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Hildebrandt Tom T Department of Psychiatry, Ichan School of School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this ...
Ho Jen-Yu - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to mental challenge, withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, and cognitive stress during 24-hour smoking abstinence. 8 sedentary smokers (mean±SD age: 20.1±1.7y; height: 171.6±10.8cm; body mass: 70.4±12.0kg; smoking history: 2.9±0.8y) completed a ...
Ranby Krista W - - 2011
This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team ...
Zois James - - 2011
Objectives: This study investigated the acute effects of a currently implemented team-sport warm-up and two alternative, high-intensity, short-duration protocols - 5 repetition maximum leg press and small-sided games. Design: Ten male soccer players participated in a randomised, cross-over study. Methods: Participants performed a team-sport, a leg-press, or a small-sided game ...
Phillips Shaun M - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Eleven participants [mean age 13.5 ± 0.7 years, height 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass (BM) 62.1 ± 9.4 kg] performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they ...
Phillips Shaun M - - 2011
This study investigated the influence of consuming a 2, 6, and 10% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Seven participants (five males and two females; mean age 13.3 ± 0.5 years, height 1.71 ± 0.05 m, body mass (BM) 62.0 ± 6.3 kg) performed three trials separated by 3-7 days. ...
Phillips Shaun M - - 2011
There is a growing body of research on the influence of ingesting carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions immediately prior to and during prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise (team games exercise) designed to replicate field-based team games. This review presents the current body of knowledge in this area, and identifies avenues of further research. Almost ...
Saint Onge Jarron M - - 2011
Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational differences in exercise ...
Driessen J M M - - 2011
RATIONALE: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is defined as a transient narrowing of the airways induced by exercise. Repetitive measurements of spirometric parameters, such as FEV(1) and expiratory flows, and forced oscillation technique (FOT) measurements can be used to analyze the dynamics of EIB. A single high dose of fluticasone propionate (FP) ...
Hacker Eileen Danaher - - 2011
Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience considerable reductions in physical activity and deterioration of their health status. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of strength training compared with usual activity on physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions, and ...
Peart Daniel J - - 2011
The heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) response following exercise is well documented, however, little is known on whether the expression may be mediated by the ingestion of ergogenic aids prior to performance. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) ingestion on monocyte and ...
Giannaki Christoforos D - - 2011
Optimal hemodialysis (HD) dose is very important to patients' health and survival, and various indices of adequacy have been incorporated into the current clinical practice to monitor HD efficiency. Exercise during HD could facilitate solute removal; however, it is still unknown whether prolonged intradialytic exercise could further improve HD efficiency. ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2011
Myopathies are genetic or acquired disorders of skeletal muscle that lead to varying degrees of weakness, atrophy, and exercise intolerance. In theory, creatine supplementation could have a number of beneficial effects that could enhance function in myopathy patients, including muscle mass, strength and endurance enhancement, lower calcium levels, anti-oxidant effects, ...
Bescós Raúl - - 2011
PURPOSE:: Humans can reduce inorganic nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a single dose of inorganic nitrate before exercise might enhance the tolerance of endurance athletes to high intensity exercise. METHODS:: Eleven ...
Dehnes Yvette - - 2011
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been misused in sports for many years due to its performance-enhancing effect. In the last decade, detection of abuse has been possible with isoelectric focusing (IEF) based on the different isoform profiles of endogenous and recombinant EPO. The release of new EPOs on the market, such as ...
Durand Gerardo - - 2011
PURPOSE:: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 44% of on-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters with a markedly higher event risk during strenuous duties compared to non-emergencies. Sedentary persons are most susceptible to such CVD "event-triggering" due to irregular bouts of vigorous physical activity (PA). Conversely, regular PA and increased levels of ...
Beloka S P - - 2011
β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists are believed to present with ergogenic properties. However, how combined respiratory, cardiovascular and muscular effects of these drugs might affect exercise capacity remain incompletely understood. The effects of salbutamol were investigated in 23 healthy subjects. The study was randomised, placebo-controlled in double-blind and followed a cross-over design. ...
Shimomura Yasuto - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Pirarubicin (tetrahydropyranyl-adriamycin: THP) is a derivative of doxorubicin with reportedly less cardiotoxicity in adults. However no studies of cardiotoxicity in children treated with THP have been reported. This study was performed to assess the THP-induced cardiotoxicity for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study comprised ...
Ely Brett R - - 2011
The use of caffeine supplements in athletic and military populations has increased in recent years. Excessive caffeine consumption in conjunction with exercise in a hot environment may predispose individuals to heat illness. To examine heat balance induced by a large dose of caffeine during exercise in a hot environment. Ten ...
