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Results 351 - 400 of 822
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Mancini D - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of alteration of glycogen stores and metabolism on exercise performance in patients with heart failure. BACKGROUND: In normal subjects, muscle glycogen depletion results in increased exertional fatigue and reduced endurance. Skeletal muscle biopsies have revealed reduced glycogen content in ...
Parolin M L - - 1999
The time course for the activation of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and their allosteric regulators was determined in human skeletal muscle during repeated bouts of maximal exercise. Six subjects completed three 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling separated by 4-min recovery periods. Muscle biopsies were taken at ...
Van Hall G - - 1999
The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes in the concentrations of amino ...
Gibala M J - - 1999
We examined the hypothesis that increasing the rate of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation, during conditions of low glycogen availability, reduces the level of muscle tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAI) by placing a carbon "drain" on the cycle at the level of 2-oxoglutarate. Six men cycled at approximately 70% of ...
Howlett R A - - 1999
This study investigated whether increased provision of oxidative substrate would reduce the reliance on nonoxidative ATP production and/or increase power output during maximal sprint exercise. The provision of oxidative substrate was increased at the onset of exercise by the infusion of acetate (AC; increased resting acetylcarnitine) or dichloroacetate [DCA; increased ...
Davie A J - - 1999
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced muscle glycogen concentration on some physiological and metabolic responses during moderate intensity treadmill exercise in horses. Six Thoroughbred geldings were randomly allocated to 2 treatments (protocols A and B) or control in a 3 x 3 replicated Latin ...
Esbjörnsson-Liljedahl M - - 1999
The acute metabolic response to sprint exercise was studied in 20 male and 19 female students. We hypothesized that the reduction of muscle glycogen content during sprint exercise would be smaller in women than in men and that a possible gender difference in glycogen reduction would be higher in type ...
Ertbjerg P - - 1999
The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of the relationship between the effect of epinephrine plus exercise and meat tenderness. The calpain, calpastatin, and cathepsin B + L activities and postmortem proteolysis in porcine longissimus muscle were studied. The muscle glycogen stores were depleted in five pigs ...
Palmer G S - - 1999
We studied glucose oxidation (Glu(ox)) and glycogen degradation during 140 min of constant-load [steady-state (SS)] and variable-intensity (VI) cycling of the same average power output, immediately followed by a 20-km performance ride [time trial (TT)]. Six trained cyclists each performed four trials: two experimental bouts (SS and VI) in which ...
Markuns J F - - 1999
Glycogen synthase activity is increased in response to insulin and exercise in skeletal muscle. Part of the mechanism by which insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis may involve phosphorylation and activation of Akt, serine phosphorylation and deactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), leading to dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase. To study ...
Hansen B F - - 1999
To study the upper limit of glycogen storage in human muscle, two healthy male subjects were infused with glucose and insulin for 8 h reaching plasma concentrations of about 21 mM glucose and approximately 2000 microU/ml insulin. Prior to the infusion subjects performed for 1 h one-legged knee-extensor exercise at ...
Gibala M J - - 1999
We hypothesized that dichloroacetate (DCA), which stimulates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), would attenuate the increase in muscle tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAI) during exercise by increasing the oxidative disposal of pyruvate and attenuating the flux through anaplerotic pathways. Six subjects were infused with either saline (Con) or DCA (100 ...
Goldberg S N - - 1999
PURPOSE: To develop a computerized algorithm for pulsed, high-current percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation, which maximally increases the extent of induced coagulation necrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An automated, programmable algorithm for pulsed-RF deposition was designed to permit high-current deposition by periodically reducing current for 5-30 seconds during RF application. Two strategies ...
Howlett R A - - 1999
This study investigated whether dichloroacetate (DCA) decreases the reliance on substrate level phosphorylation during the transition from rest to moderate-intensity exercise in humans. Nine subjects cycled at approximately 65% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) after a saline or DCA (100 mg/kg body wt) infusion, with muscle biopsies taken at ...
Lacombe V - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to develop a model of muscle glycogen depletion and to study the effect of this model on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of horses. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), muscle glycogen concentration and blood lactate concentration of 6 ...
Gansen S - - 1999
The effects of 3 different conditioning programmes on muscle glycogen concentration in horses were examined. Speed of exercise was selected according to the blood lactate values for each horse derived from a standardised exercise test before beginning a conditioning programme. Six 2-year-old Haflinger stallions were assigned randomly to one of ...
Essén-Gustavsson B - - 1999
The aim was to investigate metabolic response in muscle during submaximal treadmill exercise to fatigue, with a special emphasis on adenine nucleotide degradation products such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) in muscle and hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid in plasma. Five Standardbred trotters performed treadmill exercise on 2 occasions, once at ...
Schuback K - - 1999
The aim was to study metabolic response and locomotion pattern in Standardbred trotters during incremental treadmill exercise performed by increasing speed by 1 m/s in 1 min steps (start 7 m/s) until the onset of fatigue. The test protocol included determination of oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), stride length (SL) ...
