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Results 251 - 300 of 907
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Chang Mark - - 2007
Multiple-arm dose-response superiority trials are widely studied for continuous and binary endpoints, while non-inferiority designs have been studied recently in two-arm trials. In this paper, a unified asymptotic formulation of a sample size calculation for k-arm (k>0) trials with different endpoints (continuous, binary and survival endpoints) is derived for both ...
Shimizu Yoshiomi - - 2007
We report a patient who developed lacunar syndrome due to left upper pons infarction after performing leg exercises associated with paradoxical brain embolism. A 32-year-old man developed right arm weakness and moderate dysarthria following leg exercise. Brain MRI showed a paramedian pontine infarction of the left upper pons, and contrast ...
Mier Constance M - - 2006
We measured the effects of stride rate, resistance, and combined arm-leg use on energy expenditure during elliptical trainer exercise and assessed the accuracy of the manufacturer's energy expenditure calculations. Twenty-six men and women (M age = 29 years, SD = 8; M body weight = 73. 0 kg, SD = ...
Goodman Jack M - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to characterize left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling and systolic performance during graded arm exercise and to examine the effects of lower body positive pressure (LBPP) or concomitant leg exercise as means to enhance LV preload in aerobically trained individuals. Subjects were eight men with ...
Schilling Malte - - 2007
The control of the legs of a walking hexapod is a complex problem as the legs have three joints each, resulting in a total of 18 degrees of freedom. We addressed this problem using a decentralized architecture termed Walknet, which consists of peripheral pattern generators being coordinated through influences acting ...
Wray D Walter - - 2007
The impact of exercise training on sympathetic activation is not well understood, especially across untrained and trained limbs in athletes. Therefore, in eight sedentary subjects (maximal oxygen consumption = 40 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and eight competitive cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption = 64 +/- 2 ml x ...
Kalouche Hassan - - 2006
We report eight individuals with localized lipoatrophy of the lateral lower leg that were seen by a single dermatologist in a 1-year period. All were asymptomatic and half had mild epidermal changes consistent with lichenification. Seven were an incidental finding during a general skin examination. All had a long-standing history ...
McKay William P S - - 2006
Mechanomyography has shown that "resting" muscle is mechanically active, with greater activity after vigorous exercise. This experiment studied the post-exercise resting mechanomyography activity that results from different levels of exercise; the effects of exercise levels on the contralateral non-exercised limb; and the effects of resting muscle length on post-exercise resting ...
Wray David Walter - - 2006
Unlike quadrupeds, human limbs are exposed to differing homeostatic challenges and uses, which results in significant functional heterogeneity between the arms and legs. In these ACSM symposium proceedings, we report findings from three studies with the overall aim of investigating between-limb vascular differences through evaluation of arm (brachial artery) and ...
Teramoto Masaru - - 2006
The study investigated the effects of low-intensity exercise on muscular fitness when combined with vascular occlusion. Nineteen college male and female students performed two sets of a 5-min step exercise using a 12-inch bench three times per week for 5 weeks. During the step exercise, blood flow to one leg ...
Richardson Russell S - - 2006
Unlike quadrupeds, human limbs are exposed to differing homeostatic challenges and uses. The arms are not exposed to a large hydrostatic pressure and contain a relatively small muscle mass that is not typically engaged in heavy work. In contrast, the legs have a large blood volume, experience significant hydrostatic pressures, ...
Secher Niels H - - 2006
Oxygen transport to working skeletal muscles is challenged during whole-body exercise. In general, arm-cranking exercise elicits a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) corresponding to approximately 70% of the value reached during leg exercise. However, in arm-trained subjects such as rowers, cross-country skiers, and swimmers, the arm VO2max approaches or surpasses the ...
Stallknecht Bente - - 2007
Aerobic exercise increases whole body adipose tissue lipolysis, but is lipolysis higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) adjacent to contracting muscles than in SCAT adjacent to resting muscles? Ten healthy, overnight-fasted males performed one-legged knee extension exercise at 25% of maximal workload (W(max)) for 30 min followed by exercise at ...
Jeffreys R M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis that, after 28 weeks of gestation, uterine blood flow during supine rest and supine exercise is no different than uterine blood flow at left-lateral rest. DESIGN: In vivo experimental study in pregnant women. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. POPULATION: ...
Wilkinson Sarah B - - 2006
We aimed to gain insight into the role that the transitory increases in anabolic hormones play in muscle hypertrophy with unilateral resistance training. Ten healthy young male subjects (21.8 +/- 0.4 years, 1.78 +/- 0.04 m, 75.6 +/- 2.9 kg; mean +/- SE) engaged in unilateral resistance training for 8 ...
