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Singh Rabindarjeet R - - 2003
Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it ...
Honkavaara M - - 2003
This study evaluated the effect of transport time up to 14 hours and the effects of vehicle design on animal welfare, stress and meat quality. 18 transports (six short, medium and long) with a total of 486 animals (118 sample animals, heifers and bulls) were carried out on commercial vehicles ...
Andersson L - - 2003
The RN(-) (rendement Napole, French for Napole yield) phenotype is common in Hampshire pigs and is characterized by a 70% increase in glycogen content in skeletal muscle and large effects on meat characteristics (pH, water content, technological yield and lean meat content). The phenotype is controlled by an autosomal dominant ...
Derave Wim - - 2003
The present study was undertaken to explore the effects of creatine and creatine plus protein supplementation on GLUT-4 and glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. This was investigated in muscles undergoing a decrease (immobilization) and subsequent increase (resistance training) in activity level, compared with muscles with unaltered activity pattern. A ...
Lacombe, Véronique Anne
Horses undertake recreational activities that decrease muscle glycogen stores. Similar to humans, muscle glycogen availability may influence exercise performance. In the first study, a model of glycogen depletion was developed and used to investigate the effect of muscle glycogen availability on the athletic capacity of horses. We demonstrated that exercise-induced ...
Tremblay M - - 2003
Exercise training, like diazepam, is commonly employed as a means of reducing anxiety. Both diazepam and exercise training have been shown to modify carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as influence calcium metabolism in skeletal muscle. As receptor binding and thereby efficacy of diazepam has been demonstrated to be modulated ...
Gardner G E - - 2003
Background - An adequate level of muscle glycogen at the time of slaughter is essential for ensuring the production of premium quality meat, and minimising the incidence of dark cutting in beef. Therefore nutritional management procedures need to be established for cattle to maximise muscle glycogen concentration at slaughter. Objective ...
Helge Jørn W - - 2003
In this study, the hypothesis that the release of interleukin (IL)-6 from human muscle is linked to exercise intensity and muscle glucose uptake was investigated. In the overnight fasted state, seven healthy males performed knee extension exercise, kicking with both legs, each at 25 % of maximal power (W(max)) for ...
Gibala Martin J - - 2002
It has been suggested that a decrease in the total concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAIs)--secondary to a reduction in glycogen availability--compromises oxidative energy provision in skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise. However, no study has directly tested this hypothesis. We therefore studied six men (28 +/- 2 years) during ...
Baldwin Jacinta - - 2003
The hypothesis that fatigue during prolonged exercise arises from insufficient intramuscular glycogen, which limits tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) activity due to reduced TCA cycle intermediates (TCAI), was tested in this experiment. Seven endurance-trained men cycled at approximately 70% of peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak)) until exhaustion with low (LG) or ...
Lavoie Jean-Marc - - 2002
The crucial role of the liver as the only organ to produce glucose used by skeletal muscle during exercise is well known. Since hepatic glucose production is central to blood glucose homeostasis during exercise, it has been postulated that the liver may inform the central nervous system and other organs ...
Morris Stephen - - 2002
Intermittent locomotion by terrestrial crustaceans may under specific circumstances increase walking distance and may allow partial re-oxidization of anaerobic products, and replenishment of ATP and arginine phosphate. The Christmas Island red crab G. natalis undertakes a substantial breeding migration each year. The leg muscles of G. natalis subjected to bouts ...
Fournier P A - - 2002
The finding that during recovery from high intensity exercise, rats have the capacity to replenish their muscle glycogen stores even in the absence of food intake has provided us with an experimental model of choice to explore further this process. Our objective here is to share those questions arising from ...
Hawley John A - - 2002
Several procedures have been utilized to elevate plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration and increase fatty acid (FA) delivery to skeletal muscle during exercise. These include fasting, caffeine ingestion, L-carnitine supplementation, ingestion of medium-chain and long-chain triglyceride (LCT) solutions, and intravenous infusion of intralipid emulsions. Studies in which both untrained ...
Bröjer J - - 2002
The purpose was to investigate the degradation of proglycogen and macroglycogen in skeletal muscle during intense exercise. Ten Standardbred trotters performed a maximal treadmill exercise test comprising a warm-up period, an exercise period, starting at 7 m/s with increments of 1 m/s every 60 s until the onset of fatigue ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2002
This study examined the effect of epinephrine on glucose disposal during moderate exercise when glycogenolytic flux was limited by low preexercise skeletal muscle glycogen availability. Six male subjects cycled for 40 min at 59 +/- 1% peak pulmonary O2 uptake on two occasions, either without (CON) or with (EPI) epinephrine ...
