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Results 151 - 200 of 1165
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Delgado Silvia Marcela - - 2006
Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary ...
Huang Robert L - - 2006
Therapeutic target with beta blockers in heart failure, i.e., target heart rate reduction or beta-blocker dose, is controversial. To resolve this controversy, the authors studied 152 heart failure patients on beta blockers who were divided into four groups based on median peak exercise heart rate reduction as compared with predicted ...
Wolfel Eugene E - - 2006
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been used for the assessment of severity of heart failure (HF), secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Initial studies determined that oxygen consumption (VO2) during exercise, as a measure of functional capacity, correlated well with the hemodynamic responses related to chronic HF. These studies led ...
Sandblom Erik - - 2006
The role of the alpha-adrenergic system in the control of cardiac preload (central venous blood pressure; P(ven)) and venous capacitance during exercise was investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition, the antihypotensive effect of the renin-angiotesin system (RAS) was investigated during exercise after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. Fish were subjected to ...
Beitelshees A L - - 2006
Two common polymorphisms in the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene, Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly, are associated with variable antihypertensive response to metoprolol. We sought to determine whether similar pharmacogenetic associations were present with the negative chronotropic response phenotype to metoprolol. Metoprolol was titrated in 54 untreated hypertensive patients to achieve blood pressure control. ...
Ahmad Kamran - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on rate control in atrial fibrillation which emphasizes patient wellbeing (exercise tolerance, symptoms, quality of life) over attempts to reduce resting or exercise heart rate to an arbitrary range. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trials of rhythm versus rate ...
Kohut M L - - 2006
Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial ...
Aschenbach William G - - 2006
beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein involved in cell-cell adhesion and the Wnt signaling pathway. beta-Catenin is activated upon its dephosphorylation, an event triggered by Dishevelled (Dvl)-mediated phosphorylation and deactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). In skeletal muscle, both insulin and exercise decrease GSK-3beta activity, and we tested the hypothesis that ...
Barbier Julie - - 2006
We investigated the effects of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) and myocardial adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in rats. Exercise training induced a decrease in body mass while ventricular size remained unchanged, a development we considered as a relative cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, there was a reduction in the ...
Goodstadt L L MRC Functional Genetics Unit, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, - - 2006
There is a well-characterized membrane chloride current (ICl,cAMP) in the heart that can be activated by beta-adrenergic agonists and is due to expression of the cardiac isoform of the epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). We have investigated whether 17beta-estradiol (E2) modulates ICl,cAMP in single ventricular myocytes. Under whole-cell ...
Uzuki Mitsuru - - 2006
Intraabdominal sepsis can lead to acute respiratory failure, and concomitant diaphragmatic dysfunction may be aggravated by sepsis-induced airway hyperreactivity. We previously reported that isoproterenol, a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist, increased diaphragmatic contractility and accelerated recovery from fatigue during sepsis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the direct inotropic effect ...
Leineweber Kirsten K Department of Nephrology, University of Essen Medical School, - - 2006
In vitro, Arg389Gly beta1-adrenoceptor (AR) polymorphism exhibits decreased beta-AR signalling. In vivo, beta1-AR-mediated cardiac effects of exercise showed no genotype-dependent differences in Arg389 vs. Gly389 beta1-AR subjects. We studied in 16 male subjects homozygous Arg389 or Gly389 beta1-AR, whether blockade of parasympathetic activity might unmask genotype-dependence of exercise effects. Subjects ...
Billman George E - - 2006
Enhanced cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor (beta(2)-AR) responsiveness can increase susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Exercise training can decrease cardiac sympathetic activity and could, thereby, reduce beta(2)-AR responsiveness and decrease the risk for VF. Therefore, dogs with healed myocardial infarctions were subjected to 2 min of coronary occlusion during the last minute of ...
Abdulla Jawdat - - 2006
The results of randomised control trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on functional status in patients with chronic heart failure are conflicting. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification and exercise tolerance in chronic heart ...
Ogasawara Junetsu - - 2006
The effect of exercise on beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) trafficking was investigated in rat adipocytes. The binding sites of a hydrophilic ligand, [(3)H]CGP12177, increased immediately (0 h) and at 3 h after exercise (3 h) but decreased at 24 h after exercise (24 h). The data of immunoblotting revealed that the ...
Koutedakis Yiannis - - 2005
PURPOSE: Obesity has an etiology that is multidimensional in nature. Given the dearth of longitudinal data, we examined changes in adipose tissue (Ad) in relation to physical activity levels (PA), aerobic fitness (AF), and energy intake (EI) in Greek schoolchildren, as they progressed from age 12 to 14 yr. METHODS: ...
Bell Christopher - - 2006
Beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) modulation of resting and postprandial energy expenditure (EE) is augmented in regularly exercising compared with sedentary adults, but the underlying physiological mechanisms are unknown. Differences in thermogenic responsiveness to beta-AR stimulation, perhaps secondary to reactive oxygen species (ROS) bioactivity, may be involved. To determine habitual exercise-related differences ...
