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Watt Matthew J - - 2002
This study investigated intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) and glycogen utilisation, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation (PDHa) and acetyl group accumulation during prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Seven endurance-trained men cycled for 240 min at 57 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2,max)) and duplicate muscle samples were obtained at rest and at 10, 120 and 240 ...
Tarnopolsky Mark A - - 2002
Fatigue can have many causes in active people. A metabolic myopathy-though uncommonly identified as a cause of fatigue during sporting events-must be considered in certain circumstances, and the diagnosis may be helpful for preventive and genetic counseling. In general, symptoms of disorders of glycogen breakdown and glucose utilization (glycogen storage ...
Fairchild Timothy J - - 2002
PURPOSE: One limitation shared by all published carbohydrate-loading regimens is that 2-6 d are required for the attainment of supranormal muscle glycogen levels. Because high rates of glycogen resynthesis are reported during recovery from exercise of near-maximal intensity and that these rates could in theory allow muscle to attain supranormal ...
Pilegaard Henriette - - 2002
Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the ...
Steensberg Adam - - 2002
There are many factors that can influence glucose uptake by contracting skeletal muscle during exercise and although one may be intramuscular glycogen content, this relationship is at present not fully elucidated. To test the hypothesis that muscle glycogen concentration influences glucose uptake during exercise, 13 healthy men were studied during ...
Jørgensen H - - 2002
An industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DGI 342) was cultivated in fed-batch cultivations at a specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1). The yeast was then exposed to carbon or nitrogen starvation for up to 8 h, to study the effect of starvation on fermentative capacity and content of protein, trehalose ...
Chryssanthopoulos C - - 2002
This study investigated whether the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during running would influence muscle glycogen utilisation in subjects who had consumed a carbohydrate meal 3 hours before exercise. Eight men completed two 60-min treadmill runs at 70% VO(2)max. Before each run they consumed a carbohydrate meal (183 +/- 7 ...
Gibala Martin J - - 2002
We tested the hypotheses that: (i) exercise with low muscle glycogen would reduce pyruvate flux through the alanine aminotransferase (AAT) reaction and attenuate the increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and (ii) attenuation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool expansion would limit TCA cycle flux, thereby accelerating phosphocreatine ...
Fushimi T - - 2002
We examined the effect of acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, on glycogen repletion by using swimming-exercised rats. Rats were trained for 7 days by swimming. After an overnight fast, they were subjected to a 2-hr swimming exercise. Immediately afterward, they were given by gavage 2 ml of one ...
Bowtell Joanna L - - 2002
There is an up to four-fold increase in the concentration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at the start of exercise. The rate of TCA cycle flux and, hence, oxidative metabolism may be limited by the concentration of the intermediates in the cycle. The dramatic decline in intramuscular glutamate ...
Richards Jeff G - - 2002
We examined the regulation of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in white muscle of rainbow trout during a continuous bout of high-intensity exercise that led to exhaustion in 52 s. The first 10 s of exercise were supported by creatine phosphate hydrolysis and glycolytic flux from an elevated ...
Tüzün Ahmet - - 2002
McArdle's disease, or myophosphorylase deficiency, is one of the most common muscle glycogenoses and typically presents in childhood or adolescence with exercise intolerance, myalgia, myoglobinuria, and cramps in the exercising muscle. We report the case of a 21-year-old male patient with liver enzyme elevation who had a history of weakness, ...
Essén-Gustavsson B - - 2002
A few animal studies have shown that some amino acid concentrations vary between different muscle fibre types. In the present study, amino acid concentrations were measured in separate pools of different fibre types in human skeletal muscle, with reduced glycogen stores, before and after sustained exercise. Five subjects exercised at ...
Choi Hyang-Sook - - 2002
Compositional changes of Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka (hyuganatsu) essential oil were analyzed after storage for 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks at -21, 5, 20, and 30 degrees C. The total amount of oxides increased greatly. The contents of monoterpene alcohols and ketones also increased. The total amount of ...
Febbraio Mark A - - 2002
To test the hypothesis that a decrease in intramuscular glycogen availability may stimulate heat shock protein expression, seven men depleted one leg of muscle glycogen the day before performing 4-5 h of exhaustive, two-legged knee extensor exercise at 40 % of leg peak power output. Subjects then rested for a ...
Richards Jeff G - - 2002
The oxidative utilization of lipid and carbohydrate was examined in white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at rest, immediately after exhaustive exercise, and for 32-h recovery. In addition to creatine phosphate and glycolysis fueling exhaustive exercise, near maximal activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) at the end of exercise points ...
Gigli I - - 2002
The relationships between exercise and metabolites as well as between exercise and sarcoplasmic reticulum function were studied in gastrocnemius muscle of ovariectomized-trained rats. Prolonged moderate-intensity exercise, treadmill up-hill run for 90 min with a 10 degree incline, decreased the muscle glycogen content. Exercise until exhaustion further lowered the glycogen concentration ...
