Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1078
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Kemppainen Jukka - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on myocardial glucose uptake and whether the pattern of glucose uptake is the same as in skeletal muscle. Glucose uptake was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). Twelve healthy men were studied during rest, while ...
Rottman Jeffrey N - - 2002
Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise ...
Suh Sang-Hoon - - 2002
We examined the effects of exercise intensity and menstrual cycle phase on glucose flux rates during rest and exercise in rested and fed (3-h postabsorptive) women. Eight moderately active, eumenorrheic women were studied under conditions of rest (90 min) and exercise (60 min, leg ergometer cycling at 45 and 65% ...
Wojtaszewski Jørgen F P - - 2002
After a single bout of exercise, insulin action is increased in the muscles that were active during exercise. The increased insulin action has been shown to involve glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and glycogen synthase (GS) activation as well as amino acid transport. A major mechanism involved in increased insulin stimulation ...
Smith Gareth J - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-exercise glucose ingestion would improve distance swimming performance. Additionally, pre-exercise glucose was provided at 2 different feeding intervals to investigate the affects of the timing of administration. Ten male triathletes (mean +/- SD: age, 29.5 +/- 5.0 years; VO2peak, 48.8 +/- ...
Rassam Amer G - - 2002
Catecholamines are important hormones for maintaining homeostasis and may be secreted in response to several different stimuli. A report by Robertson and Porte in 1974 made the unexpected observation that acute administration of hypertonic glucose stimulates catecholamine secretion. Our study reassessed this observation by measuring individual catecholamines, explored its potential ...
Chapman Joel - - 2002
PURPOSE: The major aims of this study were to determine whether a single session of resistance exercise would alter insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and C-peptide response to glucose challenge in a group of previously sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: Ten postmenopausal women (aged 57.5 +/- 1.6 yr) were studied. Each participant ...
Kraemer R R - - 2002
Amylin, a peptide hormone released from the beta cells of the pancreas and cosecreted with insulin, is reported to inhibit the release of postprandial glucagon and insulin and to modulate gastric emptying. Changes in insulin and glucagon are important for controlling blood glucose levels under conditions in which metabolic rate ...
Coker Robert H - - 2002
These studies were conducted to determine the magnitude and mechanism of compensation for impaired glucagon and insulin responses to exercise. For this purpose, dogs underwent surgery >16 days before experiments, at which time flow probes were implanted and silastic catheters were inserted. During experiments, glucagon and insulin were fixed at ...
McGregor Veronica P - - 2002
Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF)-reduced autonomic (including adrenomedullary epinephrine) and symptomatic responses to hypoglycemia caused by recent antecedent hypoglycemia-plays a key role in the pathogenesis of defective glucose counterregulation and hypoglycemia unawareness and thus iatrogenic hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. On the basis of the findings that cortisol infusion mimics and ...
Horton Tracy J - - 2002
Resting and exercise fuel metabolism was assessed in three different phases of the menstrual cycle, characterized by different levels of estrogen relative to progesterone: early follicular (EF, low estrogen and progesterone), midfollicular (MF, elevated estrogen, low progesterone), and midluteal (ML, elevated estrogen and progesterone). It was hypothesized that exercise glucose ...
Thong Farah S L - - 2002
We investigated the effects of caffeine ingestion on skeletal muscle glucose uptake, glycogen synthase (GS) activity, and insulin signaling intermediates during a 100-min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (100 microU/ml) clamp. On two occasions, seven men performed 1-h one-legged knee extensor exercise at 3 h before the clamp. Caffeine (5 mg/kg) or placebo was ...
Angelopoulos Theodore J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of short-term exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin response to a glucose load in centrally obese individuals. DESIGN: 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed prior to participation and 24 hours after the last exercise session. Exercise ...
Roy B D - - 2002
In previous work using prolonged, light cycle exercise, we were unable to demonstrate an effect of acute plasma volume (PV) expansion on glucose kinetics or substrate oxidation, despite a decline in whole-body lipolysis (Phillips et al., 1997). However, PV is known to decrease arterial O2 content. The purpose of this ...
Marliss Errol B - - 2002
In intense exercise (>80% VO(2max)), unlike at lesser intensities, glucose is the exclusive muscle fuel. It must be mobilized from muscle and liver glycogen in both the fed and fasted states. Therefore, regulation of glucose production (GP) and glucose utilization (GU) have to be different from exercise at <60% VO(2max), ...
Roef Mark J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A high-fat diet has been recommended for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or glucose on substrate oxidation, glycolytic carbohydrate metabolism, and exercise endurance time and ...
Gill Jason M R - - 2002
Moderate exercise improves insulin sensitivity and reduces triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TG) concentrations. We hypothesized that changes in insulin sensitivity are an important determinant of exercise-induced changes in postprandial TG concentrations. Altogether, 38 men and 43 women, all of whom were normotriglyceridaemic and normoglycaemic, each underwent two oral fat tolerance tests with ...