Self David A - - 2011
Skepticism exists about whether normobaric and hypobaric hypoxic exposures are equivalent. We have evaluated if physiological differences between the two environments would translate into actual differences in hypoxia symptoms. We exposed 20 subjects to 5-min 25,000-ft (7620-m) equivalent environments in an altitude chami ber and then in a ground-level portable ...
Bracken R M - - 2011
This study examined the effects of reductions to pre-exercise rapid-acting insulin dose on changes in blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, acid-base balance and counter-regulatory hormone responses to prolonged running in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Following ethical approval, seven participants with Type 1 diabetes (34±2 years, BMI 27±1 kg/m(2) ) completed this ...
Akubat Ibrahim - - 2011
Objectives: The training impulse (TRIMP) quantifies training dose by weighting heart rate according to the relationship between fractional elevation in heart rate (ΔHR) and blood lactate concentration (BLa). This study compared the physiological responses to intermittent and continuous exercise and their influence on TRIMP weightings. Design: Repeated measures crossover. Method: ...
De Lisio Michael - - 2011
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage cellular macromolecules and lead to cellular dysfunction or death. Exercise training induces beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle that may reduce cellular damage from exposure to ROS. To determine the response of exercise-conditioned muscle to acute increases in ROS, four groups of mice ...
De Lisio Michael - - 2011
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage cellular macromolecules and lead to cellular dysfunction or death. Exercise training induces beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle that may reduce cellular damage from exposure to ROS. To determine the response of exercise-conditioned muscle to acute increases in ROS, four groups of mice ...
O'Brien Charles P CP Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2011
The emergence of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) raises the opportunity to explore the role of endorphin blockade on hedonic response during long-term alcohol dependence treatment. A hedonic survey was administered to 74 alcohol dependent patients treated for an average of 3.5 years with nearly continuous month-long intramuscular XR-NTX. The paper-and-pencil, one-time ...
Hofmann Peter - - 2011
There is clear evidence regarding the health benefits of physical activity. These benefits follow a dose-response relationship with a particular respect to exercise intensity. Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription have been established to provide optimal standards for exercise training. A wide range of intensities is used to prescribe exercise, ...
West Daniel J - - 2010
In this study, we examined the glycaemic and fuel oxidation responses to alterations in the timing of a low glycaemic index carbohydrate and 75% reduced insulin dose, prior to running, in type 1 diabetes individuals. After carbohydrate (75 g isomaltulose) and insulin administration, the seven participants rested for 30 min, 60 min, 90 min ...
Anand Ashima - - 2011
In 15 healthy subjects, the effect of 60 mg oral codeine and placebo was examined on intravenously injected lobeline-elicited respiratory reflexes and sensations. Its influence was also studied on ventilation and appearance of distressful respiratory sensations with modest but incremental exercise. After placebo, tachypnoea and respiratory sensations were evoked with ...
Lafortuna C L - - 2011
The purpose of the study was to assess energy expenditure and cardiovascular response to rhythmic activity with 6 machines exercising different arm and leg muscle groups in normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) individuals. In 16 extremely OB subjects and 15 NW controls, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate ...
Reis Joana F - - 2010
The aim of this study was to compare VO2 kinetics during constant power cycle exercise measured using a conventional facemask (CM) or a respiratory snorkel (RS) designed for breath-by-breath analysis in swimming. VO2 kinetics parameters-obtained using CM or RS, in randomized counterbalanced order-were compared in 10 trained triathletes performing two ...
Athanasopoulos Leonidas V - - 2010
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to explain the variance in quality of life (QoL) and activity capacity of patients with congestive heart failure from pathophysiological changes as estimated by laboratory data. METHODS: Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and ventilation (VE)/carbon dioxide output (VCO2) slope derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing, plasma ...
Nordsborg Nikolai Baastrup - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise-induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS: Trained (n = 10) and untrained (n = 8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4 x 4 min at 85% of VO(2peak), interspersed by 3 min). Trained ...
Naraghi M A - - 2010
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used in high doses by athletes to improve athletic ability, physical appearance, and muscle mass. Unfortunately, the abuse of these agents has significantly increased. It has been established that exercise and high doses of AAS may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (H-P-G) axis, which can in turn ...
Burr Jamie F - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of recreational off-road vehicle riding under typical riding conditions using habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders (n = 128). METHODS: Comparisons of the physical demands of off-road vehicle riding were made between vehicle types (all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and off-road ...
Agiovlasitis Stamatis S Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA. - - 2010
To determine whether the oxygen uptake (VO2) during walking at different speeds in people with multiple sclerosis is underestimated by available prediction equations and whether such underestimation relates to the validity of their assumptions. Cross-sectional comparison. Eighteen adults with MS and 18 adults without MS. VO2 was measured at rest ...