Wakshlag Joseph J - - 2002
Post-exercise carbohydrate supplementation has been routinely used to enhance glycogen concentrations in skeletal muscle, particularly during multiple-day athletic events. Consumption of protein hydrolysates mixed with carbohydrate supplements during the post-exercise period may increase insulin response and cause glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle. A group of Alaskan sled dogs were selected ...
Bonjorn Victoria Matas - - 2002
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a prior period of exercise is associated with an increase in hepatic glucagon sensitivity. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was measured in four groups of anesthetized rats infused with glucagon (2 microg. kg(-1). min(-1) iv) over a period of ...
Evans M K - - 2001
This study investigated whether increased muscle acetylcarnitine provision (acetate infusion) or hyperoxia (100% O(2)) would increase the rate of oxidative phosphorylation and reduce the reliance on muscle substrate phosphorylation after the onset of moderate exercise. Eight subjects completed three randomized trials, each separated by 1 wk: 1) saline infusion for ...
Hellsten Y - - 2001
Seven males performed two exhaustive cycling bouts (EX1 and EX2) at a work-rate of 90% of maximal oxygen uptake, separated by 60 min. During EX1 there was a significant accumulation of urate (from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.27 +/- 0.03 micromol/kg d.w.) and allantoin (from 0.39 +/- 0.05 to 0.69 ...
Steensberg A - - 2001
1. Prolonged exercise results in a progressive decline in glycogen content and a concomitant increase in the release of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from contracting muscle. This study tests the hypothesis that the exercise-induced IL-6 release from contracting muscle is linked to the intramuscular glycogen availability. 2. Seven men performed ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2001
During submaximal endurance exercise, women oxidize more lipid and less carbohydrate as metabolic substrates than men. This is reflected in a lower glycogen utilization in skeletal muscle and lower hepatic glucose production for women compared with men. These latter observations may explain the lower leucine oxidation observed during endurance exercise ...
Rush J W - - 2001
This study aimed to determine physiologically relevant kinetic and allosteric effects of P(i), AMP, ADP, and caffeine on isolated skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase a (Phos a). In the absence of effectors, Phos a had Vmax = 221 +/- 2 U/mg and Km = 5.6 +/- 0.3 mM P(i) at 30 ...
Keller C - - 2001
In humans, the plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration increases dramatically during low-intensity exercise. Measurements across the working limb indicate that skeletal muscle is the source of IL-6 production. To determine whether energy availability influences the regulation of IL-6 expression during prolonged exercise, six male subjects completed two trials consisting of ...
Lacombe V A - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of muscle glycogen depletion and subsequent replenishment on anaerobic capacity of horses. In a blinded crossover study, seven fit horses performed glycogen-depleting exercise on two occasions. Horses were infused after glycogen-depleting exercise with either 6 g/kg body wt of glucose ...
Bruce C R - - 2001
We determined the effect of an acute bout of swimming (8 x 30 min) followed by either carbohydrate administration (0.5 mg/g glucose ip and ad libitum access to chow; CHO) or fasting (Fast) on postexercise glycogen resynthesis in soleus muscle and liver from female lean (ZL) and obese insulin-resistant (ZO) ...
Rennie M J - - 2001
After exhaustive exercise, intravenous or oral glutamine promoted skeletal muscle glycogen storage. However, when glutamine was ingested with glucose polymer, whole-body carbohydrate storage was elevated, the most likely site being liver and not muscle, possibly due to increased glucosamine formation. The rate of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux and hence ...
DiMauro S - - 2001
There are 11 hereditary disorders of glycogen metabolism affecting muscle alone or together with other tissues, and they cause two main clinical syndromes: episodic, recurrent exercise intolerance with cramps, myalgia, and myoglobinuria; or fixed, often progressive weakness. Great strides have been made in our understanding of the molecular bases of ...
Jiao Y - - 2001
It was recently reported that MnSO4 stimulates glycogen synthase-dependent glucose transfer from UDPglucose into trichloroacetic acid precipitable endogenous glycoproteins (GSMn(T)) in human muscle extracts. To determine the physiologic significance of this reaction, we compared a new GS activity ratio, GSMn(T)/GSH(E) (where GSH(E) represents the usual glucose transfer to ethanol precipitable ...
Paton K R - - 2001
When stimulated, the ammocoetes (larvae) of Geotria australis swim continuously at a moderate rate for only approximately 20 min, whereas the downstream migrants (young adults) of this species did not become exhausted following similar swimming activity over the same period. Mean concentrations of muscle glycogen in ammocoetes declined during exercise, ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2001
1. Myoadenylate deaminase (AMPD) deficiency is present in 1--2 % of the population. In theory, this deficiency may alter exercise energy metabolism by impairing the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) and reducing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. The role of the PNC in TCA cycle anaplerosis is still a debated issue ...
Bak H - - 2001
Muscle-specific phosphorylase b kinase deficiency is an unusual form of glycogen storage disorder. The majority of patients are male with an age at diagnosis between 15 to 36 years. Clinical features include exercise intolerance, myalgia and muscle weakness. A forearm ischaemic exercise test is usually normal and histochemical staining for ...
