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Results 251 - 300 of 927
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Hunt K J - - 2007
Complete lower-limb paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury precludes volitional leg exercise, leading to muscle atrophy and physiological de-conditioning. Cycling can be achieved using phased stimulation of the leg muscles. With training there are positive physiological adaptations and health improvement. Prior to training, however, power output may not be sufficient ...
Robertson Robert J - - 2007
Direct kinematic observation was used to measure ratings of perceived exertion at the ventilatory breakpoint (RPE-Vpt) in 10- to 14-yr.-old girls (n=22) and boys (n=22). RPE for the overall body, legs, and chest were simultaneously estimated by a trained observer and self-rated by a subject during treadmill exercise using the ...
Matsumoto K - - 2007
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a single oral intake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) with Arg on skeletal muscle protein metabolism during moderate exercise in young individuals. Eight healthy volunteers (4 males and 4 females, means +/- SEM, 26 +/- 1 yrs, 177.8 +/- 3.7 cm, 72.6 ...
Yasuda N - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine economy and mechanical efficiency in men and women during both arm cranking (AC) and leg cycling (LC) at 70%, 85%, 100%, and 115% of mode-specific ventilatory threshold (T(vent)). Recreationally active men (n=9) and women (n=9) with similar values for %VO2peak at T(vent) ...
Jones Andrew M - - 2007
We hypothesized that a period of endurance training would result in a speeding of muscle phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) kinetics over the fundamental phase of the response and a reduction in the amplitude of the [PCr] slow component during high-intensity exercise. Six male subjects (age 26 +/- 5 yr) completed 5 ...
van der Harst J J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that the ...
Shoemaker J K - - 2007
The mechanism of the pressor response to small muscle mass (e.g., forearm) exercise and during metaboreflex activation may include elevations in cardiac output (Q) or total peripheral resistance (TPR). Increases in Q must be supported by reductions in visceral venous volume to sustain venous return as heart rate (HR) increases. ...
Ballaz Laurent - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the acute femoral artery hemodynamic response in paraplegic subjects during a passive leg cycle exercise. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Department of physical medicine and rehabilitation in a university in France. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of 15 people with traumatic spinal cord injury. INTERVENTION: Subjects performed a 10-minute ...
Davies Tom S - - 2007
The effects of exercise on the distensibility of large and medium-sized arteries are poorly understood, but can be attributed to a combination of local vasodilator effects of exercise opposed by sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone. We sought to examine this relationship at the conduit artery level, with particular reference to the role ...
Ichinose Masashi - - 2007
Continuous measurement of leg blood flow (LBF) using Doppler ultrasound with simultaneous noninvasive mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) measurement permits beat-to-beat estimates of leg vascular resistance (LVR) in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the beat-to-beat fluctuations in LVR and the dynamic relationship between MAP and LVR are modulated by ...
Mortensen Stefan P - - 2007
Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with ...
Hobara Hiroaki - - 2007
While the spring-like leg behavior of legs in mammalian locomotion has been well documented, its neural basis remains ambiguous. The purpose of the present study was to examine leg stiffness control during hopping. Seven male subjects performed in place two-legged hopping at their preferred frequency with two different contact times ...
Carrier David R - - 2007
Early hominins, australopiths, were similar to most large primates in having relatively short hindlimbs for their body size. The short legs of large primates are thought to represent specialization for vertical climbing and quadrupedal stability on branches. Although this may be true, there are reasons to suspect that the evolution ...
Leicht Anthony S - - 2007
This study examined the effect of shoulder angle and gender on physiological and perceptual responses during incremental peak arm ergometry. Healthy adults (nine males, seven females) volunteered for the study and completed an incremental arm ergometry test on two separate occasions at two different shoulder angles (90 degrees and 45 ...
Castagna O - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy demands of sailing the new Neilpryde RS:X Olympic windsurf board. Ten skilled male subjects performed an exhaustive incremental treadmill test to determine their maximal physiological parameters. Thereafter, four tests were performed in a randomised order using two wind conditions, light ...
Allen Trevor J - - 2007
In a forearm position-matching task in the horizontal plane, when one (reference) arm is conditioned by contraction and length changes, subjects make systematic errors in the placement of their other, indicator arm. Here we describe experiments that demonstrate the importance not just of conditioning the reference arm, but of the ...
Spagna J C - - 2007
Terrestrial arthropods negotiate demanding terrain more effectively than any search-and-rescue robot. Slow, precise stepping using distributed neural feedback is one strategy for dealing with challenging terrain. Alternatively, arthropods could simplify control on demanding surfaces by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds. We demonstrate that this ...
