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Results 501 - 550 of 921
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Green J M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: This study examined the use of Borg's category Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale for prescribing and self-regulating swimming intensity. Subjects were males and females (n = 19) ages nineteen to fifty-eight who regularly swam for fitness. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: Subjects completed six trials. Each trial was separated by a ...
Mittendorfer B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Muscle glutamine is severely depleted in critically ill patients (by approximately 50% to 80% of normal). Because muscle protein breakdown, and thus the release of glutamine from muscle protein, is enhanced in response to metabolic stress, the depletion of intramuscular glutamine could be due to its impaired synthesis or ...
Gordon A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Exercise capacity of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) correlates poorly with estimates of cardiac function. Yet, it has been suggested that only patients without severely impaired cardiac output (CO) benefit from exercise training. Comparisons of different training models have not been made in the same study. AIMS: To ...
Mossberg K - - 1999
A direct comparison of synchronous versus asynchronous arm crank ergometry has not been carried out previously. Therefore, a comparative research design was employed. To assess the physiological responses of arm cranking when performed asynchronously (arms moving opposite to each other) versus synchronously (both arms moving in the same direction simultaneously). ...
Deschodt V J - - 1999
Eight male subjects were asked to swim 25 m at maximal velocity while the use of the arm(s) and legs was alternately restricted. Four situations were examined using one arm (1A), two arms (2A), one arm and two legs (1A2L) and both arms and legs (2A2L, normal swim) for propulsion. ...
Tulppo M P - - 1999
Heart rate (HR) is higher during dynamic arm exercise than during leg exercise at equal oxygen consumption levels, but the physiological background for this difference is not completely understood. The vagally mediated beat-to-beat R-R interval fluctuation decreases until the level of approximately 50% of maximal oxygen consumption during an incremental ...
Suzuki Y - - 1999
As a countermeasures for the decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during prolong simulated weightlessness, it has been suggested that intensive isotonic legs exercise was useful. The reason is possibly that a dynamic and intensive resistance exercise training makes to maintain not only the volume of exercising muscles but also ...
Raymond J - - 1999
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory responses during arm exercise with and without concurrent electrical stimulation-induced leg cycling in people with paraplegia. METHODS: On separate days, 10 subjects with spinal cord injuries (T5-T12) performed either arm cranking (ACE), or simultaneous arm cranking + electrical stimulation-induced ...
Rådegran G - - 1999
The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a regulator of vasomotor tone has been investigated in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle. At rest, NO synthase (NOS) inhibition by intra-arterial infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine decreased femoral artery blood flow (FABF, ultrasound Doppler) from 0.39 +/- 0.08 to 0.18 +/- 0.03 l/min ...
Tsuruike M - - 1999
The patellar tendon-tap stretch reflexes were examined in six neurologically healthy young subjects (mean age = 27.1 yrs) who had developed persistent quadriceps strength deficit due to ACL reconstruction. Each subject was tested on two separate days. A specially designed apparatus was used to examine the unilateral and conditioned patellar ...
Marsh G D - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the anaerobic exercise performance of young and older men. Eight healthy, active older (68.5 +/- 2.4 years old, mean S.D.) and eight healthy, active young (30.6 +/- 4.5 years old) subjects were assessed for peak and mean power output (PP ...
Stanton A W - - 1999
During orthostasis, capillary filtration pressure is higher in the leg than in the arm due to the effect of gravity. We investigated the possibility that the lymphatic network in leg skin might be adapted to cope with a greater fluid load. The dermal lymphatics of the forearm and lower leg ...
Biolo G - - 1999
We have determined the individual and combined effects of insulin and prior exercise on leg muscle protein synthesis and degradation, amino acid transport, glucose uptake, and alanine metabolism. Normal volunteers were studied in the postabsorptive state at rest and about 3 h after a heavy leg resistance exercise routine. The ...
Watenpaugh D E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Exercise during spaceflight helps prevent musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning to Earth gravity. This report evaluates the aerobic and anaerobic exercise stimulus provided by self-generated lower body negative pressure. METHODS: A lower body negative pressure cylinder expands and collapses longitudinally, but not radially. As the legs push footward to expand ...
Bosco C - - 1999
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibrations (WBV) on the mechanical behaviour of human skeletal muscle. For this purpose, six female volleyball players at national level were recruited voluntarily. They were tested with maximal dynamic leg press exercise on a slide machine with extra ...
Simmons D D Department of Medicine, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New - - 1999
It has been postulated that changes in lifestyle follow five 'stages of change', which reflect a 'decisional balance' between the advantages and disadvantages of making such a change. We have assessed this model among Pacific Islands people in New Zealand. We questioned 105 Pacific Islands volunteers to identify their decisional ...
