analyze the current therapeutic approach in the management of bronchial asthma and to evaluate pharmacoeconomic aspects of treatment in selected outdoor asthmatic patients ...
Israel E - - 2001
Regular use of inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists may have adverse effects in some asthma patients. Polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) can affect its regulation; however, results of smaller studies of the effects of such polymorphisms on response to beta-agonist therapy have been inconsistent. We examined the possible effects of polymorphisms ...
Gorman M W - - 2000
The hypothesis that exercise-induced coronary vasodilation is a result of sympathetic activation of coronary smooth muscle beta-adrenoceptors was tested. Ten dogs were chronically instrumented with a flow transducer on the circumflex coronary artery and catheters in the aorta and coronary sinus. During treadmill exercise, coronary venous oxygen tension decreased with ...
Schulz A - - 2000
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (beta-endorphin IRM), and authentic beta-endorphin (1 -31) have been determined in the plasma of 23 volunteers undergoing anaerobic exercise on a rowing ergometer. The volunteers had different histories of training from occasional physical activities up to intensive preparation for international rowing competitions. ACTH and ...
Ring C - - 2000
The mechanism underlying acute changes in secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) remains to be determined. In this experiment, sIgA and cardiovascular activity were monitored at rest and while participants performed a mental arithmetic task, cold pressor, and submaximal cycle exercise following placebo or 1 mg of the alpha-adrenergic blocker, doxazosin. Under ...
Ide K - - 2000
A reduced ability to increase cardiac output (CO) during exercise limits blood flow by vasoconstriction even in active skeletal muscle. Such a flow limitation may also take place in the brain as an increase in the transcranial Doppler determined middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA V(mean)) is attenuated during cycling ...
Popp P - - 2000
Concentrations of tetrachlorobenzenes, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH in air and deposition were measured at three different contaminated sites in Greppin, Roitzsch (both near Bitterfeld) and Leipzig during five time intervals of 14 days in the summer months of 1998. The mean values of the chlorobenzene concentrations ...
Jamurtas A Z - - 2000
Beta-endorphin (betaE) bolus (0.05 mg x kg(-1)) infusion (0.05 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was previously shown in rats to attenuate the decline in plasma glucose during exercise. PURPOSE: The present investigation compared betaE and saline infusion in rats without a bolus of betaE to determine whether 1) the attenuation ...
Geor R J - - 2000
To examine the role of beta-adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of endogenous glucose (Glu) production [rate of appearance (R(a))] and utilization [rate of disappearance (R(d))] and carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism, six horses completed consecutive 30-min bouts of exercise at approximately 30% (Lo) and approximately 60% (Hi) of estimated maximum O(2) uptake ...
de Beer E L - - 2000
Crossbridge dynamics underlying the acute and chronic inotropic effects of doxorubicin (Dox) were studied by application of releasing length steps (amplitude, 0.5-10%) to skinned cardiac trabeculae. Acute incubation of trabeculae with 20 microM Dox for 30 min resulted in a decrease of the velocity of unloaded shortening (V(0), from 9.3 ...
Rasool A H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether racial differences in response to blockade of beta receptors occur among racial groups in Malaysia that are the Malays, Indians and Chinese. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHOD: 35 healthy male volunteers representing the 3 main racial groups in Malaysia (12 Malays, 12 Chinese and 11 Indians) were ...
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