Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1079
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Cusi K J - - 2001
Glucose phosphorylation, catalyzed by hexokinase, is the first committed step in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Hexokinase II (HKII) is the isoform that is present in muscle and is regulated by insulin and muscle contraction. Glucose phosphorylation and HKII expression are both reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. ...
Musi N - - 2001
Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is impaired in people with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, exercise results in a normal increase in GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in these patients. Several groups have recently hypothesized that exercise increases glucose uptake via an insulin-independent mechanism mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase ...
Vander Lugt J T - - 2001
Thiazolidinediones, represented by troglitazone, are insulin-sensitizing agents with proven efficacy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exercise is also recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes because it both stimulates glucose uptake directly and it increases insulin sensitivity following exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ...
Burelle Y - - 2001
The respective oxidation of glycerol and glucose (0.36 g/kg each) ingested simultaneously immediately before exercise (120 min at 68 +/- 2% maximal oxygen uptake) was measured in six subjects using (13)C labeling. Indirect respiratory calorimetry corrected for protein and glycerol oxidation was used to evaluate the effect of glucose + ...
Shultz J A - - 2001
Diet and exercise are the cornerstones of treatment for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet patients find these areas of self-management to be the most difficult. Considerable research has indicated that barriers to diet and exercise are critical influences determining adherence to diet and exercise plans. Standards of practice ...
Trimmer J K - - 2001
Related to hepatic autoregulation we evaluated hypotheses that 1) glucose production would be altered as a result of a glycerol load, 2) decreased glucose recycling rate (Rr) would result from increased glycerol uptake, and 3) the absolute rate of gluconeogenesis (GNG) from glycerol would be positively correlated to glycerol rate ...
Howlett K F - - 2001
This study examined the effect of reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability on carbohydrate metabolism during exercise. Six untrained women cycled for 60 minutes at approximately 58% of maximum oxygen uptake after ingestion of a placebo (CON) or nicotinic acid (NA), 30 minutes before exercise (7.4 +/- 0.5 mg.kg(-1) ...
Brun J F - - 2001
Hypoglycemia during exercise is a common event due to an unbalance between training volume, nutrition, and external influences such as chronobiology, temperature or altitude, in subjects characterized by an acute and chronic increase in glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity. While it is preventable by adequate pre-exercise feeding with carbohydrates, it ...
Beaufort-Krol G C - - 2001
In a previous study we found, after an overnight fast of 18 hours, a lower arterial glucose concentration and a depressed glycogenolysis in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. During exercise, glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations normally increase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the shunt ...
Anthony T G - - 2001
Prolonged exercise increases circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in humans and animals, but its physiological significance is unknown. This study examined 1) time-course changes in plasma IGFBP-1 and hepatic IGFBP-1 mRNA expression after exercise, 2) changes in IGFBP-1 in relation to plasma glucose, insulin, and IGF-I, and 3) ...
Youngren J F - - 2001
Exercise training improves insulin action in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms of this effect are not completely understood. In particular, the role of the insulin receptor (IR) is unclear. We examined the IR and an enzyme indicative of oxidative capacity in muscle in relation to improved insulin action in 20 ...
Meissner T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinism in childhood is often caused by genetic defects involving the regulation of insulin secretion leading to recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia. We report two patients with exercise induced hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Standardised short exercise tests with frequent blood glucose and plasma insulin measurements were performed in the patients and young ...
Pérez-Martin A - - 2001
Skeletal muscle is a major site of insulin resistance. In addition to glucose transport, oxidative disposal and storage defects, insulin resistant muscle exhibit many other metabolic abnormalities. After a brief review of insulin resistance determinants, we will focus on muscular abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Glucose and lipid ...
Avery M D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a single session of exercise (cycling), at rest (control condition) and at two intensity levels (low- and moderate-intensity exercise conditions), on blood glucose and insulin in pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A one-group repeated measures design was used. Women aged 18-38 ...
Wadley G D - - 2001
Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity is enhanced after acute exercise and short-term endurance training. We investigated the impact of exercise on the gene expression of key insulin-signaling proteins in humans. Seven untrained subjects (4 women and 3 men) completed 9 days of cycling at 63 +/- 2% of peak O(2) uptake ...
Watt, Matthew J
1. This series of studies was undertaken to examine the adrenergic regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during exercise. Recreationally active males were tested during moderate to intense exercise on a stationary cycle ergometer. Venous and arterial plasma obtained from indwelling catheters was analysed for hormonal and metabolite responses, and hepatic glucose ...
Miles P D - - 2001
The infusion of glucosamine causes insulin resistance, presumably by entering the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway; it has been proposed that this pathway plays a role in hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance. This study was undertaken to determine if glucosamine infusion could influence exercise-stimulated glucose uptake. Male SD rats were infused with glucosamine at ...
