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Results 401 - 450 of 785
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Hawley J A - - 1997
This study compared the effects of supplementing the normal diets of six trained cyclists [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 4.5 (0.36) l.min-1; values are mean (SD)] with additional carbohydrate (CHO) on muscle glycogen utilisation during a 1-h cycle time-trial (TT). Using a randomised crossover design, subjects consumed either their normal diet ...
Hargreaves M - - 1997
This investigation determined the influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen availability on performance during high intensity exercise. Nine trained male cyclists were studied during 75 s of all-out exercise on an air-braked cycle ergometer following muscle glycogen-lowering exercise and consumption of diets (energy content approximately 14 MJ) that were either high ...
Katz A - - 1997
The importance of metabolic changes associated with contraction in the activation of glycogen synthase (GS) during recovery from exercise in human skeletal muscle has been investigated. Subjects underwent two experimental treatments: 15 s of ischaemic isometric contraction at 66% of maximal force, and 40 min circulatory occlusion. Biopsies were taken ...
Gozal D - - 1997
In glycogen-depleted subjects (GD) a nonlinear increase in epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) parallels blood lactate (La) during graded exercise. The effect of glucose (Glc) supplementation and route of administration on these relationships was studied in 26 GD athletes who were randomly assigned to receive 1.3 g/kg Glc by slow ...
Abrahamsson K - - 1996
To study the effect of carnitine depletion on physical working capacity, healthy subjects were administered pivaloyl-conjugated antibiotics for 54 days. The mean carnitine concentration in serum decreased from 35.0 to 3.5 mmicromol/L, and in muscle from 10 to 4.3 micromol/g noncollagen protein (NCP). Exercise tests were performed before and after ...
Febbraio M A - - 1996
This study examined the effects of elevated muscle temperature on muscle metabolism during exercise. Seven active but untrained men completed two cycle ergometer trials for 2 min at a workload estimated to require 115% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) either without pretreatment (CT) or after having their thigh wrapped in a ...
Gunderson H - - 1996
Female Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with [1-13C]glucose to measure the effect of endurance training and the effect of various metabolic conditions on pathways of hepatic glycogen synthesis. Four metabolic states [sedentary (S), trained (T), sedentary exhausted (SE), and trained exhausted (TE)] were studied. T and TE rats were trained on ...
Salmons S - - 1996
Rabbit tibialis anterior muscles were stimulated continuously at 10 Hz for periods ranging from 2 min to 96 h and were analyzed for energy reserves and metabolic intermediates. Glycogen, ATP and phosphocreatine fell rapidly during the first 5 min of stimulation. Glycogen continued to fall to very low levels, whereas ...
Bangsbo J - - 1996
1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high or moderate (control) blood ...
Low S Y - - 1996
1. The hypothesis that cellular hydration state modulates muscle glycogen synthesis was tested by measuring the incorporation of [14C]glucose into glycogen (glycogen synthesis) in primary rat myotubes after experimentally induced volume changes. 2. Glycogen synthesis in myotubes increased (by 75%, P < 0.01) after swelling induced by 60 min exposure ...
Weinbrenner C - - 1996
Depletion of glycogen has been proposed as the mechanism of protection from ischemic preconditioning. The hypothesis was tested by seeing whether pharmacological manipulation of preconditioning causes parallel changes in cardiac glycogen content. Five groups of isolated rabbit hearts were studied. Group 1 experienced 30 min of ischemia only. Group 2 ...
Wendling P S - - 1996
The variability of the triacylglycerol store in human skeletal muscle (TGm) was examined using the needle biopsy technique. In 13 subjects, three biopsies were sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle of one leg at rest and after 90 min of cycling at 65% of maximal O2 uptake on one or ...
Wendling P S - - 1996
The role of physiological elevations of plasma epinephrine concentration on muscle glycogenolysis during prolonged exercise was investigated. Eight healthy volunteers cycled for 90 min at 65%. VO2max on two occasions; one with an infusion of epinephrine (EPI) and once without (control). Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle ...
van Hall G - - 1996
1. Exercise leads to activation (dephosphorylation) of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH). Here we investigate the effect of low pre-exercise muscle glycogen content and of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) ingestion on the activity of BCKADH at rest and after 90 min of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65% maximal one-leg ...
Nikolovski S - - 1996
During recovery from high intensity exercise, substantial and rapid muscle glycogen repletion from endogenous carbon sources is reported in a variety of vertebrate species, the rat being the only reported exception. The major aim of this study was to re-examine the process of glycogen repletion during recovery from high intensity ...
Jozsi A C - - 1996
The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of starch structure on muscle glycogen resynthesis and cycling performance. Eight male cyclists (22 +/- 1 yr) completed an exercise protocol (DP) to decrease vastus lateralis glycogen concentration. This exercise consisted of 60 min cycling at 75% VO2max, followed by six ...
Berning J R - - 1996
Studies investigating fat as a fuel for exercise have found that increasing free fatty acids during exercise tends to spare muscle glycogen due to increased utilization of free fatty acids for energy, which in turn can enhance the capacity for endurance exercise. Medium-chain triglycerides do not delay gastric emptying or ...
