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Results 351 - 400 of 761
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Halseth A E - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine how gut and liver protein kinetics adapt to acute exercise in the 18-h-fasted dog (n = 7) and in dogs glycogen depleted by a 42-h fast (n = 8). For this purpose, sampling (artery and portal and hepatic veins) and infusion (vena ...
Brooks G A - - 1997
1. The 'crossover' concept is a model of substrate supply during exercise which makes the following predictions. 2. Lipid is the major fuel (approximately 60%) for non-contracting skeletal muscle and the body at rest. 3. Energy flux, as determined by exercise intensity, is the major factor in determining the balance ...
Bao S - - 1997
We assessed the effects of GLUT4 glucose transporter expression on substrate metabolism and glycogen regulation during exercise. Transgenic mice overexpressing human (h)GLUT4 in muscle and fat (TG) and their wild-type littermates (WT) were studied by indirect calorimetry at rest and during acute treadmill exercise (30 minutes) and recovery (30 minutes). ...
Reynolds A J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of immediate postexercise carbohydrate supplementation on muscle glycogen (MG) repletion during the first 4 hours of recovery in sled dogs. ANIMALS: 24 Alaskan Huskies. PROCEDURE: Dogs were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, and a muscle biopsy specimen was obtained 1 hour before and ...
Tipton C M - - 1997
1. Since ancient times, athletes have consumed proteins because of the belief they were the necessary substrate for optimal performance. Even though this concept was proven to be incorrect before the beginning of the 19th century, the practice continued until several decades ago. 2. By 1939, careful metabolic investigations on ...
Marx A - - 1997
To evaluate the importance of reactions within the central metabolism under different flux burdens the fluxes within the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), as well as the other reactions of the central metabolism, were intensively analyzed and quantitated. For this purpose, Corynebacterium glutamicum was grown with [1-(13)C]glucose to metabolic and isotopic ...
Burton R R - - 1997
Adult male chickens adapted to 1.75 or 2.5 G from long term centrifugation, were maximally exercised on an animal treadmill at 1 g (Earth's gravity) and compared with the exercise capacities of control chickens raised at 1 g. The increased-G birds had statistically significantly greater exercise capacities than the controls ...
Bangsbo J - - 1997
The present study examined the role of lactate and glucose as substrates for glyconeogenesis in muscle in recovery from high-intensity exercise in humans. Seven subjects performed approximately 100 min of intense intermittent one-legged knee extensor exercise on two occasions: with [high lactate (HL)] and without [control (C)] intense arm exercise ...
Hawley J A - - 1997
This review suggests that there is little or no effect of elevating pre-exercise muscle glycogen contents above normal resting values on a single exhaustive bout of high-intensity exercise lasting less than 5 minutes. Nor is there any benefit of increasing starting muscle glycogen content on moderate-intensity running or cycling lasting ...
Houghton P E - - 1997
The purpose was to determine if running 30 m/min on a 10 degrees incline, 60 min/day for 5 days/ week altered fetal glycogen storage in prepregnancy trained rats. Animals that exercised for 3 weeks prior to pregnancy either continued the same exercise program until Day 19 of gestation (pregnant running ...
Gibala M J - - 1997
1. This study examined changes in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAIs) in human skeletal muscle during 5 min of dynamic knee extensor exercise (approximately 80% of maximum workload) and following 2 min of recovery. 2. The sum of the seven measured TCAIs (sigma TCAIs) increased from 1.10 +/- 0.08 mmol ...
Figarella-Branger D - - 1997
Exercise intolerance associated with myalgias, muscle cramps or myoglobinuria may be associated with a dystrophinopathy. A search for abnormal dystrophin expression (using immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and DNA analysis) was carried out in a series of 15 patients. They were selected because they presented exercise intolerance, negative biochemical tests (lipid, glycogen and ...
van Zant R S - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of type of preexercise sugar feedings (glucose [GLU] or fructose [FRU]) on muscle glycogen and protein catabolism during prolonged exercise in fed men. Seven men cycled to exhaustion on three different occasions at 70% VO2max, 45 min after ingestion (700 ...
Maughan R J - - 1997
The crucial role of muscle glycogen as a fuel during prolonged exercise is well established, and the effects of acute changes in dietary carbohydrate intake on muscle glycogen content and on endurance capacity are equally well known. More recently, it has been recognized that diet can also affect the performance ...
Dennis S C - - 1997
While the presence of palatable (20 mmol l-1) concentrations of NaCl in drinks containing carbohydrate consumed during intense exercise would not be expected to promote absorption or significantly help maintain fluid balance, there is no doubt that athletes should ingest some from of carbohydrate (other than fructose) during moderate-intensity exercise ...
Adán C - - 1997
The arterio-venous concentrations of oxygen, glucose and lactate, as well as blood flow and muscle levels of lactate, glucose, hexose-phosphates and glycogen of rat hind leg muscle were determined under basal conditions and under mild and intense exercise, as well as during post-exercise recovery. During intense exercise and fatigue glycogen ...