Carter S - - 2001
The female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) has been shown to increase lipid and decrease carbohydrate utilization in animals. We administrated oral E(2) and placebo (randomized, double blind, crossover) to eight human male subjects for 8 days ( approximately 3 mg/day) and measured respiratory variables, plasma substrates, hormones (E(2), testosterone, leptin, ...
Roy B D - - 2000
To determine the influence of a diuretic-induced reduction in plasma volume (PV) on substrate turnover and oxidation, 10 healthy young males were studied during 60 min of cycling exercise at 61% peak oxygen uptake on two separate occasions > or =1 wk apart. Exercise was performed under control conditions (CON; ...
Sato Y - - 2000
Regular physical exercise has been known to be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies of physical exercise: previous non-randomized studies suggested that a life-style intervention program involving diet and/or exercise reduced the progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes. Recent randomized controlled intervention ...
Kawanaka K - - 2000
Exercise training induces an increase in GLUT-4 in muscle. We previously found that feeding rats a high-carbohydrate diet after exercise, with muscle glycogen supercompensation, results in a decrease in insulin responsiveness so severe that it masks the effect of a training-induced twofold increase in GLUT-4 on insulin-stimulated muscle glucose transport. ...
Kohno K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: In hypertensive subjects, exercise training is a therapeutic modality that not only lowers blood pressure but also corrects metabolic abnormality, such as hyperinsulinemia. Insulin causes sympatho-excitation via the modification of baroreflex, norepinephrine release, or central sympathetic outflow. However, the link between neural and metabolic changes by exercise training in ...
Hevener A L - - 2000
Thiazolidinediones and exercise are both known to improve insulin action independently. Therefore, we determined whether combined therapy could normalize insulin action in the Zucker fatty (ZF) rat. Rats were fed troglitazone as a 0.2% food admixture over a 3-week exercise training period (treadmill running 5 days/week, 20 m/min, 0% grade, ...
Brundle S S School of Kinesiology and Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, - - 2000
Pre-exercise and exercise ingestion of fructose and glucose during cycling exercise were compared. Seventeen trained subjects ingested a placebo prior to and during a cycling test to exhaustion at 75% VO2max (control group = CG). One week later, subjects were matched on exercise time to exhaustion (ETE) and assigned to ...
Rafla N M - - 2000
Nine insulin-dependent diabetic women underwent a moderate exercise test. The mean exercise intensity achieved was 65% (50-80%) of submaximal exercise. The maternal heart rate rose significantly after exercise from a mean of 85 b.p.m. (60-109 b.p.m.) to a mean of 140 b.p.m. (112-168 b.p.m.). Maternal systolic blood pressure rose significantly ...
Tessier D - - 2000
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an aerobic physical exercise program in the treatment of a group of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in relation to metabolic control, physical capacity, quality of life (QOL) and attitudes toward diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned ...
Pratley R E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of aerobic exercise training on glucose-stimulated insulin responses in middle-aged and older individuals. DESIGN: A 9-month moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training trial in 17 men. SETTING: An academic medical center. INTERVENTION: Subjects walked, jogged, or cycled at 50 to 60% heart rate reserve (HRR) three times ...
Krishna M G - - 2000
The aim of this study was to determine the role of glucagon in hepatic glutamine (Gln) metabolism during exercise. Sampling (artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava) catheters and flow probes (portal vein, hepatic artery) were implanted in anesthetized dogs. At least 16 days after surgery, an ...
Poirier P - - 2000
We evaluate the influence of the time interval from the last meal on the blood glucose response to exercise in men with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen men with type 2 diabetes participated in an exercise training program carried out at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 1 h, 3 ...
Foianini K R - - 2000
Our laboratory has demonstrated (Steen MS, Foianini KR, Youngblood EB, Kinnick TR, Jacob S, and Henriksen EJ, J Appl Physiol 86: 2044-2051, 1999) that exercise training and treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor trandolapril interact to improve insulin action in insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats. The present study was undertaken ...
Raj D S - - 2000
In a crossover trial, eight patients were studied during one treatment each of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and hybrid dialysis (HyD). During HyD, a fixed quantity of peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) was continuously removed at a flow rate of 141.3 +/- 23. 7 mL/min, dialyzed against the secondary dialysate (250 ...
Albright A - - 2000
Physical activity, including appropriate endurance and resistance training, is a major therapeutic modality for type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, too often physical activity is an underutilized therapy. Favorable changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity usually deteriorate within 72 h of the last exercise session: consequently, regular physical activity is imperative ...
Nuutila P - - 2000
In vitro studies have shown that insulin and exercise stimulate glucose uptake in part via distinct mechanisms. We determined whether a high rate of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (good insulin sensitivity) is associated with an enhanced ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in vivo in humans. In our study, 22 ...
