Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1079
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Davis S N - - 2000
Significant, sexual dimorphisms exist in counterregulatory responses to commonly occurring stresses, such as hypoglycemia, fasting, and cognitive testing. The question of whether counterregulatory responses differ during exercise in healthy men and women remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether a sexual dimorphism exists in neuroendocrine, metabolic, ...
Schneider S H - - 2000
A number of studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of regular physical activity on levels of HgbA(1)C in patients with type II diabetes mellitus, largely due to an increase in insulin sensitivity. Benefits are related to short-term improvements in insulin sensitivity following individual exercise bouts. Regular exercise can prevent or ...
Davis S N - - 2000
Antecedent hypoglycemia can blunt counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia. It is uncertain, however, if prior hypoglycemia can blunt counterregulatory responses to other physiologic stresses. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether antecedent hypoglycemia attenuates subsequent neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to exercise. Sixteen lean, healthy adults (eight men ...
Boisseau N - - 2000
To test glucose tolerance during exercise, the effects of oral glucose ingestion (0.5 g x kg(-1)) on plasma glucose and hormonal responses (insulin, catecholamines) were investigated in 11 women [mean (SEM) age 21.6 (1.3) years] and 10 men [22.0 (0.3) years] during cycle ergometer exercise (30 min at 60% maximum ...
Borghouts L B - - 2000
Physical activity has a beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity in normal as well as insulin resistant populations. A distinction should be made between the acute effects of exercise and genuine training effects. Up to two hours after exercise, glucose uptake is in part elevated due to insulin independent mechanisms, probably ...
Braun B - - 2000
To evaluate the hypothesis that exposure to high altitude would reduce blood glucose and total carbohydrate utilization relative to sea level (SL), 16 young women were studied over four 12-day periods: at 50% of peak O(2) consumption in different menstrual cycle phases (SL-50), at 65% of peak O(2) consumption at ...
Galassetti P P Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics and Diabetes Research and Training Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0615, USA. - - 1999
Prior exercise stimulates muscle and liver glucose uptake. A negative arterial-portal venous glucose gradient (a-pv grad) stimulates resting net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) but reduces muscle glucose uptake. This study investigates the effects of a negative a-pv grad during glucose administration after exercise in dogs. exercise (-180 to -30 min), ...
Coker R H - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of pancreatic innervation in mediating exercise-induced changes in pancreatic hormone secretion and glucose kinetics. Dogs underwent surgery >16 days before an experiment, at which time flow probes were implanted on the portal vein and the hepatic artery, and Silastic catheters ...
Sakamoto M - - 1999
The effect of a single bout of mild exercise on glucose effectiveness (S(G)) and insulin sensitivity (S(I)) was studied in six young male subjects by using a minimal model. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed under two conditions as follows: 1) 25 min after a bout of exercise on ...
Houmard J A - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine if the improvement in insulin sensitivity with exercise training is associated with enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Nine sedentary men were studied before and after 7 days of exercise training (1 h/day, approximately 75% maximal oxygen consumption). Insulin sensitivity was determined ...
Oskarsson P R - - 1999
This study was performed to determine whether metabolic and hormonal responses during moderate exercise differ between continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). In seven Type 1 diabetic patients, treatment was changed from CSII to CIPII. Prior to the change, these patients performed an ergometer exercise ...
Sigal R J - - 1999
In intense exercise (>80% maximum oxygen uptake) a huge, up to 8-fold increase in glucose production (Ra) is tightly correlated to marked increases in plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine. Both Ra and glucose uptake (Rd) are enhanced, not reduced, during beta-adrenergic blockade in normal subjects. Beta-blockade also caused a greater ...
Larsen J J - - 1999
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The influence of postprandial high intensity exercise on glycaemia was studied in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Patients who were treated by diet only (n = 8) ate a standardised breakfast and 4 h later a standardised lunch. They were studied in the resting state (control day) ...
van Loon L J - - 1999
In this study, an oral glucose load was enriched with a [U-(13)C]glucose tracer to determine differences in substrate utilization between endurance-trained (T) and untrained (UT) subjects during submaximal exercise at the same relative and absolute workload when glucose is ingested. Six highly trained cyclists/triathletes [maximal workload (Wmax), 400 +/- 9 ...
Larsen J J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the plasma glucose-lowering effects of sulfonylureas and acute submaximal exercise are additive and, accordingly, to determine whether they may increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined in fasting patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight postabsorptive type 2 diabetic patients were examined at three occasions: after oral ...
Thorell A - - 1999
Studies in rodents have established that GLUT-4 translocation is the major mechanism by which insulin and exercise increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. In contrast, much less is known about the translocation phenomenon in human skeletal muscle. In the current study, nine healthy volunteers were studied on two different days. ...