Price T B TB Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 1996
To examine the impact of insulin resistance on the insulin-dependent and insulin-independent portions of muscle glycogen synthesis during recovery from exercise, we studied eight young, lean, normoglycemic insulin-resistant (IR) offspring of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and eight age-weight matched control (CON) subjects after plantar flexion exercise that lowered muscle ...
Krause U - - 1996
The gastrocnemius muscle of the frog (Rana temporaria) has a high capacity for anaerobic glycolysis from glycogen. Glycolytic metabolites and effectors of phosphofructokinase, particularly the hexose bisphosphates, were followed in muscle during exercise (swimming between 5 s and 5 min), recovery (rest for up to 2 h after 5 min ...
Folbergrova J - - 1996
The primary objective of this study was to attempt to induce excessive intraglial acidosis during ischemia by subjecting rats to an initial insult which leads to post insult accumulation of glycogen, presumed to accumulate primarily in astrocytes. The initial insults were 15 min of transient forebrain ischemia, 30 min of ...
Pascoe D D - - 1996
Typical rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after short term, high intensity exercise (15.1 to 33.6 mmol/kg/h) are much higher than glycogen resynthesis rates following prolonged exercise (approximately 2 mmol/kg/h), even when optimal amounts of oral carbohydrate are supplied (approximately mmol/kg/h). Several factors differ during post-exercise recovery from short term, high ...
Tuominen J A - - 1996
Acute physical exercise enhances insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. We examined the effect of a 42-km marathon run on insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation in 19 male runners. In the morning after the marathon run, basal serum free fatty acid concentration was 2.2-fold higher, muscle glycogen content 37% lower (P ...
Holloszy J O - - 1996
During vigorous exercise, carbohydrate, in the form of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, is the primary energy source, whereas fatty acids play a secondary, carbohydrate-sparing role. In the postabsorptive state, nearly all of the carbohydrate used during exercise comes from muscle and liver glycogen. The size of these glycogen stores ...
Constantin-Teodosiu D - - 1996
The present study investigated the effect of repeated biopsy sampling on muscle adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and glycogen resynthesis following prolonged submaximal exercise. In one group of subjects (Ia, n = 7), biopsy specimens were obtained from the vastus lateralis immediately and 48 h after exhaustive one-legged cycling from both the ...
Sancho E - - 1996
The present communication deals with the effect of fenitrothion (0.04 ppm) on the carbohydrate metabolism of the european eel Anguilla anguilla and its recovery from intoxication. Analysis of various parameters such as glycogen, lactate and glucose was made on different eel tissues after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, ...
Dyck D J - - 1996
This study examined muscle glycogenolysis and the regulation of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) activity during 15 min of cycling at 85% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) in control and high free fatty acid (FFA; Intralipid-heparin) conditions in 11 subjects. Muscle biopsies were sampled at rest and 1, 5, and 15 min ...
Kudelska G - - 1996
The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of glycogen mobilization during exercise and the rate of the postexercise glycogen replenishment in different muscle types [white (WG), and red (RG) gastrocnemius, soleus (S) and diaphragm (D)] in rats treated with triiodothyronine (T3, group T). Rats of the ...
Oöpik V - - 1996
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of creatinine administration on urea metabolism in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats and also on the rate of glycogen resynthesis in the liver and skeletal muscle of endurance-trained animals after exhausting exercise. Creatine treatment for 7 days significantly increased ...
Shulman R G - - 1996
Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables in vivo assessments of muscle and/or liver glycogen concentrations. When directly compared with the traditional needle biopsy technique, NMR was found to be more precise. Over the last several years, we have developed and used 13C-NMR to ...
Peters T J - - 1996
Ethanol is recognized to affect adversely carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle. This paper seeks to establish whether ethanol acutely impairs glycogen repletion during recovery from high intensity short duration exercise in the rat. High intensity exercise caused the massive mobilization of glycogen stores in muscles rich in type IIa and ...
Hargreaves M - - 1996
Five trained men were studied during 2 h of cycling exercise at 67% peak oxygen uptake at 20-22 degrees C to examine the effect of fluid ingestion on muscle metabolism. On one occasion, the subjects completed this exercise without fluid ingestion (NF) while on the other they ingested a volume ...
Müller M J MJ Abteilung Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, - - 1996
The liver is central to the metabolic response to exercise but measurements of effects of reduced liver function on the physiological adaptation to exercise are scarce. We investigated metabolic, endocrine, pulmonary and haemodynamic responses to exercise in 15 healthy untrained controls (Co) and in 30 subjects with reduced liver function ...
Schneiter P - - 1995
To determine the metabolic effects of a single bout of exercise performed after a meal or in the fasting state, nine healthy subjects were studied over two 8-h periods during which net substrate oxidation was monitored by indirect calorimetry. On one occasion, exercise was performed 90 min after ingestion of ...
van Hall G - - 1995
1. The influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on ammonia production, adenine nucleotide breakdown and amino acid metabolism was investigated during prolonged exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal and one leg with a low muscle glycogen content. One-leg knee-extensor exercise was performed for 90 min, at ...