Tyson R L - - 2000
6-Aminonicotinamide (6-AN) is thought to inhibit the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) since large increases in 6-phosphogluconate are observed following its administration. Immediately following 45 min i.v. infusion of [2-(13)C]glucose to controls and 6-AN-treated (50 mg/kg i.p. given 4 h previously) Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 for both groups), metabolism was ...
De Angelis K L - - 2000
Several investigators have demonstrated that diabetes is associated with autonomic and myocardial dysfunction. Exercise training is an efficient non-pharmacological treatment for cardiac and metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on hemodynamic and autonomic diabetic dysfunction. After 1 week of diabetes ...
Kim C H - - 2000
We examined the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and exercise training on insulin-stimulated whole body glucose fluxes and several key steps of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Rats were maintained for 3 wk on either low-fat (LFD) or high-fat diet with or without exercise training (swimming for 3 h per ...
Béquet F - - 2000
To study the impact of exercise or fasting and of subsequent glucose supplementation on glucose metabolism in rats, a spectrophotometric method was used to determine peripheral blood glucose; a technique associating (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and cortical microdialysis was also used to observe intra- plus extracellular and extracellular brain glucose variations, respectively. ...
Kreisman S H - - 2000
The glucoregulatory response to intense exercise [IE, >80% maximum O(2) uptake (VO(2 max))] comprises a marked increment in glucose production (R(a)) and a lesser increment in glucose uptake (R(d)), resulting in hyperglycemia. The R(a) correlates with plasma catecholamines but not with the glucagon-to-insulin (IRG/IRI) ratio. If epinephrine (Epi) infusion during ...
Kreisman S H - - 2000
A seven- to eightfold increment in hepatic glucose production (endogenous R(a)) occurs in postabsorptive (PA) intense exercise (IE). A similar response is likely present in the postprandial (PP) state, when most such exercise is performed, because 1) little evidence for increased intestinal absorption of glucose during exercise exists, and 2) ...
Geor R J - - 2000
We examined the effects of increased glucose availability on glucose kinetics and substrate utilization in horses during exercise. Six conditioned horses ran on a treadmill for 90 min at 34 +/- 1% of maximum oxygen uptake. In one trial [glucose (Glu)], glucose was infused at a mean rate of 34.9 ...
Geor R J - - 2000
This study examined the effects of preexercise glucose administration, with and without epinephrine infusion, on carbohydrate metabolism in horses during exercise. Six horses completed 60 min of treadmill exercise at 55 +/- 1% maximum O(2) uptake 1) 1 h after oral administration of glucose (2 g/kg; G trial); 2) 1 ...
Hickner R C - - 2000
The aim of this study was to evaluate in premenopausal women (10 sedentary obese women) the effects of 10 days of exercise on the suppression of whole body and regional lipolysis by insulin. Lipolysis was determined using 2H5-glycerol infusion and microdialysis of sc adipose tissue during a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp ...
Colberg S R - - 2000
It is becoming evident that in many individuals, diabetes of all types can be precipitated or exacerbated by inactivity. Exercise is a cornerstone in diabetes management and conveys many health benefits. Different forms of exercise can have varying effects on the blood sugar response, especially in individuals using insulin. Appropriate ...
van Baak M A - - 2000
The evidence for beneficial effects of exercise training in the prevention and management of insulin resistance is convincing, although the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. The increase in insulin sensitivity after a bout of exercise appears to be enhanced after training, but disappears within days of inactivity, indicating the ...
Coker R H - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of direct hepatic adrenergic stimulation in the control of endogenous glucose production (R(a)) during moderate exercise in poorly controlled alloxan-diabetic dogs. Chronically catheterized and instrumented (flow probes on hepatic artery and portal vein) dogs were made diabetic by administration of ...
Colberg S R - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to determine the extent to which physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes actually follow exercise recommendations and to compare their use of current with previous recommendations. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed consisting of the American Diabetes Association's current clinical practice recommendations for ...
Hernandez J M - - 2000
The temporal pattern for changes in rates of protein synthesis and glucose uptake after resistance exercise, especially relative to each other, is not known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats performed acute resistance exercise (n = 7) or remained sedentary (n = 7 per group), and the following were assessed in vivo 1, ...
Cutfield W S WS Department of Paediatrics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. - - 2000
The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) is a widely used method to evaluate beta-cell function during the prediabetic phase of evolving type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of clinical and methodological variables on FPIR in normal children and adolescents. Children and ...
Kirwan J P - - 2000
Insulin action in skeletal muscle is enhanced by regular exercise. Whether insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is affected by habitual exercise is not well understood. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation is an important step in the insulin-signaling pathway and appears to regulate glucose metabolism via GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle. ...
Chibalin A V - - 2000
Level of physical activity is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. We determined whether exercise alters the expression and/or activity of proteins involved in insulin-signal transduction in skeletal muscle. Wistar rats swam 6 h per day for 1 or 5 days. Epitrochlearis muscles were excised 16 h after the last exercise ...
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