Nozawa Takashi - - 2005
In patients routinely treated with metoprolol, influences of CYP2D6 genotype on the response of heart rate to isoproterenol (IP) were studied at its peak and trough concentrations and were compared with those of bisoprolol. In 72 patients treated with metoprolol or bisoprolol, CYP2D6 genotype (ie, CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10, ...
B?langer Mathieu - - 2005
PURPOSE: There is substantial evidence that the use of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (beta-blockers) is associated with a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and that a weight gain usually occurs in the first few months of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine if RMR of overweight and ...
Agostoni Piergiuseppe - - 2005
Thalassaemia intermedia patients can suffer fatigue and exercise capacity reduction, possibly because of anaemia, deconditioning and lack of exercise-induced haemoconcentration. We studied 21 beta-thalassaemia intermedia patients, 10 splenectomised (group A) and 11 not splenectomised (group B). Patients were evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise test with blood sampling for haemoglobin and plasma ...
Mayer Björn - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In patients with severe heart failure (CHF), chronically elevated cytokine levels document a systemic inflammation. Experimental data suggest that activation of the beta-adrenergic system may participate in this inflammatory response. Herein, we studied as to whether beta-adrenergic blockade on top of standard CHF therapy affects plasma cytokine levels (interleukin-6 ...
Maddigan Sheri L - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between perceptions of the patient-provider relationship (PPR), BMI, and adherence to diet and exercise in a rural population with type 2 diabetes and determine how these variables relate to HRQL. METHODS: A model of the hypothesized relationships between the constructs was proposed and tested using structural ...
Kwon Yong Hoon - - 2005
The interaction between acidic fluoride solution and beta titanium alloy was investigated to explore the changes that occur in beta titanium alloy by fluoride-containing acetic acid solutions. For this, alloy crystal structure, tensile strength, and elements released from the alloy wires were determined using four solutions (0.05%/pH 6, 0.05%/pH 4, ...
Ohno Yoshiyuki - - 2005
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of systemic absorption and the systemic side effect after instillation of timolol maleate ophthalmic gelling vehicle in human. METHODS: A volunteer study was employed, and a randomized crossover design with the two phases was used. In one phase, the ...
Han Steven-Huy B - - 2005
Telbivudine, beta-L-2'-deoxythymidine (LdT), is a new beta-L-nucleoside analogue with potent inhibitory activity against the hepatitis B virus. In in vitro studies and animal models, telbivudine has demonstrated potent and specific antiviral activity against hepatitis B. Additionally, in preclinical animal toxicology studies, telbivudine showed no adverse side effects or adverse effects ...
Quintana Miguel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Colour tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) allows an objective assessment of regional myocardial function. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and A-V plane displacement (AVPD) obtained from colour TDE correlate well with changes in cardiac wall motion and can discriminate ischemic areas during stress echocardiography. During exercise, the relationship between PSV and ...
Nordsborg Nikolai - - 2005
The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise with a large compared with a small active muscle mass results in a higher contraction-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase mRNA expression due to greater hormonal responses. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3), alpha(4), beta(1), beta(2), and beta(3) mRNA in ...
Sabbath Adam - - 2005
Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent ...
Walker Bruce D - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by syncope and cardiac arrest, often in association with exercise or sudden arousal. It was hypothesized that patients with LQTS with human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) mutations (LQT2) have an abnormal QT adaptation to changes in heart rate induced by exercise and that ...
Kaye David M - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of adrenergic receptor polymorphisms on the response of myocardium to measured levels of cardiac adrenergic drive, and to evaluate whether polymorphisms of presynaptic adrenoceptors modified the rate of cardiac and systemic release of norepinephrine. BACKGROUND: Heightened sympathetic activity plays ...
Bengel Frank M - - 2004
AIMS: To evaluate effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade on allograft performance, and to correlate these effects with sympathetic reinnervation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial catecholamine storage capacity was determined in 12 non-rejecting transplant recipients using PET and C-11 adrenaline (epinephrine). Haemodynamics and left ventricular function were measured using radionuclide angiography at ...
Monachini Maristela C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced dyspnea is a frequent feature in patients with hyperthyroidism. HYPOTHESIS: Data from clinical studies to elucidate the origin of this symptom are lacking. In the current study, we examined the hemodynamic and oxygenation responses to exercise and beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism and their relationship with dyspnea. ...
Gullu Sevim - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of long-term levothyroxine (LT4) suppressive therapy on the heart and the effects of beta-blockade on cardiac functions. DESIGN: Twelve female patients receiving LT4, selected from a group of patients with TSH levels of 0.1-0.4 microU/ml, were evaluated. The control group consisted of 11 healthy subjects ...
Thomas Dierk - - 2004
Ventricular arrhythmias are often precipitated by physical or emotional stress, in particular in patients with ischemic heart disease or hereditary long QT syndrome. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system in response to exercise or emotional stress causes activation of cardiac alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors. The rapid component of the delayed rectifier ...