Mäkelä T P - - 1995
Freshwater mussels Anodanta anatina and Pseudanodonta complanata were exposed to (14C)-pentachlorophenol. The wet weight based bioconcentration factor (BCF = activity in animal per activity in water) at steady state varied from 80 to 120 for A. anatina and from 61 to 85 for P. complanata. The species did not differ ...
Green H J - - 1995
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increased glycogen concentration found in the working muscles following short-term training would result in an increase in endurance performance. Endurance performance was examined in 8 active but untrained males who cycled until fatigue at 65% VO2max prior to ...
Vandenberghe K - - 1995
This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer, either for 1 min 45 s (protocol 1; N = 18) or ...
McAllister R M - - 1995
Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism are characterised by exercise intolerance. In hypothyroidism, inadequate cardiovascular support appears to be the principal factor involved. Insufficient skeletal muscle blood flow compromises exercise capacity via reduced oxygen delivery, and endurance through decreased delivery of blood-borne substrates. The latter effect results in increased dependence on intramuscular ...
Sherman W M - - 1995
Physical activity in the form of exercise requires the metabolism of bodily fuel reserves to provide energy for muscle contraction. Under normal circumstances, very little protein is metabolized to provide the energy for muscle contraction. At rest and at low exercise intensities, the metabolism of fat provides a considerable proportion ...
Sahlin K - - 1995
1. The importance of the level of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (malate, citrate and fumarate) for energy transduction during exercise has been investigated in six healthy subjects and in two patients with muscle phosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease). 2. Healthy subjects cycled for 10 min at low (50 W), moderate [130 ...
Putman C T - - 1995
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa), acetyl group, and citrate accumulation were examined in human skeletal muscle at rest and during cycling exercise while acetate was infused. Eight subjects received 400 mmol of sodium acetate (Ace) at a constant rate during 20 min of rest, 5 min of cycling at 40% maximal ...
Coyle E F - - 1995
When people walk at low intensity after fasting, the energy needed is provided mostly by oxidation of plasma fatty acids. As exercise intensity increases (eg, to moderate running), plasma fatty acid turnover does not increase and the additional energy is obtained by utilization of muscle glycogen, blood glucose, and intramuscular ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 1995
During endurance exercise at approximately 65% maximal O2 consumption, women oxidize more lipids, and therefore decrease carbohydrate and protein oxidation, compared with men (L.J. Tarnopolsky, M.A. Tarnopolsky, S.A. Atkinson, and J.D. MacDougall. J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 302-308, 1990; S.M. Phillips, S.A. Atkinson, M.A. Tarnopolsky, and J.D. MacDougall. J. Appl. Physiol. ...
Kim C K - - 1995
Muscle glycogen depletion pattern and metabolic responses during voluntary (VOL) and functional electrical stimulated (FES) dynamic knee-extensor exercise with one leg were evaluated. Seven healthy men exercised for 60 minutes at 30 W with an pulmonary oxygen uptake of 0.8 and 1.01 min-1, and respiratory exchange ratios of 0.90 and ...
Asp S - - 1995
1. Eccentric exercise causes impaired postexercise glycogen resynthesis. To study whether changes in muscle concentration of the glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein might be involved, seven healthy young men performed one-legged eccentric exercise by resisting knee flexion enforced by a motor-driven device. 2. The GLUT4 protein concentration in the exercised and ...
Lancha A H AH - - 1995
The present study examined the effect of diet supplementation of oxaloacetate precursors (aspartate and asparagine) and carnitine on muscle metabolism and exercise endurance. The results suggest that the diet supplementation increased the capacity of the muscle to utilize FFA and spare glycogen. Time to exhaustion was about 40% longer in ...
Jansson I - - 1995
At low levels of phenobarbital induction two forms of isoenzyme 2 (LM2; CYP2B4) were obtained during purification of cytochrome P450 from rabbit liver microsomes. At high levels of induction only one form (LM2A) was present. Although the two purified forms (LM2A and LM2B) were very similar they differed in: (a) ...
Litvinova L - - 1995
In Wistar rats after swimming for 3 h, the glycogen level remained low in the liver during a period of 7 h. When sucrose was administered immediately after exercise, the liver glycogen content increased rapidly. From the 3rd to the 5th postexercise hour a secondary reduction was observed in hepatic ...
Hargreaves M - - 1995
To examine the effects of alterations in preexercise muscle glycogen availability on glycogenolysis and glucose uptake during exercise, 12 active but untrained men [22.8 +/- 1.6 (SE) yr, 71.7 +/- 2.0 kg, peak pulmonary oxygen uptake 3.85 +/- 0.16 l/min] were studied during 40 min of cycle ergometer exercise at ...
van Baak M A - - 1995
Twelve healthy male volunteers cycled to exhaustion at a workload corresponding to 70% of maximal aerobic power after administration of 80 mg of the beta 1+2-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol and after administration of placebo by mouth. Exercise times until exhaustion were 39 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 7 min in the ...
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