Broers S - - 2002
AIMS: The aims of the present study were: (i) to evaluate the effects of a Dutch translation and adaptation of Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT-III) on blood glucose (bg) perception, glycaemic control, and decisions not to drive or to raise the bg during hypoglycaemia; (ii) to compare the effects of ...
Matzinger Oscar - - 2002
Fatty acids are known to decrease insulin-mediated glucose utilization in humans, both at rest and during exercise. To evaluate the effect of endurance training in this process, we infused lipids or saline in groups of sedentary and highly trained subjects. Whole body glucose utilization and substrate oxidation were monitored during ...
Schrauwen Patrick - - 2002
Human and rodent uncoupling protein (UCP)3 mRNA is upregulated after acute exercise. Moreover, exercise increases plasma levels of free fatty acid (FFA), which are also known to upregulate UCP3. We investigated whether the upregulation of UCP3 after exercise is an effect of exercise per se or an effect of FFA ...
Herz M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the plasma glucose (PG) response with a fixed mixture of 25% insulin lispro and 75% NPL (Mix25), prior to a meal and 3 h before exercise, to human insulin 30/70 (30/70) in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients were treated in a ...
Jose-Cunilleras Eduard - - 2002
In a randomized, balanced, crossover study each of six fit, adult horses ran on a treadmill at 50% of maximal rate of oxygen consumption for 60 min after being denied access to food for 18 h and then 1) fed corn (51.4 kJ/kg digestible energy), or 2) fed an isocaloric ...
Garcin M - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between perceived exertion (RPE) and plasma glucose concentrations or hunger feelings during a 1-hr. bicycle submaximal exercise after ingestion of pre-exercise test foods with a different glycemic index. Each of endurance-trained male triathletes ingested three different glycemic index (GI) foods ...
Hamdy O - - 2001
The question is no longer whether diet and exercise can benefit the individual with type 2 diabetes. Rather, the type and duration of exercise the magnitude of the effects on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and on risk factors for cardiovascular disease must be considered in determining the feasibility and acceptability ...
Rose A J - - 2001
Several studies have demonstrated that oral glucose tolerance is impaired in the immediate postexercise period. A double-tracer technique was used to examine glucose kinetics during a 2-h oral glucose (75 g) tolerance test (OGTT) 30 min after exercise (Ex, 55 min at 71 +/- 2% of peak O(2) uptake) and ...
Trimmer J K - - 2001
For estimating the oxidation rates (Rox) of glucose and other substrates by use of (13)C-labeled tracers, we obtained correction factors to account for label dilution in endogenous bicarbonate pools and TCA cycle exchange reactions. Fractional recoveries of (13)C label in respiratory gases were determined during 225 min of rest and ...
Béquet F - - 2001
The aim of this study was to assess extracellular glucose changes in hippocampus in response to physical exercise and to determine the influence of glucose supplementation. In the same time, we have observed the changes in serotonin, in order to study the relationship between glucose and serotonin during exercise. Both ...
Braun B - - 2001
During low to moderate intensity exercise, women utilize proportionally more lipid and less carbohydrate compared to men. Estrogen and progesterone may have direct effects on these differences by increasing lipolysis and/or constraining glucose production and utilization. Furthermore, sex steroids may have indirect effects through interactions with other hormones, especially catecholamines.
Koyama Y - - 2001
This study was aimed at assessing the role of carotid body function in neuroendocrine and glucoregulatory responses to exercise. The carotid bodies and associated nerves were removed (CBR, n = 6) or left intact (Sham, n = 6) in anesthetized dogs >16 days before experiments, and infusion and sampling catheters ...
Boulé N G - - 2001
CONTEXT: Exercise is widely perceived to be beneficial for glycemic control and weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, clinical trials on the effects of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes have had small sample sizes and conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and quantify the effect ...
Demir I - - 2001
It is well known that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are high in diabetic patients. Cardiac involvement is silent and early and these diabetic patients generally complain of chronic fatigue. This study was designed to evaluate the relation between glycemic control and exercise capacity in 330 diabetic patients who have no ...
Tang T - - 2001
Physical exercise is frequently recommended for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, whether as primary therapy with diet modification or as an adjunct to drug therapy. We hypothesized that mild exercise would enhance the glucose-lowering effects of 2 oral antihyperglycemic drugs, metformin and acarbose, in an animal model of type ...
Kirwan J P - - 2001
To determine whether eating a breakfast cereal with a moderate glycemic index could alter substrate utilization and improve exercise duration. Six active women (age, 24 +/- 2 yr; weight, 62.2 +/- 2.6 kg; VO(2peak), 46.6 +/- 3.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) ate 75 g of available carbohydrate in the ...