Sibson N R - - 1997
The cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate and the rate of glutamine synthesis were measured in rats in vivo under normal physiological and hyperammonemic conditions using 13C NMR spectroscopy. In the hyperammonemic animals, blood ammonia levels were raised from control values of approximately 0.05 mM to approximately 0.35 mM by ...
Glass C - - 1997
This study compared the integrated electromyogram (IEMG), lactate, and ventilatory thresholds under normal glycogen (NG) and depleted glycogen (DG) conditions for the purpose of determining the presence of a possible relationship between neuromuscular, metabolic and respiratory thresholds. Six trained, male cyclists (Age = 24.0 +/- 2.45 yrs, Ht = 1.76 ...
Bräu L - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine the role of the phosphorylation state of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in the regulation of muscle glycogen repletion in fasted animals recovering from high-intensity exercise. Groups of rats were swum to exhaustion and allowed to recover for up to 120 min ...
Abdelmalki A - - 1997
The present study was designed to examine the effects of administration of a GABAergic agonist (Baclofen) on run-time to exhaustion in trained and untrained rats, and on some indicators of fatigue. Run-time to exhaustion on a treadmill set at a speed of 25 m.min-1 was significantly increased in both untrained ...
Hyyppä S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine glycogen resynthesis rate and changes in plasma metabolite concentrations in horses before and after repeated exercise. ANIMALS: 6 clinically normal Standardbred trotters. PROCEDURE: Horses trotted distances of 3,000, 3,000, and 2,000 m (trial A) and 3 days later, trotted 2,100, 2,100, and 1,600 m (trial B). Horses ...
Parkin J A - - 1997
This study examined the effect of delaying the ingestion of carbohydrate on muscle glycogen storage following prolonged exhaustive exercise. Six endurance trained men cycled on two separate occasions at a workload corresponding to 70% VO2max for 2 h followed by four "all-out" 30-s sprints. Following exercise, subjects were fed five ...
Jackman M L - - 1997
We examined the effect of glycogen availability and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCOAD) activity during exercise. Six subjects cycled at approximately 75% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion on three occasions under different preexercise conditions: 1) low muscle glycogen (LOW), 2) low muscle glycogen ...
Gibala M J - - 1997
Previous studies have used the muscle concentration of citrate + malate + fumarate to estimate tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle pool size in humans [e.g., Am. J. Physiol. 259 (Cell Physiol. 28): C834-C841, 1990]. Our purpose was to quantify changes in individual TCA cycle intermediates (TCAI) and total pool size by ...
Nakatani A - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate and extent of glycogen supercompensation in skeletal muscle are increased by endurance exercise training. Rats were trained by using a 5-wk-long swimming program in which the duration of swimming was gradually increased to 6 h/day over 3 ...
Grigor P N - - 1997
Eight groups of five farmed red deer were transported by road for three hours, after which they were either slaughtered immediately (TO) or held in lairage for three, six or 18 hours (T3, T6 and T18). Liveweight loss increased with lairage time but hot carcase weight was unaffected. Deer spent ...
Hawley J A - - 1997
This study compared the effects of supplementing the normal diets of six trained cyclists [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 4.5 (0.36) l.min-1; values are mean (SD)] with additional carbohydrate (CHO) on muscle glycogen utilisation during a 1-h cycle time-trial (TT). Using a randomised crossover design, subjects consumed either their normal diet ...
Hargreaves M - - 1997
This investigation determined the influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen availability on performance during high intensity exercise. Nine trained male cyclists were studied during 75 s of all-out exercise on an air-braked cycle ergometer following muscle glycogen-lowering exercise and consumption of diets (energy content approximately 14 MJ) that were either high ...
Katz A - - 1997
The importance of metabolic changes associated with contraction in the activation of glycogen synthase (GS) during recovery from exercise in human skeletal muscle has been investigated. Subjects underwent two experimental treatments: 15 s of ischaemic isometric contraction at 66% of maximal force, and 40 min circulatory occlusion. Biopsies were taken ...
Gozal D - - 1997
In glycogen-depleted subjects (GD) a nonlinear increase in epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) parallels blood lactate (La) during graded exercise. The effect of glucose (Glc) supplementation and route of administration on these relationships was studied in 26 GD athletes who were randomly assigned to receive 1.3 g/kg Glc by slow ...
Abrahamsson K - - 1996
To study the effect of carnitine depletion on physical working capacity, healthy subjects were administered pivaloyl-conjugated antibiotics for 54 days. The mean carnitine concentration in serum decreased from 35.0 to 3.5 mmicromol/L, and in muscle from 10 to 4.3 micromol/g noncollagen protein (NCP). Exercise tests were performed before and after ...
Febbraio M A - - 1996
This study examined the effects of elevated muscle temperature on muscle metabolism during exercise. Seven active but untrained men completed two cycle ergometer trials for 2 min at a workload estimated to require 115% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) either without pretreatment (CT) or after having their thigh wrapped in a ...
Gunderson H - - 1996
Female Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with [1-13C]glucose to measure the effect of endurance training and the effect of various metabolic conditions on pathways of hepatic glycogen synthesis. Four metabolic states [sedentary (S), trained (T), sedentary exhausted (SE), and trained exhausted (TE)] were studied. T and TE rats were trained on ...
