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Results 151 - 200 of 1079
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Moriyama Takahiro - - 2008
PURPOSE: Amino-acid (AA) infusions promote thermogenesis and prevent perioperative hypothermia, but the mechanism of action is unknown. We sought to verify the hypothesis that AA infusions stimulate the release of metabolic hormones during surgery and increase energy expenditure, resulting in thermogenesis. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive AA ...
Jauhiainen Anne M - - 2008
AIMS: The present study investigated cerebral glucose metabolism and structural atrophy in controls and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The study included 13 controls, 7 MCI subjects considered as prodromal Alzheimer's disease (MCI of the Alzheimer type, aMCI) and 7 MCI subjects having cognitive decline due to other ...
Hawley J A - - 2008
Individuals with insulin resistance are characterized by impaired insulin action on whole-body glucose uptake, in part due to impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. A single bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake via an insulin-independent mechanism that bypasses the typical insulin signalling defects associated with these conditions. ...
Breton Marc D - - 2008
This article presents a mathematical model of glucose homeostasis that is valid during physical activity. Known changes in glucose dynamics during exercise were accounted for in the model, and exercise itself was detected and quantified through heart rate (beats per minute). The model was successfully fit to 21 type 1 ...
Grijalva James - - 2008
Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form ...
Orozco Leonardo J - - 2008
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is associated with the 'Westernised lifestyle', mainly in terms of dietary habits and physical activity. Thus an intensive diet and exercise intervention might prevent or delay the appearance of diabetes in persons at high risk. To assess the effects of exercise or exercise and ...
Park Sunmin - - 2008
Not only exendin-4 but also exercise has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulinotropic action, but the nature of its molecular mechanism has not been clarified. We investigated a mechanism to promote insulinotropic action by means of exendin-4 and exercise training in 90% pancreatectomized (Px) rats fed 40% ...
Balducci Stefano - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The IDES is a prospective Italian multicentre randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of an intensive lifestyle intervention on modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a large cohort of people with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 606 subjects ...
Gaudet-Savard Thierry - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Information on the extent to which acute exercise reduces blood glucose levels (BGL) in type 2 diabetes is lacking. For this reason, the effects of exercise initiated at different preexercise BGL were assessed in men with type 2 diabetes both in the fasted (FS) and the postprandial states (PS). ...
Stephens Brooke R - - 2007
The nutritional environment surrounding an exercise bout modulates post-exercise insulin action. The purpose of this study was to determine how timing energy and carbohydrate replacement proximate to an exercise bout influences exercise-enhanced insulin action. To create an appropriate baseline, sensitivity to insulin was reduced in 9 healthy young men (n=6) ...
Tanaka Satsuki - - 2007
A single bout of exercise increases the rate of muscle glucose transport (GT) by both insulin-independent and insulin-dependent mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-fat diet (HFD) feeding interferes with the metabolic activation induced by moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Rats were fed an HFD or control diet ...
Kadoglou Nikolaos P E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic inflammation are strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an aerobic training programme would ameliorate inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Interventional study. METHODS: A total of 60 overweight individuals with ...
Kildegaard Jonas - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Adrenaline is often studied in people with type 1 diabetes during hypoglycemic episodes. Adrenaline is difficult and costly to measure, and therefore a pharmacokinetic model of adrenaline can be a supportive tool that adds information and saves measurements resources. METHODS: We have developed a compartment model of adrenaline secretion ...
Ozkaya Y Gül - - 2007
Visual evoked potentials (VEP) can be used as an objective non-invasive method to study the electrical activity of the visual system. Latency and amplitude measurements of VEP demonstrated that diabetes mellitus has been associated with increases in the latencies whereas the amplitude measurements revealed contradictory results. Although physical exercise has ...
Howlett Kirsten F KF School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia. - - 2008
AS160 is an Akt substrate of 160 kDa implicated in the regulation of both insulin- and contraction-mediated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. The effects of aerobic exercise and subsequent insulin stimulation on AS160 phosphorylation and the binding capacity of 14-3-3, a novel protein involved in the dissociation of AS160 from ...
Heyman E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An impaired sympathoadrenergic response to hypoglycaemic episodes has been described in young Type 1 diabetic subjects. It is unknown if this altered response occurs with exercise, and if it could influence aerobic power. METHODS: Body composition (skinfold thickness), physical activity (questionnaire) and aerobic power (PWC170 and VO2max) were assessed ...
Rantzau C - - 2008
The increased energy required for acute moderate exercise by skeletal muscle (SkM) is derived equally from enhanced fatty acid (FA) oxidation and glucose oxidation. Availability of FA also influences contracting SkM metabolic responses. Whole body glucose turnover and SkM glucose metabolic responses were determined in paired dog studies during 1) ...
