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Celli B R - - 1994
There has been a revival of interest in the interaction between arm exercise and ventilation. Although arm ergometry continues to be the gold standard for the testing and training of upper extremities, an increasingly larger body of evidence indicates a more important role for the testing and training of upper ...
Kjaer M - - 1994
Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced dynamic exercise were investigated in eight healthy young males with afferent neural influence from the legs blocked by epidural anaesthesia (25 ml 2% lidocaine) at L3-L4. This caused cutaneous sensory anaesthesia below T8-T9 and complete paralysis of the legs. Cycling was performed for ...
Mertesdorf F L - - 1994
A study was performed to explore possible psychological benefits of additional arm work during cycle exercising. For this, the subjective and physiological responses of 12 healthy young males were studied during arm and leg exercise on a cycle ergometer with movable arm levers (at 2 distances of the handgrips from ...
Mertesdorf F L - - 1994
Different forms of exercise with a cycle ergometer in time with music were studied in comparison: exercise in time with a rhythm or with music at constant and movement-controlled music tempos, with simultaneous arm and leg work, and with leg work alone. For this pilot study an exercise cycle with ...
Murthy G - - 1994
Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped ...
Pandit J J - - 1994
1. The acute ventilatory response to a brief period of hypoxia (AHVR) was measured in six subjects (a) at rest, (b) during electrically induced leg exercise (EEL), (c) during voluntary leg exercise at an external work rate matched to electrical exercise (EV1) and (d) during voluntary leg exercise at an ...
McCully K K - - 1994
This study noninvasively measured hemoglobin oxygen saturation in young (n = 6, 28 +/- 6 yrs), old healthy (n = 20, 68 +/- 7 yrs), and old subjects with mild peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (n = 8, 72 +/- 4 yrs). Hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured as the difference in ...
Louisy F - - 1994
The mechanisms underlying increased venous distensibility during exposure to microgravity are not well known yet. However, there seems to be evidence indicating that skeletal muscle changes resulting from exposure to microgravity play a very important role. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that leg muscles could ...
Watenpaugh D E - - 1994
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of 100 mm Hg generates a footward force approximating one body weight for most subjects, yet LBNP may also produce syncope by pooling blood in the lower body. We hypothesized that dynamic leg exercise would improve LBNP tolerance by reducing lower body fluid accumulation. Seven ...
Wolpaw J R - - 1994
This study sought to determine whether operantly conditioned change in the primate triceps surae (TS) H-reflex develops in distinct phases. Data from 20 animals in which the TS H-reflex in one leg was trained up (i.e., HRup mode) and 18 in which it was trained down (i.e., HRdown mode) were ...
Glaser R M - - 1994
The results of numerous research studies indicate that functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS)-induced exercise training of the paralyzed lower-limbs of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients can result in several important health and fitness benefits that cannot be achieved solely through conventional arm exercise modes. These benefits include peripheral adaptations where muscle ...
Keteyian S J - - 1994
We examined whether an increase in stroke volume (SV) contributes to the increase in cardiac output that occurs when cardiac transplant patients (CT) exercise between 50% and 75% of maximum. Upright arm and leg exercise was performed by 13 CT and 10 normal controls. Cardiac output (CO2 rebreathing), expired air, ...
Magnusson G - - 1994
Eight healthy and regularly physically active men, 44-69 years old, performed one- and two-legged dynamic knee extension exercise at increasing work intensities, including one leading to exhaustion. Leg blood flow increased linearly in relation to work rate, reaching a peak value of 5.1 +/- 0.4 l min-1. With a mean ...
Baron R - - 1994
The goal of this study was to investigate with the new dynamo ergometer the forces produced within a defined range of motion at a constant velocity during concentric translatoric work as well as to investigate fatigue based on neuromuscular and metabolic parameters. We examined 11 male sports students with the ...
Sundberg C J - - 1994
The influence of graded leg muscle ischaemia on the adaptation to training and on the acute response to exercise was studied in healthy subjects. Graded ischaemia during supine exercise was induced by application of 50 mmHg external pressure on the legs. This procedure reduced leg blood flow by 16%, venous ...
Keteyian S - - 1994
This investigation compares the cardiovascular responses of normal (n = 10) and cardiac transplant (n = 14) subjects to peak arm and leg exercise. It also tests the hypothesis that the higher heart rate (fc) in normal subjects during light (30 W) submaximal arm versus leg exercise is due to ...
Kagaya A - - 1994
The calf and forearm blood flows (Qcalf and Qforearm respectively), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake of six men and women were studied during combined leg and handgrip exercise to determine whether a reduction of exercise-induced hyperaemia would occur in the active leg when exhausting rhythmic handgrip exercise at ...