Rehn B - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on leg muscular performance from whole-body vibration exercise. Literature search was performed on the databases Pubmed, Cinahl, ISI web of science (Sci-expanded, SSCI) and Embase (Rehab & Physical Med). Rating of 19 relevant studies was performed (14 on long-term exercise ...
Heffernan Kevin S - - 2006
To examine the effects of lower-limb unilateral resistance exercise on central and peripheral arterial stiffness, thirteen participants (7 male and 6 female, mean age = 21.5 +/- 0.7 years) performed leg press exercise using their dominant leg. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used to measure central (carotid to femoral) and ...
Marshall Paul - - 2006
The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of prime mover and abdominal muscles while performing squats, push ups, and double leg lowering with a swiss ball. Twelve healthy subjects performed the movements. There was no difference between the surface conditions for muscle activity during ...
Hofstad Cheriel J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if and to what extent patients with a transtibial amputation are less successful in avoiding unexpected obstacles while walking than healthy adults. DESIGN: Experimental 2-group design. SETTING: Dutch rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven patients with a transtibial amputation and 14 healthy controls. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
Gutiérrez-Dávilla Marcos - - 2006
Pre-tensed and conventional starts that exert, respectively, large and small forces against the starting blocks in the "set" position (0.186 vs. 0.113 N per newton of body weight) were analyzed. The starts were videotaped, and the horizontal forces exerted on feet and hands were obtained from separate force plates. In ...
Stevens Veerle K - - 2007
Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity ...
Duncan Michael J - - 2006
This study examined the relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and muscle activity during dynamic leg extension exercise using a resistance exercise specific OMNI-RPE scale. Twenty volunteers (10 males, 10 females, age 22.2 +/- 3.1 yr) performed one set of leg extension exercise at 30%, 60%, and 90% of their ...
Tuimala Jarno - - 2006
A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be ...
Mulder E R - - 2006
Changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle with respect to anatomical cross sectional area (CSA), neural activation level and muscle strength were determined in 18 healthy men subjected to 8 weeks of horizontal bed rest (BR) with (n = 9) and without (n = 9) resistive vibration exercise (RVE). CSA of ...
Rowland Thomas - - 2006
Ventricular functional changes and mechanisms of the cardiovascular responses during static exercise have not been well delineated in children. In this study, Doppler echocardiographic techniques were utilized to assess cardiovascular adaptations to bilateral isometric leg extension at 30% maximal voluntary contraction for three minutes in a group of 14 healthy ...
Lyons Scott - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following a continuous 30 min bout of upper-body exercise (UBE) compared with 3 consecutive 10 min bouts of UBE. Ten male subjects (age (mean +/- standard deviation), 25.7 +/- 5.83 years; arm VO(2) (peak), 2.2 +/- 0.25 ...
Ben-Dov Issahar - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty arises when physiological findings indicate a cardiovascular limitation but the limiting constituents within the cardiovascular system cannot be identified. OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of this study to investigate the value of two-modality exercise testing to assess effort intolerance when the cause remains obscure despite standard exercise testing. ...
Ain Michael C - - 2006
The etiology of genu varum in achondroplasia is the subject of much speculation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between fibular overgrowth and genu varum in achondroplasia. A retrospective analysis was performed on the long-leg radiographs of 48 pediatric patients with achondroplasia. All patients were ...
Herring Kirk M - - 2006
Shin splints, an exercise-induced form of lower leg pain, is a common complaint among athletes. Considered an overuse injury that compromises the dense and tough fascial attachments of the tibialis posterior and/or tibialis anterior muscles from the tibia, it responds well to a multiphase treatment plan that incorporates plyometric strengthening ...
Leikis Murray J - - 2006
Physical function is limited in patients with kidney disease, although previous studies have been confounded by anemia. What is not clear is how physical performance changes over time as renal function deteriorates. A cohort of 12 patients (10 male, two female; mean +/- SD age 49 +/- 11 yr) who ...
Sporer Ben C - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of entrainment of breathing (ENT) between cyclists (C; n=8) and non-cyclists (NC; n=8) during leg cycling (LC) and arm cycling (AC). No subjects were training regularly in upper body endurance exercise. Day 1 consisted of spirometry and a VO2max test ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2006
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the effect of changes in central blood volume on carotid-vasomotor baroreflex sensitivity at rest was the same during exercise. Eight men (means +/- SE: age 26 +/- 1 yr; height 180 +/- 3 cm; weight 86 +/- 6 kg) participated in ...
Bateman Philip W - - 2006
Both male and female field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) autotomize front (tympanal) limbs more slowly than hind limbs. Arguably, this pattern could reflect possible differences in the mechanism of limb autotomy. However, we demonstrate that, for females, limb autotomy is also dependent on their mating status: virgin females autotomize front legs ...