Christmass M A - - 2001
The role of work period duration as the principal factor influencing carbohydrate metabolism during intermittent exercise has been investigated. Fuel oxidation rates and muscle glycogen and free carnitine content were compared between two protocols of sustained intermittent intense exercise with identical treadmill speed and total work duration. In the first ...
Clemmesen J O - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: In acute liver failure (ALF), urea production is severely impaired, and detoxification of ammonia by glutamine synthesis plays an important protective role. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of therapeutic high-volume plasmapheresis (HVP) on arterial concentrations and splanchnic exchange rates of ammonia, urea, and amino ...
Bruce M - - 2001
The aims of the present study were twofold: first to investigate whether TCA cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool expansion at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle could be enhanced independently of pyruvate availability by ingestion of glutamine or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, and second, if it was, whether this modification ...
Okada M - - 2001
The effect of exercise on vitamin B6 metabolism and PLP-dependent enzymes was studied in rats fed a diet with or without vitamin B6. Metabolism of some amino acids (citrulline, arginine, ornithine and threonine) inhibited in the B6-deficient rats was normalized during exercise. Exercise was also effective in storing vitamin B6 ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2001
We have previously demonstrated that females oxidize more lipid and less protein and carbohydrate during endurance exercise [21]. Several studies in male rats have demonstrated similar metabolic changes after 4 d of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) administration. Our purpose was to study the effects of E2 administration upon substrate metabolism during 90min ...
Wilkie M P - - 2001
Although the majority of the sea lamprey's (Petromyzon marinus) life cycle is spent as a burrow-dwelling larva, or ammocoete, surprisingly little is known about intermediary metabolism in this stage of the lamprey's life history. In this study, larval sea lampreys (ammocoetes) were vigorously exercised for 5 min, and their patterns ...
Ooi Foong Kiew FK - - 2001
It is essential to replace fluids lost so as to remain well hydrated during exercise. The intake of fluids is considered a physiological ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance. There are currently several products in the market that are believed to have ergogenic properties which act as fluid replacement drinks ...
Shearer J - - 2001
This study examined the relationship between preexercise muscle glycogen content and glycogen utilization in two physiological pools, pro- (PG) and macroglycogen (MG). Male subjects (n = 6) completed an exercise and dietary protocol before the experiment that resulted in one leg with high glycogen (HL) and one with low glycogen ...
Wojtaszewski J F - - 2001
Studies of skeletal muscle from rodents performed both in vivo and in vitro suggest a regulatory role of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 in glycogen synthase (GS) activation in response to insulin. Recently, hyperinsulinemic clamp studies in humans support such a role under nearly physiological conditions. In addition, in rats ...
Ferreira L D - - 2001
It has recently been shown that food intake is not essential for the resynthesis of the stores of muscle glycogen in fasted animals recovering from high-intensity exercise. Because the effect of diabetes on this process has never been examined before, we undertook to explore this issue. To this end, groups ...
Kiens B - - 2001
For many years athletes have used carbohydrate loading to enhance endurance performance. This practice has been based on findings demonstrating that 1) exercise induced depletion of the muscle glycogen stores followed by the intake of a carbohydrate rich diet, resulted in muscle glycogen stores above normal values and 2) that ...
Ivy J L - - 2001
Muscle glycogen is an essential fuel for prolonged intense exercise, and therefore it is important that the glycogen stores be copious for competition and strenuous training regimens. While early research focused on means of increasing the muscle glycogen stores in preparation for competition and its day-to-day replenishment, recent research has ...
Décombaz J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Muscle triglycerides are important as a source of energy and in relation to metabolic sensitivity. However, the classic biopsy method does not distinguish intra- from extracellular fat, and their regulation by exercise and diet is largely unknown. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is available to assess the intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) ...
Rotman S - - 2000
The rate of glycogen resynthesis in human skeletal muscle after glycogen-depleting exercise is known to depend on carbohydrate intake and is reported to reach a plateau after an adequate amount of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption. Efforts to maximize the rate of glycogen storage by changing the type and form of CHO, ...
Goedecke J H - - 2000
We examined the variability and determinants of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest and during exercise in 61 trained cyclists. Fasting (10-12 h) RER was measured at rest and during exercise at 25, 50, and 70% of peak power output (W(peak)), during which blood samples were drawn for [lactate] ...
Odland L M - - 2000
This study examined the effects of elevated free fatty acid (FFA) provision on the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and malonyl-CoA (M-CoA) content in human skeletal muscle during moderate-intensity exercise. Seven men rested for 30 min and cycled for 10 min at 40% and 10 min at 65% of ...
Bélanger P - - 2000
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a higher hepatic glycogen level is associated with higher glucagon-induced hepatic glycogen depletion. Four groups of anesthetized rats received three injections (at times 0, 30, and 60 min) of glucagon (intravenously, 20 [microg/kg). Among these groups, hepatic glycogen ...
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