MacLaren D P - - 1999
We studied the effects of maintained hyperglycemia (12 mmol/l) on endurance exercise to determine the hormonal and metabolic responses, the maximal rate of glucose infusion (i.e., utilization), and the effects on muscle glycogen stores. Eight men undertook two trials during which they exercised on a cycle ergometer at an intensity ...
Greiwe J S - - 1999
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether endurance exercise training increases the ability of human skeletal muscle to accumulate glycogen after exercise. Subjects (4 women and 2 men, 31 +/- 8 yr old) performed high-intensity stationary cycling 3 days/wk and continuous running 3 days/wk for 10 wk. Muscle ...
Toderico, Benjamin J.
The existence of a glycogen-sarcoplasmic reticulum has been demonstrated by a number of researchers. This complex is suspected to participate in the calcium uptake activities of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Removal of glycogen particles associated with this complex may alter the calcium handling abilities of the SR. This experiment sought ...
Anthony J C - - 1999
This study was designed to determine the ability of leucine to enhance muscle recovery after exercise. Male rats (200 g) were divided into five groups: sedentary, food-deprived (SF); exercised, food-deprived (EF); exercised, fed a carbohydrate meal (EC); exercised, fed a leucine meal (EL); and exercised, fed a combination of carbohydrate ...
MacDougall J D - - 1999
Biopsies (biceps) were examined in 8 bodybuilders across a typical arm-curl training session (80% 1-RM). [PCr] and [glycogen] decreased 62 and 12% after 1 set (n = 4), and 50 and 24% after 3 sets (n = 4). [Lactate] was 91 and 118 mmol &times kg-1, respectively, after 1 and ...
Bowtell J L - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of glutamine in promoting whole body carbohydrate storage and muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Postabsorptive subjects completed a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol, then consumed 330 ml of one of three drinks, 18.5% (wt/vol) glucose polymer solution, 8 g ...
Goreham C - - 1999
To investigate the hypothesis that changes in muscle submaximal exercise metabolism would occur as a result of fiber hypertrophy, induced by high-resistance training (HRT), active but untrained males (age 20 +/- 0.7 yr; mean +/- SE) performed lower-limb weight training 3 days/wk for 12 wk using three sets of 6-8 ...
Jannaschk D - - 1999
Experimental and model studies have been performed to characterise the effects of Cu2+ on the activities of individual glycolytic enzymes and on the flux and internal metabolite concentrations of the upper part of glycolysis in mouse muscle extracts. Cu2+ significantly inhibited the triosephosphate production from glucose with an IC50 of ...
Sneddon LU - - 1999
The energetic consequences of fighting, which may depend on environmental conditions, can be an important factor shaping contest strategy and duration. Energy expenditure may be costly to fitness because it depletes reserves that could otherwise have been allocated to reproduction, and metabolites are produced that may constrain subsequent activities. We ...
Kuo C H - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of GLUT4 protein accumulation following an exercise-carbohydrate supplementation regimen, and to evaluate the effect of this regimen on GLUT4 mRNA regulation. Rats were exercised by swimming and intubated with 1 mL of a 50% glucose solution immediately post-exercise. Exercise ...
Blomstrand E - - 1999
1. Eight subjects performed two-legged exercise, one leg with low and the other with normal muscle glycogen content. The purpose was to study the effect of low initial muscle glycogen content on the metabolic response during 1 h of exercise and 2 h of recovery. This model allows direct comparison ...
Tate C A - - 1998
We examined the evidence for greater fat utilization by women during exercise and the potential gender differences in specific cellular processes. Results from well-controlled studies show that, compared to men, women oxidize more fat during submaximal exercise, resulting in the relative sparing of muscle glycogen. Mature female rats use less ...
Wang Y - - 1998
Electrical stimulation of a trout saline-perfused trunk preparation resulted in metabolic and respiratory responses comparable to those occurring after exhaustive exercise in vivo. Recovery of intracellular acid-base status and glycogen resynthesis were faster than in vivo. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase (ICF CA) blockade elevated intracellular PCO2 relative to untreated postexercise controls, ...
Azevedo J L JL - - 1998
The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of endurance training on glycogen kinetics during exercise. A new model describing glycogen kinetics was applied to quantitate the rates of synthesis and degradation of glycogen. Trained and untrained rats were infused with a 25% glucose solution with 6-3H-glucose and U-14C-lactate ...
Borba-Murad G R - - 1998
The participation of hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to the glycemic changes promoted by exercise was investigated. For this purpose, we employed swimming rats (2.5% body weight extra load attached to the tail, at 24 degrees C) using a favorable condition to measure hepatic glycogenolysis (fed rats) and a favorable condition ...