Salmons S - - 1996
Rabbit tibialis anterior muscles were stimulated continuously at 10 Hz for periods ranging from 2 min to 96 h and were analyzed for energy reserves and metabolic intermediates. Glycogen, ATP and phosphocreatine fell rapidly during the first 5 min of stimulation. Glycogen continued to fall to very low levels, whereas ...
Bangsbo J - - 1996
1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high or moderate (control) blood ...
Low S Y - - 1996
1. The hypothesis that cellular hydration state modulates muscle glycogen synthesis was tested by measuring the incorporation of [14C]glucose into glycogen (glycogen synthesis) in primary rat myotubes after experimentally induced volume changes. 2. Glycogen synthesis in myotubes increased (by 75%, P < 0.01) after swelling induced by 60 min exposure ...
Weinbrenner C - - 1996
Depletion of glycogen has been proposed as the mechanism of protection from ischemic preconditioning. The hypothesis was tested by seeing whether pharmacological manipulation of preconditioning causes parallel changes in cardiac glycogen content. Five groups of isolated rabbit hearts were studied. Group 1 experienced 30 min of ischemia only. Group 2 ...
Wendling P S - - 1996
The variability of the triacylglycerol store in human skeletal muscle (TGm) was examined using the needle biopsy technique. In 13 subjects, three biopsies were sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle of one leg at rest and after 90 min of cycling at 65% of maximal O2 uptake on one or ...
Wendling P S - - 1996
The role of physiological elevations of plasma epinephrine concentration on muscle glycogenolysis during prolonged exercise was investigated. Eight healthy volunteers cycled for 90 min at 65%. VO2max on two occasions; one with an infusion of epinephrine (EPI) and once without (control). Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle ...
van Hall G - - 1996
1. Exercise leads to activation (dephosphorylation) of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH). Here we investigate the effect of low pre-exercise muscle glycogen content and of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) ingestion on the activity of BCKADH at rest and after 90 min of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65% maximal one-leg ...
Nikolovski S - - 1996
During recovery from high intensity exercise, substantial and rapid muscle glycogen repletion from endogenous carbon sources is reported in a variety of vertebrate species, the rat being the only reported exception. The major aim of this study was to re-examine the process of glycogen repletion during recovery from high intensity ...
Jozsi A C - - 1996
The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of starch structure on muscle glycogen resynthesis and cycling performance. Eight male cyclists (22 +/- 1 yr) completed an exercise protocol (DP) to decrease vastus lateralis glycogen concentration. This exercise consisted of 60 min cycling at 75% VO2max, followed by six ...
Berning J R - - 1996
Studies investigating fat as a fuel for exercise have found that increasing free fatty acids during exercise tends to spare muscle glycogen due to increased utilization of free fatty acids for energy, which in turn can enhance the capacity for endurance exercise. Medium-chain triglycerides do not delay gastric emptying or ...
Price T B TB Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 1996
To examine the impact of insulin resistance on the insulin-dependent and insulin-independent portions of muscle glycogen synthesis during recovery from exercise, we studied eight young, lean, normoglycemic insulin-resistant (IR) offspring of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and eight age-weight matched control (CON) subjects after plantar flexion exercise that lowered muscle ...
Krause U - - 1996
The gastrocnemius muscle of the frog (Rana temporaria) has a high capacity for anaerobic glycolysis from glycogen. Glycolytic metabolites and effectors of phosphofructokinase, particularly the hexose bisphosphates, were followed in muscle during exercise (swimming between 5 s and 5 min), recovery (rest for up to 2 h after 5 min ...
Folbergrova J - - 1996
The primary objective of this study was to attempt to induce excessive intraglial acidosis during ischemia by subjecting rats to an initial insult which leads to post insult accumulation of glycogen, presumed to accumulate primarily in astrocytes. The initial insults were 15 min of transient forebrain ischemia, 30 min of ...
Pascoe D D - - 1996
Typical rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after short term, high intensity exercise (15.1 to 33.6 mmol/kg/h) are much higher than glycogen resynthesis rates following prolonged exercise (approximately 2 mmol/kg/h), even when optimal amounts of oral carbohydrate are supplied (approximately mmol/kg/h). Several factors differ during post-exercise recovery from short term, high ...
Tuominen J A - - 1996
Acute physical exercise enhances insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. We examined the effect of a 42-km marathon run on insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation in 19 male runners. In the morning after the marathon run, basal serum free fatty acid concentration was 2.2-fold higher, muscle glycogen content 37% lower (P ...
Holloszy J O - - 1996
During vigorous exercise, carbohydrate, in the form of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, is the primary energy source, whereas fatty acids play a secondary, carbohydrate-sparing role. In the postabsorptive state, nearly all of the carbohydrate used during exercise comes from muscle and liver glycogen. The size of these glycogen stores ...
Constantin-Teodosiu D - - 1996
The present study investigated the effect of repeated biopsy sampling on muscle adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and glycogen resynthesis following prolonged submaximal exercise. In one group of subjects (Ia, n = 7), biopsy specimens were obtained from the vastus lateralis immediately and 48 h after exhaustive one-legged cycling from both the ...
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