Tessmer Kathryn A - - 2010
This study compared differentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) for the chest (RPE-Chest) and legs (RPE-Legs) and undifferentiated ratings (RPE-Overall) between cigarette smokers (n = 10) and nonsmokers (n = 10) during graded, peak cycle exercise. Linear regression analyses expressed RPE-Chest, RPE-Leg, and RPE-Overall as a function of VO2 for ...
Richards Jennifer C - - 2010
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, increases endurance performance in animals and promotes fat oxidation during cycle ergometer exercise in adult humans. We have investigated the hypothesis that short-term consumption of EGCG delays the onset of the ventilatory threshold (VT) and increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In this randomized, ...
Breese Brynmor C - - 2010
This study examined longitudinal changes in the pulmonary oxygen uptake (pVO(2)) kinetic response to heavy-intensity exercise in 14-16 yr old boys. Fourteen healthy boys (age 14.1 +/- 0.2 yr) completed exercise testing on two occasions with a 2-yr interval. Each participant completed a minimum of three 'step' exercise transitions, from ...
Durocher John J - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to compare lactate thresholds (LT) and maximal aerobic capacities (VO(2 max) during sport-specific skating (on ice) and cycle ergometry (off ice) in collegiate hockey players. We hypothesized that VO(2 max) and LT would be higher on ice. We also sought to determine if on-ice ...
Chuang Ming-Lung - - 2010
Maximal incremental exercise testing should be completed within 8-12 minutes. The ramp-slope influences the exercise duration. Oxygen-cost diagram (OCD) is a scoring scale for the capability of daily activity performed and therefore can be used to estimate the ramp-slope. The OCD-algorithm and the reported-algorithm were used prospectively in random order ...
Ross Robert M - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Both Peak Oxygen Uptake (peak VO2), from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the distance walked during a Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWD) are used for following the natural history of various diseases, timing of procedures such as transplantation and for assessing the response to therapeutic interventions. However, their relationship ...
Tarnopolsky Mark A - - 2010
Background/Aims: Caffeine and creatine are 2 of the most widely available and used compounds in sport. Although the use of either is not considered a doping infraction, the evidence does suggest ergogenic potential in certain sports. The purpose of this paper is to review the pharmacology and potential mechanism(s) of ...
Persoon Saskia - - 2010
The use of high-dose chemotherapy combined with autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the outcome of hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, this treatment can cause persistent fatigue and a reduced global quality of life, role and physical function. Physical exercise interventions may be beneficial for physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life. ...
DiMenna Fred J - - 2010
We manipulated the baseline metabolic rate and body position to explore the effect of the interaction between recruitment of discrete sections of the muscle fiber pool and muscle O(2) delivery on pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) kinetics during cycle exercise. We hypothesized that phase II VO(2) kinetics (tau(p)) in the transition ...
Rampinini Ermanno - - 2009
This study investigated the repeated-sprint ability (RSA) physiological responses to a standardized, high-intensity, intermittent running test (HIT), maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) (max)) and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) kinetics in male soccer players (professional (N = 12) and amateur (N = 11)) of different playing standards. The relationships between each of these ...
Stathokostas Liza - - 2009
The lack of estrogen in postmenopausal women not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), compared with those using HRT, may reduce submaximal blood flow during exercise and result in an oxygen delivery limitation constraining oxygen uptake (VO(2) have been changed to V in the abstract, but will appear correctly in the ...
Ritti-Dias Raphael Mendes - - 2009
Walking training is considered as the first treatment option for patients with peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication (IC). Walking exercise has been prescribed for these patients by relative intensity of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ranging from 40% to 70% VO2peak, or pain threshold (PT). However, the relationship between these ...
Chin Clifford - - 2010
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the "gold standard" by which to assess functional capacity; however, it is effort dependent. VO2@RER1.0 is defined when VO2 = VCO2. Between December 22, 1997 and November 9, 2004, 305 pediatric subjects underwent cycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise testing, exercised to exhaustion, and reached a peak ...
J?rgensen Arve - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Most knowledge about cellular and molecular adaptation in the heart after exercise training comes from rodent models, and this has substantially improved our knowledge about exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. However, in rodents, the electrophysiological properties of the heart are different from the human heart. Therefore, the need of exercise-training models ...
Chen June-Kai - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) for cycle ergometry and body composition in untrained healthy young men. Fifty-six men underwent body composition measurements and ramp work rate tests at 60 revolutions/minute on a cycle ergometer. Cell mass (CM), fat mass (FM), lean ...
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