Fraser H - - 1998
Glycogen and its turnover are important components of myocardial glucose metabolism that significantly impact on postischemic recovery. We developed a method to measure glycogen turnover (rates of glycogen synthesis and degradation) in isolated working rat hearts using [3H]- and [14C]glucose. In aerobic hearts perfused with 11 mM glucose, 1.2 mM ...
Rasmussen B B - - 1998
Previous studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption and fat oxidation remain elevated in the postexercise period. The purpose of this study was to determine whether malonyl-CoA, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, remains depressed in muscle after exercise. Rats were sprinted for 5 min (40 m/min, 5% grade) or run ...
Halseth A E - - 1998
The goal of this study was to determine how liver glutamine (Gln) metabolism adapts to acute exercise in the 18-h-fasted dogs (n = 7) and in dogs that were glycogen depleted by a 42-h fast (n = 8). For this purpose, sampling (carotid artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein) and ...
Holloszy J O - - 1998
The rate of carbohydrate utilization during prolonged, strenuous exercise is closely geared to the energy needs of the working muscles. In contrast, fat utilization during exercise is not tightly regulated, as there are no mechanisms for closely matching availability and metabolism of fatty acids to the rate of energy expenditure. ...
Gibala M J - - 1998
We examined the relationship between tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool size, TCA cycle flux (calculated from leg O2 uptake), and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) in human skeletal muscle. Six males performed moderate leg extensor exercise for 10 min, followed immediately by intense exercise until exhaustion (3.8 +/- 0.5 ...
Chesley A - - 1998
This study examined the effects of caffeine (Caf) ingestion on muscle glycogen use and the regulation of muscle glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) activity during intense aerobic exercise. In two separate trials, 12 untrained males ingested either placebo (Pl) or Caf (9 mg/kg body wt) 1 h before cycling at 80% maximum ...
Kiens B - - 1998
The utilization of muscle triacylglycerols was studied during and after prolonged bicycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion in eight healthy young men. Two days before exercise and in the postexercise recovery period, subjects were fed a carbohydrate-rich diet (65-70% of energy from carbohydrates). Exercise decreased muscle glycogen concentrations from 533 +/- ...
Howlett R A - - 1998
This study investigated the transformational and posttransformational control of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) at three exercise power outputs [35, 65, and 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)]. Seven untrained subjects cycled at one power output for 10 min on three separate occasions, with muscle biopsies ...
Nakamura M - - 1998
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48, > 200 g) were progressively treadmill trained over 5 wk where they were running 60 min/d, 5 d/wk. One-half of the group consumed a high-fat diet (HF, 78.7% of energy), while one-half consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (HC, 68.7% of energy). On the day of ...
Rico-Sanz J - - 1998
1. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate non-invasively with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) changes in the concentrations of intracellular (IT) and extracellular (between muscle fibres) triglycerides (ET) in skeletal muscles of trained males (age range: 24-38 years) during two standard exercise protocols of alternating velocities. 2. Protocol ...
Williams B D - - 1998
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify both alanine and glutamine kinetics during exercise of moderate intensity to determine the sum total of alanine and glutamine flux. METHODS: Tracer methods were used to quantify alanine and glutamine rates of appearance (Ra) in plasma at rest and during 180 ...
Wagner K R - - 1998
OBJECT: The authors previously demonstrated, in a large-animal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) model, that markedly edematous ("translucent") white matter regions (> 10% increases in water contents) containing high levels of clot-derived plasma proteins rapidly develop adjacent to hematomas. The goal of the present study was to determine the concentrations of high-energy ...
Ivy J L - - 1998
To maximize glycogen resynthesis after exercise, a carbohydrate supplement in excess of 1.0 g x kg(-1) body wt should be consumed immediately after competition or a training bout. Continuation of supplementation every two hours will maintain a rapid rate of storage up to six hours post exercise. Supplements composed of ...
Kawanaka K - - 1998
Recently (K. Kawanaka, I. Tabata, and M. Higuchi. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 429-433, 1997), we demonstrated that glucose transport activity after repeated 10-s-long in vitro tetani in rat epitrochlearis (Epi) muscle was negatively correlated with the postcontraction muscle glycogen concentration. Therefore, we examined whether high-intensity intermittent swimming, which depletes muscle ...
Lavoie C - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration on energy metabolism during exercise. Specifically, the contribution of anaerobic (glycogen) metabolism during exercise was evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an experimental [rHuEPO] (600 U x kg(-1) of Eprex, every 3 days) ...
Hargreaves M - - 1998
Six men were studied during four 30-s "all-out" exercise bouts on an air-braked cycle ergometer. The first three exercise bouts were separated by 4 min of passive recovery; after the third bout, subjects rested for 4 min, exercised for 30 min at 30-35% peak O2 consumption, and rested for a ...
Snow R J - - 1998
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation (CrS) on sprint exercise performance and skeletal muscle anaerobic metabolism during and after sprint exercise. Eight active, untrained men performed a 20-s maximal sprint on an air-braked cycle ergometer after 5 days of CrS [30 g ...
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