Konstantaki M - - 1999
Investigations into the changes due to training in the metabolism of the arms or the legs in swimmers of different training status are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the lactate and cardiopulmonary responses to simulated arm-pulling and leg-kicking in collegiate and recreational swimmers. Sixteen males (9 ...
Terakado S - - 1999
The mechanisms of respiratory muscle deoxygenation during incremental leg exercise with expired gas analysis were investigated in 29 patients with chronic heart failure and 21 normal subjects. The deoxygenation and blood volume of the respiratory muscle and exercising leg muscle were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To evaluate the influence ...
Osada T - - 1999
The redistribution of blood flow (BF) in the abdominal viscera during right-legged knee extension-flexion exercise at very low intensity [peak heart rate (HR), 76 beats/min] was examined by using Doppler ultrasound. While sitting, subjects performed a right-legged knee extension-flexion exercise every 6 s for 20 min. BF was measured in ...
Juel C - - 1999
The present study examined K+ fluxes in red blood cells and muscle during muscle contractions. Seven subjects performed two-legged submaximal knee-extensor exercise for 30 min. After 10 min of leg exercise (L1), intense arm exercise was also performed for 10 min (L2+A). Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were higher (P ...
Strange S - - 1999
1. Skeletal muscle blood flow is thought to be determined by a balance between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilatation. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of high levels of sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in control of blood flow to human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise. 2. Muscle ...
González-Alonso J - - 1998
1. The present study examined whether the blood flow to exercising muscles becomes reduced when cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance decline with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. A secondary aim was to determine whether the upward drift in oxygen consumption (VO2) during prolonged exercise is confined to ...
Kim D I - - 1998
In advanced peripheral lymphedema particularly involving the legs, complex physical therapy (massage/bandage-wrapping compression, remedial exercises, and maintenance use of a low stretch elastic compression garment), is not uniformly successful. In six patients with morbid lymphedema of the legs, we described our positive experience using a modified Auchincloss/Homans excisional operation.
Van Dieën J H - - 1998
The influence of four work-rest schedules (60-min shift-15-min break, 45-15, 30-15, 30-30) on acute effects of physical workload in the back and legs due to standing work was investigated in 12 poultry inspectors. Subjective discomfort in the legs and back, and swelling in the distal lower leg were significantly affected, ...
Doering T J - - 1998
Unlike the well-examined cardiovascular changes during movement stimuli, changes of cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral metabolism in physical exercises have, as yet, rarely been studied. Our objective was to investigate whether there are changes in cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral metabolism caused by active and passive movement stimuli. Response to repetitive active ...
Alison J A - - 1998
There are no reports concerning the regulation of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and flow-volume relationships during upper limb exercise in health and disease. We studied EELV during such exercise in 22 adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) and nine age-matched healthy control subjects. Subjects with CF were grouped according to the ...
Torburn L - - 1998
Earlier studies that address assessment of the subtalar joint (STJ) by measuring rearfoot motion used a goniometer to evaluate intertester reliability. Few investigations have determined how positions of the rearfoot, assessed manually (passive range of motion) or statically in one-legged standing, compare with those occurring during walking. The purpose of ...
Bhambhani Y - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of muscle deoxygenation in the exercising muscles during incremental arm cranking and leg cycling exercise in healthy men and women. Fifteen men and 10 women completed arm cranking and leg cycling tests to exhaustion in separate sessions in a counterbalanced ...
Kang J - - 1998
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the validity of regulating exercise intensity using ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) during arm crank and leg cycle exercise at 50 and 70% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Ten men and seven women [26 (1) years old; mean (SE)] participated in this study. ...
Ray C A - - 1998
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect of exercise-induced muscle injury on hemodynamic responses during exercise. Ten subjects performed unilateral isometric knee extensions (IKE) at 30% of preinjury maximum voluntary contraction to fatigue and for 3 min before and 48 h after muscle injury. Muscle injury ...
Zhu F - - 1998
Extracellular volume (ECV) of arms, trunk, and legs determined from segmental bioimpedance data in 11 healthy men (31.6 +/- 7 yr) obtained at the end of a 30-min equilibration phase in the supine body position was compared with ECV determined from whole body measurements (ECVWB). ECV was calculated from extracellular ...
Abraham P - - 1998
Previous works have focused on the normal ankle and arm pressure response to maximum bicycle exercise or moderate walking tests. The aim of the present work was to compare the normal ankle and arm pressure and ankle-brachial index response to incremental maximum bicycle and treadmill exercise in 13 athletes (11 ...
Evans C - - 1998
Nutritional status was assessed in 303 dialysis patients and the results of Asian and non Asian patients was compared. Mid Arm Muscle Circumference (MAMC) was found to be lower [22.7 +/- 2.7 v 24.2 +/- 2.9 (p = 0.008)] and TSF higher [15.9 +/- 7.2 v 13.6 +/- 7.4 (p ...