Richter E A - - 2001
Physical exercise induces a rapid increase in the rate of glucose uptake in the contracting skeletal muscles. The enhanced membrane glucose transport capacity is caused by a recruitment of glucose transporters (GLUT4) to the sarcolemma and t-tubules. This review summarises the recent progress in the understanding of signals that trigger ...
Désy F - - 2001
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of a single bout of exercise (rodent treadmill, 60 min at 26 m/min, 0% grade) on the gluconeogenic activity of periportal hepatocytes (PP-H) and perivenous hepatocytes (PV-H) in fasted (18 h) rats. Isolated PP-H and PV-H, obtained by selective destruction following ...
Galassetti P - - 2001
After antecedent hypoglycemia, counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia exhibit greater blunting in men than in women. Because physical exercise and hypoglycemia share multiple counterregulatory mechanisms, we hypothesized that prior exercise may also result in gender-specific blunting of counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia. Thirty healthy subjects (15 women and 15 men; ...
Aarnio P - - 2001
The mechanism behind exercise-induced decreases in plasma insulin concentrations was examined in eight healthy young men. In addition, the influence of specific alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor blockade on glucose kinetics during exercise was studied. To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced decreases in insulin secretion are mediated via alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, all subjects exercised ...
Poirier P - - 2001
PURPOSE: To compare the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels in response to 1 h of exercise performed at 60% of VO(2peak) either in the fasted state or 2 h after a standardized breakfast in subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ten sedentary men with type 2 diabetes treated ...
Hyyppä S - - 2001
To test the effect of nandrolone on their recovery, six adult half-bred riding horses performed a competition exercise test (CET) and a standardized exercise test (SET) on consecutive days before and after a 2-week treatment with the anabolic steroid nandrolone laurate. Blood samples were collected during and between these tests ...
Chipkin S R - - 2001
As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of ...
Gruetter R - - 2001
After administration of enriched [1-13C]glucose, the rate of 13C label incorporation into glutamate C4, C3, and C2, glutamine C4, C3, and C2, and aspartate C2 and C3 was simultaneously measured in six normal subjects by 13C NMR at 4 Tesla in 45-ml volumes encompassing the visual cortex. The resulting eight ...
Watt M J - - 2001
1. To evaluate the role of adrenaline in regulating carbohydrate metabolism during moderate exercise, 10 moderately trained men completed two 20 min exercise bouts at 58 +/- 2 % peak pulmonary oxygen uptake (V(O2,peak)). On one occasion saline was infused (CON), and on the other adrenaline was infused intravenously for ...
Galassetti P - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine whether a bout of morning exercise (EXE(1)) can alter neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to subsequent afternoon exercise (EXE(2)) and whether these changes follow a gender-specific pattern. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 men and 8 women, age 27 +/- 1 yr, body mass index ...
Tomàs E - - 2001
Insulin and acute exercise stimulate glucose transport in skeletal muscle by translocating GLUT4 glucose transporters to the cell surface. GLUT4 is distributed in skeletal muscle in two intracellular membrane populations, an endosomal pool that remains unaltered after insulin treatment and an storage population that is markedly GLUT4 depleted in response ...
Carter S L - - 2001
We investigated the effect of endurance training on whole body substrate, glucose, and glycerol utilization during 90 min of exercise at 60% peak O2 consumption (VO2(peak)) in males and females. Substrate oxidation was determined before and after 7 wk of endurance training on a cycle ergometer, with posttesting performed at ...
Creviston T - - 2001
Exercise has been recommended as a treatment for type 2 diabetes for centuries. It is only in the last 2 decades, however, that the powerful role exercise and physical activity play in treating and preventing type 2 diabetes has been fully appreciated. The molecular understanding of exercise in relation to ...
Galassetti P - - 2001
In the present study the hypothesis tested was that prior exercise may blunt counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia. Healthy subjects [15 females (f)/15 males (m), age 27 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 22 +/- 1 kg/m(2), hemoglobin A(Ic) 5.6 +/- 0.5%] were studied during 2-day experiments. Day 1 involved ...
Coker R H - - 2001
To determine the importance of basal glucagon to the stimulation of net splanchnic glucose output (NSGO) during exercise, seven healthy males performed cycle exercise during a pancreatic islet cell clamp. In one group (BG), glucagon was replaced at basal levels and insulin was adjusted to achieve euglycemia. In another group ...
Boisseau N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess gluco-se tolerance during exercise in women on oral contraceptives. METHODS: To this end, we investigated the effects of glucose ingestion on glucose and hormonal responses in 7 women on oral contraceptives (OC(+); 21.3+/-1.3 yrs) and 7 normally menstruating (OC(-); 22.6+/-1.3 yrs) ...
Cusi K J - - 2001
Glucose phosphorylation, catalyzed by hexokinase, is the first committed step in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Hexokinase II (HKII) is the isoform that is present in muscle and is regulated by insulin and muscle contraction. Glucose phosphorylation and HKII expression are both reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. ...
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