Ellis S - - 1993
Muscle thickness was measured in 19 bed-rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer) and isokinetic (IKE, torque ergometer) lower extremity exercise training, and no exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh--rectus femoris (RF) and vastus intermedius (VI), and combined posterior leg--soleus, flexor ...
Hopman M T - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to examine the inability of paraplegic (P) subjects to redistribute fluid below the spinal cord lesion during arm exercise, with emphasis on the role of the sympathetic system in this redistribution failure. Fifteen male P and 15 male able-bodied [control (C)] subjects performed arm ...
Strange S - - 1993
1. Nine subjects performed dynamic knee extension by voluntary muscle contractions and by evoked contractions with and without epidural anaesthesia. Four exercise bouts of 10 min each were performed: three of one-legged knee extension (10, 20 and 30 W) and one of two-legged knee extension at 2 x 20 W. ...
Dolmage T E - - 1993
Although arm activity is poorly tolerated by patients with COPD, the ventilatory response to arm elevation alone is not well understood. We therefore studied the ventilatory response to arm elevation using a customized arm support sling to eliminate the effect of an increase in metabolic activity that might be attributable ...
Hopman M T - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower body positive pressure (LBPP) could improve maximal performance in paraplegic subjects (P). LBPP may diminish venous blood pooling (VBP) below the lesion and, therefore, support the redistribution of blood during exercise. Twelve male P subjects with complete spinal cord-lesions between ...
Takano N - - 1993
1. Involvement of neural stimuli, central and/or peripheral in origin, in exercise ventilatory control was ascertained by examining the ventilatory responses to varying mechanical conditions of arm and leg cycle ergometries. Twelve untrained women underwent each of two modes of exercise at three levels of loading (0, 5 and 10 ...
Saito M - - 1993
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle and oxygen uptake during dynamic exercise. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded from the right median nerve microneurographically in eight healthy volunteers during leg cycling at four different intensities in a seated position ...
Zehr E P - - 1993
To evaluate the efficacy of Seisan kata as an aerobic power training mode, four male (28.5 +/- 4.2 y) Chito-Ryu karate black belt practitioners did kata continuously for 10 min. In separate sessions the kata (formal, organized movement sequences) were done at rates of 1 (PACE) and 2 (FAST) kata ...
Esbjörnsson M - - 1993
Eight healthy men performed supine one-legged training on a bicycle ergometer 45 min per leg four times per week for 4 week. The ergometer and lower body were inside a pressure chamber, the opening of which was sealed at the level of the crotch. One leg trained with impeded leg ...
Ray C A - - 1993
Recent studies have shown a lack of an increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during leg exercise. Experiments using isometric knee extension (IKE) have shown a biphasic response in MSNA with a decrease during the 1st min and a return of MSNA to control levels during the 2nd min ...
Sundberg C J - - 1993
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ischaemic and non-ischaemic training on aerobic performance. In 10 subjects, peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and time to fatigue (TTF) for one-legged exercise were measured before and after 4 weeks (4 times week-1) of one-legged training. Each training session ...
Balady G J - - 1993
Exercise training for patients with heart disease is no longer limited to a monotonous single-activity routine. Training regimens can and should employ a wide variety of activities that involve the arms and legs and both dynamic and static effort (Table 3). Because the physiologic and, hence, ischemic responses to each ...
Mandarim-de-Lacerda C A - - 1993
The growth of the body was studied in 30 human fetuses ranged from 10 to 22 weeks of gestation. The fetuses were fixed by immersion in 4 percent formaldehyde and the following dimensions were studied: a) lengths: arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot and crown-rump (sitting height), b) perimeters: head, ...
Stanko R T - - 1993
The mixture of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate (DHAP) is an ergogenic aid that enhances muscle glucose extraction during prolonged aerobic exercise. In order to evaluate the effect of DHAP on muscle amino acid extraction during exercise, we measured arterial concentration and muscle exchange of amino acids in 18 untrained healthy male ...
Mouchnino L - - 1993
Naive subjects and dancers were instructed to raise a leg laterally toward 45 degrees. The final position reached by the leg by each group of subjects was quite different: 48 degrees in dancers, i.e. close to the required value, and 56 degrees in the naive subjects. The reason for this ...
Wilson J R - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Exertional fatigue in patients with chronic heart failure is usually attributed to skeletal muscle underperfusion. Recently, skeletal muscle atrophy, abnormal muscle metabolic responses, and reduced muscle enzyme levels have been noted in such patients, raising the possibility that some patients may develop muscle fatigue due to intrinsic muscle abnormalities. ...