Nyquist-Battie Cynthia - - 2007
PURPOSE: Aerobic exercise training (ExTR), predominantly performed with lower extremities, has been used to reverse heart failure (HF)-related exercise intolerance. The present study determined the safety and efficacy of upper-extremity exercise in HF subjects because daily activities are performed using both upper and lower extremities and there is little cross-training ...
Miyawaki Kazuto - - 2007
As per present social needs, assisting machines are very much needed for persons of advanced age. We analyzed and developed a fitness apparatus suitable for meeting the requirement of elderly people. The proposed apparatus consists of a rowing machine and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), that can be used to exercise ...
Legrand Renaud - - 2007
PURPOSE: We investigated the potential effect of respiratory muscle work on leg muscle oxygenation without artificial intervention in non-endurance-trained young subjects and searched for the range of intensity when this effect could occur. METHODS: We simultaneously monitored accessory respiratory and leg muscle oxygenation patterns with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 15 ...
Chang Mark - - 2007
Multiple-arm dose-response superiority trials are widely studied for continuous and binary endpoints, while non-inferiority designs have been studied recently in two-arm trials. In this paper, a unified asymptotic formulation of a sample size calculation for k-arm (k>0) trials with different endpoints (continuous, binary and survival endpoints) is derived for both ...
Shimizu Yoshiomi - - 2007
We report a patient who developed lacunar syndrome due to left upper pons infarction after performing leg exercises associated with paradoxical brain embolism. A 32-year-old man developed right arm weakness and moderate dysarthria following leg exercise. Brain MRI showed a paramedian pontine infarction of the left upper pons, and contrast ...
Mier Constance M - - 2006
We measured the effects of stride rate, resistance, and combined arm-leg use on energy expenditure during elliptical trainer exercise and assessed the accuracy of the manufacturer's energy expenditure calculations. Twenty-six men and women (M age = 29 years, SD = 8; M body weight = 73. 0 kg, SD = ...
Goodman Jack M - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to characterize left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling and systolic performance during graded arm exercise and to examine the effects of lower body positive pressure (LBPP) or concomitant leg exercise as means to enhance LV preload in aerobically trained individuals. Subjects were eight men with ...
Schilling Malte - - 2007
The control of the legs of a walking hexapod is a complex problem as the legs have three joints each, resulting in a total of 18 degrees of freedom. We addressed this problem using a decentralized architecture termed Walknet, which consists of peripheral pattern generators being coordinated through influences acting ...
Wray D Walter - - 2007
The impact of exercise training on sympathetic activation is not well understood, especially across untrained and trained limbs in athletes. Therefore, in eight sedentary subjects (maximal oxygen consumption = 40 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and eight competitive cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption = 64 +/- 2 ml x ...
Kalouche Hassan - - 2006
We report eight individuals with localized lipoatrophy of the lateral lower leg that were seen by a single dermatologist in a 1-year period. All were asymptomatic and half had mild epidermal changes consistent with lichenification. Seven were an incidental finding during a general skin examination. All had a long-standing history ...
McKay William P S - - 2006
Mechanomyography has shown that "resting" muscle is mechanically active, with greater activity after vigorous exercise. This experiment studied the post-exercise resting mechanomyography activity that results from different levels of exercise; the effects of exercise levels on the contralateral non-exercised limb; and the effects of resting muscle length on post-exercise resting ...
Wray David Walter - - 2006
Unlike quadrupeds, human limbs are exposed to differing homeostatic challenges and uses, which results in significant functional heterogeneity between the arms and legs. In these ACSM symposium proceedings, we report findings from three studies with the overall aim of investigating between-limb vascular differences through evaluation of arm (brachial artery) and ...
Teramoto Masaru - - 2006
The study investigated the effects of low-intensity exercise on muscular fitness when combined with vascular occlusion. Nineteen college male and female students performed two sets of a 5-min step exercise using a 12-inch bench three times per week for 5 weeks. During the step exercise, blood flow to one leg ...
Richardson Russell S - - 2006
Unlike quadrupeds, human limbs are exposed to differing homeostatic challenges and uses. The arms are not exposed to a large hydrostatic pressure and contain a relatively small muscle mass that is not typically engaged in heavy work. In contrast, the legs have a large blood volume, experience significant hydrostatic pressures, ...
Secher Niels H - - 2006
Oxygen transport to working skeletal muscles is challenged during whole-body exercise. In general, arm-cranking exercise elicits a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) corresponding to approximately 70% of the value reached during leg exercise. However, in arm-trained subjects such as rowers, cross-country skiers, and swimmers, the arm VO2max approaches or surpasses the ...