Howlett K - - 1999
1. The role of adrenaline in regulating hepatic glucose production and muscle glucose uptake during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient, bilaterally adrenalectomised humans. Six sex- and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls (CON). 2. Adrenalectomised subjects cycled for 45 min at 68 +/- 1 % maximum pulmonary O2 uptake ...
Carlsson O - - 1999
Lymph flow is elevated in most inflammatory conditions. However, a few previous studies have indicated that peritoneal lymph flow may actually fall during acute peritonitis. This study was performed to explore this issue further and to study the pathophysiology of peritoneal exchange during peritonitis. Therefore, we wanted to assess the ...
Melanson K J - - 1999
Regulatory functions of glycogen stores and blood glucose on human appetite, particularly relating to exercise, are not fully understood. Ten men (age 20-31 yr) performed glycogen-depleting exercise in an evening, ate a low-carbohydrate dinner, and stayed overnight in the laboratory. The next day, blood glucose was monitored continuously for 517 ...
Fluckey J D - - 1999
A previous study reported elevations of insulin-mediated muscle protein synthesis following four days of resistance exercise in rats (Fluckey et al. 1996. Am J Physiol 270, E313-E319). The purpose of this study was to determine if insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (a-v diff.) and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) transport were altered under similar ...
Latour M G - - 1999
The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of a hepatic portal infusion of hypertonic saline on the metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise. Adrenodemedullated male rats were studied at rest or after 30 min of treadmill exercise (26 m/min, 0% grade). Three groups of rats were infused continuously ...
Bradley S J - - 1999
Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play a role in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated rodent skeletal muscle; however, no studies have examined this question in humans. Seven healthy men completed two 30-min bouts of supine cycling exercise at 60 +/- 2% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), separated by 90 ...
Forjaz C L - - 1999
Although insulin and exercise cause dramatic changes in physiological parameters, the impact of exercise on neural and hemodynamic responses to insulin administration has not been described. In a study of the effects of a single bout of exercise on blood pressure (BP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and forearm blood ...
Jankowski C - - 1999
Postprandial insulin responses (integrated area under the curve) to an oral glucose load after a period of aerobic exercise and no exercise (control) were compared in sedentary normoglycemic Mexican American and non-Hispanic women pair-matched (n = 9) on total body fat mass (21.8 +/- 3.5 kg). The age (27.4 +/- ...
Bergeron R - - 1999
The present study compared the arteriohepatic venous (a-hv) balance technique and the tracer-dilution method for estimation of hepatic glucose production during both moderate and heavy exercise in humans. Eight healthy young men (aged 25 yr; range, 23-30 yr) performed semisupine cycling for 40 min at 50.4 +/- 1.5(SE)% maximal O(2) ...
Koval J A - - 1999
Insulin and exercise independently increase glucose metabolism in muscle. Moreover, exercise training or a prior bout of exercise increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in resting skeletal muscle. The present study was undertaken to compare how physiological hyperinsulinemia and moderate intensity aerobic exercise affect the tyrosine phosphorylation state and activity of insulin ...
Eriksson J G - - 1999
Exercise has long been considered a cornerstone in the treatment regimen for patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Aerobic endurance exercise has traditionally been advocated as the most suitable exercise mode. Several exercise studies have evaluated the effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in patients with ...
Steen M S - - 1999
Exercise training or chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can ameliorate glucose intolerance, insulin resistance of muscle glucose metabolism, and dyslipidemia associated with the obese Zucker rat. The purpose of the present study was to determine the interactions of exercise training and ACE inhibition (trandolapril) on these parameters in ...
Patiño J F - - 1999
The critically ill patient exhibits a well defined endocrine and metabolic adaptive response to stressor agents, characterized by incremented resting energy expenditure (hypermetabolism, which is believed to signify increased energy requirements), accelerated whole-body proteolysis (hypercatabolism), and lipolysis. These phenomena occur in the acute stage, which is also characterized by hyperglycemia, ...
Galassetti P - - 1999
The aim of these studies was to determine whether prior exercise enhances net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during a glucose load. Sampling catheters (carotid artery, portal, hepatic, and iliac veins), infusion catheters (portal vein and vena cava), and Doppler flow probes (portal vein, hepatic and iliac arteries) were implanted. Exercise ...
Howlett K - - 1999
The increase in hepatic glucose production (HGP) that occurs during intense exercise is accompanied by a simultaneous increase in epinephrine, which suggests that epinephrine may be important in regulating HGP. To further investigate this, six trained men were studied twice. The first trial [control (Con)] consisted of 20 min of ...
Rasmussen B M - - 1999
The objective was to investigate the impact of the combination of exercise and alcohol on the metabolic response in nonfasting and fasting type 2 diabetic subjects. In part 1, 12 untrained middle-aged type 2 diabetic subjects participated on 3 test days. On each day, they ingested a light meal (1,824 ...
Coker R H - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between arterial immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and IRG that perfuses the liver via the portal vein during exercise in the diabetic state. Dogs underwent surgery >16 days before the experiment, at which time flow probes were implanted in the portal vein ...