Callaerts-Vegh Zsuzsanna - - 2004
The clinical effects of treatment with beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonists and antagonists in heart failure vary with duration of therapy, as do the effects of beta-AR agonists in asthma. Therefore, we hypothesized that chronic effects of "beta-blockers" in asthma may differ from those observed acutely. We tested this hypothesis in an ...
Monnet Xavier - - 2004
AIMS: The respective contributions of reduction in heart rate and inotropism in the beneficial effects of beta-blockade in ischaemic heart disease remains debated. The effects of selective heart rate reduction by ivabradine (If inhibitor) were compared to those of atenolol on exercise-induced ischaemia and stunning. METHODS AND RESULTS: In seven ...
Zong Pu - - 2004
In exercising dogs, increased myocardial O2 consumption (MVO2) of the left ventricle is met primarily by hyperemia, whereas increased O2 extraction makes a greater contribution to right ventricular (RV) O2 supply. We hypothesized that alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor tone limits right coronary (RC) blood flow during exercise, forcing increased O2 extraction. This ...
Stoschitzky Kurt - - 2004
In-vitro studies have shown that beta-blockers are taken up into and released from adrenergic cells together with epinephrine and norepinephrine. Consequently, studies in humans revealed an increase in plasma concentrations of propranolol and atenolol, whereas those of carvedilol were not affected by physical exercise. However, nebivolol and bisoprolol never were ...
Kühn Andrea A - - 2004
Although the basal ganglia play an important role in self-generated movement, their involvement in externally paced voluntary movement is less clear. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the region of the subthalamic nuclei of eight patients with Parkinson's disease during the performance of a warned reaction time task in ...
Laesser M - - 2004
Blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor has been demonstrated to ameliorate splanchnic hypoperfusion in acute experimental circulatory failure. This study focused on hemodynamic changes and survival in pigs treated with AT1 blockade prior to or during acute endotoxinemia. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin was infused in anesthetized and ...
Kuroedov Alexey - - 2004
Nebivolol is a racemic mixture of d- and l-enantiomers. The drug is characterized by beta(1)-adrenoceptor selectivity and long-acting beta-blockade exerted predominantly by d-enantiomer. Nebivolol is devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and has no relevant membrane stabilizing action. Antiproliferative properties of nebivolol were demonstrated in endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures. ...
Lenz Thomas L - - 2004
Certain physiological changes caused by aerobic exercise can alter the pharmacokinetics of some drugs. A systematic review of the pharmacokinetic changes that can affect drugs as a result of aerobic exercise is provided. Eleven commonly used drugs are reviewed for their potential interaction with exercising patients. Serum concentrations of two ...
Koch H J - - 2004
Metoprolol is a widely used beta1-selective beta-blocker in hypertension and tachycardia. The influence on vital signs at rest and during ergometry (exercise heart rate or blood pressure, effect areas above baseline) was investigated in a pilot study with 18 healthy volunteers (mean age 29.1 years) by means of multiple and ...
Köseoglu E - - 2003
This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache. Forty patients with migrainous headache without aura (MWOA), firstly exercised on a treadmill and afterwards were asked to continue an aerobic home exercise program for six weeks. On evaluation, basal plasma beta endorphin ...
Yingxin Peng - - 2003
Changes in the density of myocardium and blood lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptors (beta-AR) in left ventricular (LV) geometry have been found in patients with essential hypertension (EH). However, it is not known whether intrinsic beta-AR subtype function changes during left ventricular remodeling of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to further ...
Vilaine Jean-Paul - - 2003
The effects of ivabradine, a novel heart rate-reducing agent that inhibits the cardiac pacemaker current If, were compared with those of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, in a model of exercise-induced regional myocardial ischemia in pigs. Five Yucatan micropigs were chronically instrumented to measure hemodynamics, regional myocardial contractility, and local electrograms, ...
Bolger Aidan P - - 2003
Beta-blockers, as determined by four landmark placebo-controlled studies, impart a significant survival advantage to the chronic heart failure population. What ancillary benefits might be expected from beta-blockade, in terms of symptom relief and improvement in exercise capacity, is less clear. This situation in part reflects the heterogeneity of tools used ...
Davis J M - - 2004
Both moderate exercise and the soluble oat fiber beta-glucan can increase immune function and decrease risk of infection, but no information exists on their possible combined effects. This study tested the effects of moderate exercise and oat beta-glucan on respiratory infection, macrophage antiviral resistance, and natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. ...
Liu Jie - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine whether the Gly389 polymorphism of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor exhibits reduced responsiveness in vivo and to test the hypothesis that the Gly389Arg polymorphism affects the blood pressure and heart rate response to metoprolol. METHODS: beta(1)-Adrenergic receptor genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length ...
Witte K K A - - 2003
To assess the influence of acute alpha and beta blockade on ventilation and symptoms of breathlessness during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure and in controls. 11 patients with chronic heart failure and 11 control subjects underwent repeated exercise testing with metabolic gas exchange after random, double blind administration ...
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