Bohnert B - - 1998
For moderate work rates (i.e. below the lactate threshold, theta), oxygen uptake (Vo2) approaches the steady state mono-exponentially. At higher work rates, the Vo2 kinetics are more complex, reflecting the delayed superimposition of an additional, slow component. The mechanisms of this 'slow' component are poorly understood. It has been demonstrated, ...
Faghri P D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the calf muscle pump function using an air plethysmograph (APG) applied to the lower leg of subjects during three different tiptoe exercises. DESIGN: A controlled trial design was selected to compare the hemodynamic effects of three exercise conditions on a group of able-bodied, healthy patients. SETTING: Testing ...
Maganaris C N - - 1998
The present study examined the hypothesis that creatine (Cr) supplementation can increase the performance of isometric exercise in subjects engaged in a strength training program. Ten male subjects were tested in three experimental trials 7 days apart (days 1, 8 and 15). In each trial the subjects' maximum voluntary force ...
Proctor D N - - 1998
It is currently unclear whether aging alters the perfusion of active muscles during large-muscle dynamic exercise in humans. To study this issue, direct measurements of leg blood flow (femoral vein thermodilution) and systemic arterial pressure during submaximal cycle ergometry (70, 140, and 210 W) were compared between six younger (Y; ...
Nishiyasu T - - 1998
We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to lower body positive pressure (LBPP) would be dependent on the posture of the subject and also on the background condition (rest or exercise). We measured heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and cardiac stroke volume in eight subjects at rest ...
Malanin K - - 1998
The laser Doppler flux (LDF) and the venoarteriolar response (VAR) of the skin in legs with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) was measured by using a new double-wavelength probe technique (543 nm and 780 nm). The recordings were taken in a recumbent and in a sitting position. Ten patients with CVI ...
Linnarsson D - - 1998
Reductions in leg fluid volume of about 1/per leg or 10% of total leg volume have been reported during space flight. We wanted to test the hypothesis that a significant portion of these changes occur during the prelaunch and launch periods. Fluid volume changes in the lower leg were estimated ...
Faria E W - - 1998
The principles underlying the cardiorespiratory responses to upper body versus lower body exercise remain unclear. We explored the hypothesis that workloads of the same percentage of maximum strength for a particular part of the body might elicit similar cardiovascular responses. Twelve trained female university rowers (mean +/- s: age, 22.8 ...
Ropret R - - 1998
The effects of loading on sprint kinematics were examined in 24 male students. The moment of inertia of either the arms or legs was increased by up to 50% of their unloaded values and the time for distances of 0.5-15 m and 15-30 m from a sprint start was measured. ...
O'Connor P J - - 1998
This experiment tested whether state anxiety and blood pressure responses to exercise were influenced by the type of muscular contraction performed. On testing day 1, 11 volunteers completed one-repetition maximums (1-RMs) separately for the right and left limbs: arm extension, arm flexion, leg extension and leg flexion (8 total exercises). ...
Abraham P - - 1998
Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is usually considered to be due to ischaemia of muscle. We have attempted to use the direct measurement of muscle blood flow for diagnosis since the assessment of intracompartmental pressure does not provide accurate knowledge of the vascular state. We recorded simultaneously continuous measurements of the ...
Smye S W - - 1998
A two-compartment model of urea kinetics during hemodialysis is used to predict the effect of exercise on hemodialysis dose. It is assumed that the two compartments represent tissues that are perfused by low and high blood flows (initially 1.1 L/min and 3.8 L/min). The effect of changing the distribution of ...
Aminoff T - - 1998
Nine healthy men (aged 54-59 years) performed arm crank and leg cycle exercises for 30 min at relative work loads of 50 and 75% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2) for the corresponding muscle group, and for 60 min at a relative work load of 30% of peak VO2 for the ...
Shinohara M - - 1998
To investigate the efficacy of ischemia in strength training with low mechanical stress, tourniquet ischemia was utilized in low-resistance training. Five untrained subjects conducted one-legged isometric knee extension training with one leg ischemic (I-leg) and the other non-ischemic (NI-leg). Repeated isometric contractions for 2 s with 3 s relaxation in ...
Lang C C - - 1997
Endothelial release of prostaglandins may contribute to exercise-induced skeletal muscle arteriolar vasodilation in patients with heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of indomethacin on leg circulation and metabolism in eight chronic heart failure patients, aged 55 +/- 4 yr. Central hemodynamics and leg blood flow, determined ...
Alison J A - - 1997
Physiological responses to upper limb exercise have not been well documented in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This is the first study to quantify ventilatory responses to supported incremental upper limb exercise in this patient group. Twenty-four subjects with CF, with a wide range of pulmonary impairment, and ten normal ...
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