Kuipers H - - 1999
To study the occurrence and contributing factors of transient hypoglycemia after pre-exercise ingestion of glucose after a 4-hour fast, 19 well-trained cyclists ingested 50 grams of glucose dissolved in water around noon after having a normal breakfast. The ingestion of the glucose solution was followed by 30 minutes rest after ...
Clarke W L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify self-management antecedents of low blood glucose (BG) (< 3.9 mmol/l) that might be easily recognized, treated, or avoided altogether. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-three adults with type 1 diabetes (age, 35.8 +/- 8 years [mean +/- SD]; duration of diabetes, 17.0 +/- 11 years; daily insulin dose, ...
Calders P - - 1999
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of pre-exercise administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glucose, and glucose plus BCAA on time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl), BCAA (30 mg), glucose ...
White R D - - 1999
If you have diabetes, one of the best things you can do for yourself is to stay-or begin to be-active. A regular exercise program can help stabilize your blood sugar, reduce your need for insulin and medication, and keep your weight under control. Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, ...
Halseth A E - - 1999
The hypothesis of this investigation was that glucose uptake would be increased in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing hexokinase II (HK II) compared with their nontransgenic littermates (NTG) during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia and treadmill exercise. For insulin experiments, catheters were surgically implanted in the jugular vein and carotid artery ...
Kang J - - 1999
PURPOSE: This investigation was undertaken to examine substrate utilization and glucose turnover during exercise of varying intensities in NIDDM patients. METHODS: Six male NIDDM patients (N) and six male controls (C) of similar age, body weight, % body fat, and VO2peak were studied in two experimental sessions administered in a ...
Zweers M M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The development of an experimental peritoneal dialysis (PD) model in rabbits to investigate peritoneal transport characteristics during a longitudinal follow-up and to assess normal values of these peritoneal transport parameters. DESIGN: Peritoneal transport parameters were determined in conscious, unrestrained rabbits by standard peritoneal permeability analysis adjusted for rabbits (SPAR). ...
Burelle Y - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to compare the oxidation of [13C]glucose (100 g) ingested at rest or during exercise in six trained (TS) and six sedentary (SS) male subjects. The oxidation of plasma glucose was also computed from the volume of 13CO2 and 13C/12C in plasma glucose to compute ...
Shanghavi DS - - 1999
The rate of hepatic glucose production (R(a)glucose) was measured by continuous infusions of 6-[(3)H]glucose in live rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) before, during and after swimming for 3 h at 1.5 body lengths s(-)(1) in a swim tunnel. Contrary to expectation, we found that sustained swimming causes a 33 % decline ...
Désy F - - 1999
The fructose analogue 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (2,5-AM) has been shown to act specifically in liver by decreasing liver ATP and by blocking glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The present investigation was designed to determine the effects of the administration of 2,5-AM on pancreatic hormone responses during a situation of increased energy demand such as ...
Bonen A - - 1998
We compared the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on oral glucose tolerance immediately and 24 hr after each exercise bout. Participants were 5 male and 5 female individuals (age 40-48). A fasted, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted several days before the first exercise bout. Glucose and insulin ...
Hargreaves M - - 1998
Skeletal muscle glucose uptake and metabolism are major determinants of whole body glucose metabolism in response to exercise and insulin stimulation. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for increased muscle glucose uptake under these conditions is crucial for identifying strategies that enhance insulin action and exercise performance. Regular exercise, by ...
Allen T M - - 1998
Although vascular smooth muscle (VSM) derives the majority of its energy from oxidative phosphorylation, controversy exists concerning which substrates are utilized by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We used 13C isotopomer analysis of glutamate to directly measure the entry of exogenous [13C]glucose and acetate and unlabeled endogenous sources into the ...
Hamada K - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glucose administered with amino acids before and during exercise on hepatic ureagenesis. Eight mongrel dogs subjected to treadmill running for 150 minutes at 10 km/h on a 12% incline were intravenously infused with either a mixture of amino acids ...
Farris J W - - 1998
We hypothesized that central fatigue may have a role in limiting the endurance capacity of horses. Therefore, we tested the effect of infusing tryptophan and/or glucose on endurance time and plasma concentrations of free tryptophan and other substrates thought to affect tryptophan uptake into the brain of seven mares (3-4 ...
Manzon A - - 1998
Glucose infusion can prevent the increase in glucose production (Ra) and increase glucose uptake (Rd) during exercise of moderate intensity. We postulated that 1) because in postabsorptive intense exercise (>80% maximal O2 uptake) the eightfold increase in Ra may be mediated by catecholamines rather than by glucagon and insulin, exogenous ...
Usui K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to reveal the effect of low intensity bicycle exercise on the insulin-induced glucose uptake in obese patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seven obese men with Type 2 diabetes (OBDM) and seven healthy young men (HY) participated in this study. The glucose infusion rate (GIR) was ...
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