Horowitz Jeffrey F - - 2007
Exercise is a key component for the successful management of many obesity-related metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. This review addresses the effect of chronic and acute endurance exercise on insulin action in obesity and the role of exercise-induced alterations in fatty acid partitioning within the muscle cell on insulin sensitivity.
Ruzic Lana - - 2008
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the designed regime encompassing high volume-low intensity physical activity programme on glycemic control in diabetic children, 20 subjects (age 12.81 +/- 2.14) spent 2 weeks in a controlled environment of a summer camp. METHODS: An exercise physiologist and a kinesiology specialist programme and conducted ...
Petersen Astrid H AH Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria. - - 2008
Exercise is known to affect absorption of other inhaled substances, but so far there are no reports on the effect of exercise on the absorption of inhaled insulin in humans. This report is the first to investigate the effect of exercise on the absorption of inhaled insulin. In this study ...
Ferland A - - 2007
The effects of metabolic states of fasting and post-absorption on plasma concentrations of free carnitine (FC), acylcarnitine (AC) and total carnitine (TC) were compared during submaximal exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ten sedentary men (54+/-5 years) treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents were tested on two separate occasions: ...
Bauer Timothy A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: People with type 2 diabetes have impaired exercise responses even in the absence of cardiovascular complications. One key factor associated with the exercise intolerance is abnormally slowed oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during submaximal exercise. The mechanisms of this delayed adaptation during exercise are unclear but probably relate to impairments ...
Khodaiyan Faramarz - - 2007
Sequential methodology combining a screening stage by fractional factorial design and an optimization stage by central composite design was applied to enhance canthaxanthin production of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 in shake flask cultures. Five variables (pH, luminous intensity, inoculum percent, concentration of glucose and concentration of NaCl) were studied with the ...
Praet Stephan F E - - 2007
Other than diet and medication, exercise is considered one of the three cornerstones of good diabetes treatment. Nevertheless, current clinical guidelines on Type 2 diabetes provide no detailed information on the modalities of effective exercise intervention in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Based on a review of currently available ...
Petersen Astrid H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of moderate exercise on the absorption of inhaled insulin via the AERx insulin diabetes management system (iDMS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, four-period, crossover, glucose clamp study 23 nonsmoking subjects with type 1 diabetes received a dose of 0.19 units/kg inhaled ...
Chassin Ludovic Jean - - 2007
Development of the external artificial pancreas (AP) is anticipated to be incremental, starting with simple and progressing to more complex applications incorporating exercise periods of various duration and intensity. Most studies investigating the effect of exercise on glucose excursions in subjects with type 1 diabetes either explored moderate exercise, which ...
Suh Sang-Hoon - - 2007
The maintenance of normal blood glucose levels at rest and during exercise is critical. The maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis depends on the coordination and integration of several physiological systems, including the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system. During prolonged exercise increased demand for glucose by contracting muscle causes ...
Bussau V A - - 2007
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether a 10-s maximal sprint effort performed immediately prior to moderate-intensity exercise provides another means to counter the rapid fall in glycaemia associated with moderate-intensity exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven complication-free type 1 diabetic males (21.6 +/- 3.6 years; mean+/-SD) with ...
Cartee Gregory D - - 2007
Insulin and exercise, the most important physiological stimuli to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle, trigger a redistribution of GLUT4 glucose transporter proteins from the cell interior to the cell surface, thereby increasing glucose transport capacity. The most distal insulin signaling protein that has been linked to GLUT4 translocation, Akt ...
Galbo Henrik - - 2007
In people with type 1 diabetes mellitis (DM), insulin administration, food intake, and exercise have to be carefully matched to avoid either hypo- or hyperglycemia. People with type 2 DM have some insulin secretion, which changes with needs. Accordingly, during exercise, these people do not run the same metabolic risks ...
Green-Golan Liza - - 2007
CONTEXT: Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have adrenomedullary dysplasia and hypofunction, and their lack of adrenomedullary reserve has been associated with a defective glucose response to brief high-intensity exercise. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess hormonal, metabolic, and cardiovascular response to prolonged moderate-intensity exercise comparable to brisk walking ...
Wang Yong-Hong - - 2008
Nutrition had highly influence on the antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila YL001. Glucose and peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources that significantly affected antibiotic production using one-factor-at-a-time approach. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the medium constituents (Glucose, peptone and minerals) for antibiotic production by ...
Sato Yuzo - - 2007
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to be regarded as essential in all fields of medical sciences and practical medicine. In the field of diabetes and exercise, among the epidemiological studies of physical exercise, recent mega-trials such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the U.S. have shown that lifestyle intervention ...