Stallknecht Bente - - 2007
Aerobic exercise increases whole body adipose tissue lipolysis, but is lipolysis higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) adjacent to contracting muscles than in SCAT adjacent to resting muscles? Ten healthy, overnight-fasted males performed one-legged knee extension exercise at 25% of maximal workload (W(max)) for 30 min followed by exercise at ...
Jeffreys R M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis that, after 28 weeks of gestation, uterine blood flow during supine rest and supine exercise is no different than uterine blood flow at left-lateral rest. DESIGN: In vivo experimental study in pregnant women. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. POPULATION: ...
Wilkinson Sarah B - - 2006
We aimed to gain insight into the role that the transitory increases in anabolic hormones play in muscle hypertrophy with unilateral resistance training. Ten healthy young male subjects (21.8 +/- 0.4 years, 1.78 +/- 0.04 m, 75.6 +/- 2.9 kg; mean +/- SE) engaged in unilateral resistance training for 8 ...
Rehn B - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on leg muscular performance from whole-body vibration exercise. Literature search was performed on the databases Pubmed, Cinahl, ISI web of science (Sci-expanded, SSCI) and Embase (Rehab & Physical Med). Rating of 19 relevant studies was performed (14 on long-term exercise ...
Heffernan Kevin S - - 2006
To examine the effects of lower-limb unilateral resistance exercise on central and peripheral arterial stiffness, thirteen participants (7 male and 6 female, mean age = 21.5 +/- 0.7 years) performed leg press exercise using their dominant leg. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used to measure central (carotid to femoral) and ...
Marshall Paul - - 2006
The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of prime mover and abdominal muscles while performing squats, push ups, and double leg lowering with a swiss ball. Twelve healthy subjects performed the movements. There was no difference between the surface conditions for muscle activity during ...
Hofstad Cheriel J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if and to what extent patients with a transtibial amputation are less successful in avoiding unexpected obstacles while walking than healthy adults. DESIGN: Experimental 2-group design. SETTING: Dutch rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven patients with a transtibial amputation and 14 healthy controls. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
Gutiérrez-Dávilla Marcos - - 2006
Pre-tensed and conventional starts that exert, respectively, large and small forces against the starting blocks in the "set" position (0.186 vs. 0.113 N per newton of body weight) were analyzed. The starts were videotaped, and the horizontal forces exerted on feet and hands were obtained from separate force plates. In ...
Stevens Veerle K - - 2007
Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity ...
Duncan Michael J - - 2006
This study examined the relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and muscle activity during dynamic leg extension exercise using a resistance exercise specific OMNI-RPE scale. Twenty volunteers (10 males, 10 females, age 22.2 +/- 3.1 yr) performed one set of leg extension exercise at 30%, 60%, and 90% of their ...
Tuimala Jarno - - 2006
A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be ...
Mulder E R - - 2006
Changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle with respect to anatomical cross sectional area (CSA), neural activation level and muscle strength were determined in 18 healthy men subjected to 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest (BR) with (n = 9) and without (n = 9) resistive vibration exercise (RVE). CSA of ...
Rowland Thomas - - 2006
Ventricular functional changes and mechanisms of the cardiovascular responses during static exercise have not been well delineated in children. In this study, Doppler echocardiographic techniques were utilized to assess cardiovascular adaptations to bilateral isometric leg extension at 30% maximal voluntary contraction for three minutes in a group of 14 healthy ...
Lyons Scott - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following a continuous 30 min bout of upper-body exercise (UBE) compared with 3 consecutive 10 min bouts of UBE. Ten male subjects (age (mean +/- standard deviation), 25.7 +/- 5.83 years; arm VO(2) (peak), 2.2 +/- 0.25 ...
Ben-Dov Issahar - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty arises when physiological findings indicate a cardiovascular limitation but the limiting constituents within the cardiovascular system cannot be identified. OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of this study to investigate the value of two-modality exercise testing to assess effort intolerance when the cause remains obscure despite standard exercise testing. ...
Ain Michael C - - 2006
The etiology of genu varum in achondroplasia is the subject of much speculation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between fibular overgrowth and genu varum in achondroplasia. A retrospective analysis was performed on the long-leg radiographs of 48 pediatric patients with achondroplasia. All patients were ...
Herring Kirk M - - 2006
Shin splints, an exercise-induced form of lower leg pain, is a common complaint among athletes. Considered an overuse injury that compromises the dense and tough fascial attachments of the tibialis posterior and/or tibialis anterior muscles from the tibia, it responds well to a multiphase treatment plan that incorporates plyometric strengthening ...
Leikis Murray J - - 2006
Physical function is limited in patients with kidney disease, although previous studies have been confounded by anemia. What is not clear is how physical performance changes over time as renal function deteriorates. A cohort of 12 patients (10 male, two female; mean +/- SD age 49 +/- 11 yr) who ...
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