Calbet J A L - - 2006
During maximal whole body exercise VO2 peak is limited by O2 delivery. In turn, it is though that blood flow at near-maximal exercise must be restrained by the sympathetic nervous system to maintain mean arterial pressure. To determine whether enhancing vasodilation across the leg results in higher O2 delivery and ...
Liang Huey-Wen - - 2006
"Effort" axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome) is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of ...
Dolmage Thomas E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: In patients with COPD, exercise intensity is often limited by the ventilatory system. We hypothesized that by exercising with a smaller muscle mass, ventilatory-limited patients would perform more high-intensity, muscle-specific work. The study objectives were as follows: (1) to determine the limitations of exercising with a smaller muscle mass, ...
Nygren Anders T - - 2006
PURPOSE: To detect skeletal muscle ischemia with transverse relaxometry after ischemic exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten subjects with intermittent claudication were studied. T2 was measured in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles (m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus) at rest and repeatedly after exercise during 45 minutes of recovery. Prior to MRI ...
Helge Joern W - - 2006
This study investigates the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on insulin sensitivity and the limb muscle adaptive response. Seven male subjects (weight, 90.2 +/- 3.2 kg; age, 35 +/- 3 years) completed a 32-day unsupported crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies pulling sleighs. The subjects were studied ...
Vogiatzis Ioannis - - 2006
Diaphragmatic fatigue occurs in highly trained athletes during exhaustive exercise. Since approximately half of them also exhibit exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) during high-intensity exercise, the present study sought to test the hypothesis that arterial hypoxaemia contributes to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in this population. Ten cyclists ( : 70.0 +/- 1.6 ...
Lane Kirstin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the acute effects of exercise on the lymphatic system. Thus, the purpose was to determine the effect of low versus high intensity upper body exercise on lymphatic function in healthy females. METHODS AND RESULTS: On separate days, eight females performed either HI: 12 repeated sets ...
Tanaka Hirofumi - - 2006
PURPOSE: Regular exercise augments endothelium-dependent vasodilatory capacity in the vasculature located in the nonworking limbs. We determined whether blood flow as well as shear stress would change in inactive limbs during acute incremental exercise. METHODS: Eight young healthy female subjects performed graded exercise on arm and leg cycle ergometers that ...
Kibisa Raimundas - - 2006
The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of the passive foot flexion on peripheral and systemic blood circulations in the state of rest of persons adapted to endurance physical loads, and on patients during surgery. METHODS: In the first series of experiments which included 16 males in ...
Kennedy Michael D - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to assess muscle oxygenation (MO) within skeletal muscle at rest and during aerobic exercise. Previous investigations have used a single probe placement to measure MO during various forms of exercise. However, regional MO differences have been shown to exist within the same muscle ...
Kimura Iris F - - 2006
CONTEXT: Slideboard exercise is consistent with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for exercise intensity of 55% to 90% of maximal heart rate or 40% to 85% of maximal oxygen uptake. OBJECTIVE: To determine if slideboard exercise while in a leg harness increases the metabolic and cardiorespiratory demands. DESIGN: ...
Walsh L D - - 2006
This is a study of the ability of blindfolded human subjects to match the position of their forearms before and after eccentric exercise. The hypothesis tested was that the sense of effort contributed to forearm position sense. The fall in force after the exercise was predicted to alter the relationship ...
Ubbink D T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reproducibility and clinical applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in patients with leg ischaemia. DESIGN: Prospective comparative diagnostic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routinely measured peripheral blood pressure and microcirculatory parameters were compared with tissue oxygen saturation (TsO(2)) measurements using a new NIRS device on the calf muscle ...
Schalow G - - 2005
A special movement therapy, called coordination dynamics therapy, has been reported to have the potential to improve central nervous system (CNS) functioning in Parkinson's disease patients. Electromyography using surface electrodes (sEMG) showed that the rhythmic muscle activity leading to Parkinsonian tremor was generated in the patients by the impairment of ...
Saito T - - 2005
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate venous function in patients with leg lymphedema during exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), compared with that of patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). METHODS: Forty-three legs of 33 patients (5 males, 28 females; mean age: 53 years) with leg lymphedema without ...
Johansson K - - 2005
Clinical trials of the effect of physical exercise on breast cancer related arm lymphedema (ALE) are very rare. The aim of this study was to examine if controlled low intensity arm exercises with weights, with or without a compression sleeve, influence breast cancer related ALE. Thirty-one breast cancer treated patients ...
Schiffer Thorsten - - 2005
This study tested the hypothesis that in humans mild leg exercise affects haemostasis in normobaric hypoxia and thus avoids the development of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Eight young men breathed in a 15.4% oxygen in nitrogen gas mixture for 2 hrs while seated at rest (R) or seated and ...
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