Fueger Patrick T - - 2007
The absence of GLUT4 severely impairs basal glucose uptake in vivo, but does not alter glucose homeostasis or circulating insulin. Glucose uptake in isolated contracting skeletal muscle (MGU) is also impaired by the absence of GLUT4, and onset of muscle fatigue is hastened. Whether the body can compensate and preserve ...
Andersen Eivind - - 2007
Postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels are both risk factors for developing obesity, type-2 diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. To date, research has shown that a single bout of moderate- to high-intensity aerobic exercise performed <or=24 hours before a carbohydrate ingestion has a positive effect on the postprandial glucose and ...
Roy Anirban - - 2007
Regulation of plasma glucose concentration for type 1 diabetic patients is challenging, and exercise is an added complication. From a metabolic prospective, the significant exercise-induced effects are increased glucose uptake rate by the working tissues, increased hepatic glucose release to maintain overall glucose homeostasis, and decreased plasma insulin concentration. During ...
Gawlitta Debby - - 2007
Prolonged periods of tissue compression may lead to the development of pressure ulcers, some of which may originate in, for example, skeletal muscle tissue and progress underneath intact skin, representing deep tissue injury. Their etiology is multifactorial and the interaction between individual causal factors and their relative importance remain unknown. ...
Lessard Sarah J - - 2007
Both pharmacological intervention (i.e., thiazolidinediones [TZDs]) and lifestyle modification (i.e., exercise training) are clinically effective treatments for improving whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism(s) by which these therapies reverse lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is unclear. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of rosiglitazone treatment and exercise training ...
Lamontagne Julien - - 2007
Deteriorating islet beta-cell function is key in the progression of an impaired glucose tolerance state to overt type 2 diabetes (T2D), a transition that can be delayed by exercise. We have previously shown that trained rats are protected from heart ischemia-reperfusion injury in correlation with an increase in cardiac tissue ...
StraburzyƄska-Migaj Ewa - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for the importance of peripheral abnormalities in the pathogenesis and progression of heart failure (HF). Recently, glucose and insulin metabolism abnormalities have been intensively investigated in patients with HF. AIM: To investigate whether coexistence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) may decrease exercise tolerance and influence ...
Cunha M R - - 2007
AIMS: To compare the effects of metformin and glibenclamide on cardiovascular, metabolic and hormonal parameters during exercise of moderate intensity performed in the postprandial state, in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ten patients treated with metformin, 10 with glibenclamide and 10 control subjects (C) exercised on a bicycle ergometer ...
Howlett Kirsten F KF School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia. - - 2007
A single bout of aerobic exercise can enhance insulin action, but whether a similar effect occurs after resistance exercise is unknown. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on eight male subjects at rest and after a single bout and three repeated bouts of resistance exercise over 7 days. Skeletal muscle biopsies were ...
McAuley Paul A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the relation of exercise capacity and BMI to mortality in a population of male veterans with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: After excluding two underweight patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), the study population comprised 831 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 61 +/- 9 ...
Szewieczek Jan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is crucial for treatment of diabetes. However, intensive exercise brings the risk for metabolic decompensation; therefore, predicting its effect on glycemia is of great importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen type 2 diabetic patients (47.9+/-1.6 years; mean+/-S.E.M.), treated with gliclazide, and 14 healthy controls (45.1+/-1.0 years) were subjected ...
Derave Wim - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an acute exercise bout in the morning in the post-absorptive or postprandial state on the glycemic and insulinemic response to three standardized meals throughout the day. It is hypothesized that post-absorptive exercise enhances fat oxidation rate during exercise ...
Guelfi K J - - 2007
Previously, the decline in glycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes has been shown to be less with intermittent high-intensity exercise (IHE) compared with continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MOD) despite the performance of a greater amount of total work. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this lesser ...
Sriwijitkamol Apiradee A Texas Diabetes Institute, and Diabetes Division, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78207, - - 2007
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI approximately 25 kg/m(2)) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in ...
Raes A - - 2007
AIM: To examine the relationship between filtration fraction and systemic vasculopathy, in normoalbuminuric insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents. METHODS: We calculated filtration fraction from measured glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow during a hypotonic saline perfusion test in 30 normotensive adolescent diabetic patients (9-19 years), with a mean duration of diabetes ...
Ort Tatiana - - 2007
Exercise training decreases insulin resistance and increases glucose tolerance in conditions of prediabetes and overt Type 2 diabetes. However, the adaptive responses in skeletal muscle at the molecular and genetic level for these effects of exercise training have not been clearly established in an animal model of prediabetes. The present ...
Gaesser Glenn A - - 2007
A considerable number of observational and intervention studies support the role of exercise as a cornerstone in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the metabolic syndrome. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are also associated with reduced mortality rates among persons with CVD, T2D, and ...
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