Ray C A - - 1993
Previous studies examining muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during dynamic exercise have focused on upper extremity exercise. The present study was undertaken to investigate 1) MSNA responses to dynamic one-legged knee extensions (DLE) and 2) the role of the cardiopulmonary baroreflexes in the modulation of MSNA responses to DLE. MSNA ...
Ueda T - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to identify, using multiple regression analysis, the contribution of differentiated ratings of perceived exertion to overall exertion (RPEO) in women while swimming. Ten female subjects swam at submaximal and maximal intensities and the variables measured included oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (fc), ventilation (VE), ...
Haskell W L - - 1993
None of the various methods used to measure habitual physical activity over days, weeks, or years in the general population have yet proven entirely satisfactory. A major problem is that no "gold standard" exists for the validation of various questionnaires, logs, or diaries that can be used in large sample ...
Piering A W - - 1993
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects ...
Ju B G - - 1993
The morphological and biochemical data obtained in this series of experiments clearly confirm the previous finding about the relationship between the stage of limb regeneration and the effects of RA on duplication, i.e., the most sensitive stage for RA-induced duplication is the stage of dedifferentiation, regardless of the level of ...
Swensen T C - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of one- and two-leg training on arm and two-leg maximum aerobic power. Seven subjects cycle-trained both legs simultaneously for 30 min.day-1, 4 days.week-1 for 4 weeks. Nine subjects cycle-trained each leg 15 min.day-1, 4 days.week-1 for 4 weeks. Both groups ...
Couser J I JI - - 1993
Simple arm elevation results in increased metabolic and ventilatory requirements in patients with chronic airflow obstruction (CAO). These demands contribute to the dyspnea that is frequently reported when these patients perform activities of daily living involving the arms. We hypothesized that a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program that includes upper ...
Baum K - - 1993
The effects of graded changes in peripheral extracellular volume on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise were studied in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject performed four calf ergometer tests with each calf. In all tests, static plantar flexion of one foot was performed in a supine body ...
Currie D M - - 1992
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the correlation between ergometry in men with peripheral vascular disease exercising with both legs and with one leg and both arms. Fifteen men with peripheral vascular disease performed three symptom-limited exercise tests on an ergometer that could be operated from a ...
Iversen J R - - 1992
Seven male subjects ran at 3.0 m/s on a motorized treadmill including a force platform under the tread. The subjects ran at each of five treadmill inclinations: +0.17, +0.077, 0, -0.077, and -0.17 radians. The position of the subjects' legs were read from ciné films (100 frames/s). Results of the ...
Pawelczyk J A - - 1992
We evaluated whether a reduction in cardiac output during dynamic exercise results in vasoconstriction of active skeletal muscle vasculature. Nine subjects performed four 8-min bouts of cycling exercise at 71 +/- 12 to 145 +/- 13 W (40-84% maximal oxygen uptake). Exercise was repeated after cardioselective (beta 1) adrenergic blockade ...
Eriksson L I - - 1992
A modification of the isolated arm technique was applied in 10 females under opioid-based i.v. anaesthesia for comparison of the offset of an atracurium-induced neuromuscular block in an isolated arm to an arm with maintained circulation. The neuromuscular blocking effect of a bolus dose of atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 was measured ...
Ray C A - - 1992
Previous studies of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static exercise have employed predominantly the arms. These studies have revealed striking increases in arm and leg MSNA during static handgrip (SHG) and postexercise circulatory arrest (PECA). The purpose of this study was to examine MSNA during static leg exercise (SLE) ...
Warren P J - - 1992
Although limb exsanguination prior to tourniquet inflation is usually accomplished using mechanical devices, elevation alone may still be employed under circumstances where mechanical means are contraindicated. The rather confusing advice within the literature as to duration of elevation, stimulated a study in the arm which revealed the optimal duration of ...
Thornton W E - - 1992
Little published information exists regarding the magnitude and time course of cephalad fluid shift resulting from microgravity simulations. Six subjects were exposed to 150 min each at horizontal bed rest, 6 degrees head-down tilt, and horizontal water immersion. Fluid shift was estimated by calculating leg volumes from eight serial girth ...
Jablonowsky R - - 1992
The present study examines the reproducibility and validity of computerized muscle strength and endurance evaluation protocols using the Ariel Computerized Exercise System (ACE). Since the ACE has only recently become commercially available, there are no published normative data for various exercises, nor are the measurements' accuracy and validity for the ...
Hopman M T - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine whether external pressure on legs and abdomen could prevent venous blood pooling in persons with paraplegia and thus positively affect their cardiovascular responses to arm exercise. To investigate this, five male subjects with paraplegia (P), with complete lesions between T6 and T12, ...
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