Svensson M B - - 2002
Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with ...
Okafor P N - - 2002
Edible seeds of seven varieties of legumes commonly consumed by Nigerians in large quantities were evaluated for total protein, cyanogens, nitrate and nitrite contents, and trypsin inhibitor activity using chemical, biochemical, enzymatic, and spectrophotometric methods. All analyzed samples contained cyanogen and nitrate with levels ranging from 5.88 +/- 0.26 to ...
Lavoie Jean-Marc - - 2002
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the exercise-induced increase in insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 is not always linked to a decrease in blood glucose level and to examine whether the decreasing levels of liver glycogen during exercise may be associated with the ...
Nielsen Jakob N - - 2002
It has been suggested that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle. We used patients with chronic high muscle glycogen stores and deficient glycogenolysis (McArdle's disease) as a model to address this issue. Six McArdle patients were compared with control ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2002
This study investigated intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) and glycogen utilisation, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation (PDHa) and acetyl group accumulation during prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Seven endurance-trained men cycled for 240 min at 57 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2,max)) and duplicate muscle samples were obtained at rest and at 10, 120 and 240 ...
Tarnopolsky Mark A - - 2002
Fatigue can have many causes in active people. A metabolic myopathy-though uncommonly identified as a cause of fatigue during sporting events-must be considered in certain circumstances, and the diagnosis may be helpful for preventive and genetic counseling. In general, symptoms of disorders of glycogen breakdown and glucose utilization (glycogen storage ...
Fairchild Timothy J - - 2002
PURPOSE: One limitation shared by all published carbohydrate-loading regimens is that 2-6 d are required for the attainment of supranormal muscle glycogen levels. Because high rates of glycogen resynthesis are reported during recovery from exercise of near-maximal intensity and that these rates could in theory allow muscle to attain supranormal ...
Pilegaard Henriette - - 2002
Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the ...
Steensberg Adam - - 2002
There are many factors that can influence glucose uptake by contracting skeletal muscle during exercise and although one may be intramuscular glycogen content, this relationship is at present not fully elucidated. To test the hypothesis that muscle glycogen concentration influences glucose uptake during exercise, 13 healthy men were studied during ...
Jørgensen H - - 2002
An industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DGI 342) was cultivated in fed-batch cultivations at a specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1). The yeast was then exposed to carbon or nitrogen starvation for up to 8 h, to study the effect of starvation on fermentative capacity and content of protein, trehalose ...
Chryssanthopoulos C - - 2002
This study investigated whether the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during running would influence muscle glycogen utilisation in subjects who had consumed a carbohydrate meal 3 hours before exercise. Eight men completed two 60-min treadmill runs at 70% VO(2)max. Before each run they consumed a carbohydrate meal (183 +/- 7 ...
Gibala Martin J - - 2002
We tested the hypotheses that: (i) exercise with low muscle glycogen would reduce pyruvate flux through the alanine aminotransferase (AAT) reaction and attenuate the increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and (ii) attenuation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool expansion would limit TCA cycle flux, thereby accelerating phosphocreatine ...
Fushimi T - - 2002
We examined the effect of acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, on glycogen repletion by using swimming-exercised rats. Rats were trained for 7 days by swimming. After an overnight fast, they were subjected to a 2-hr swimming exercise. Immediately afterward, they were given by gavage 2 ml of one ...
Bowtell Joanna L - - 2002
There is an up to four-fold increase in the concentration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at the start of exercise. The rate of TCA cycle flux and, hence, oxidative metabolism may be limited by the concentration of the intermediates in the cycle. The dramatic decline in intramuscular glutamate ...
Richards Jeff G - - 2002
We examined the regulation of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in white muscle of rainbow trout during a continuous bout of high-intensity exercise that led to exhaustion in 52 s. The first 10 s of exercise were supported by creatine phosphate hydrolysis and glycolytic flux from an elevated ...
Tüzün Ahmet - - 2002
McArdle's disease, or myophosphorylase deficiency, is one of the most common muscle glycogenoses and typically presents in childhood or adolescence with exercise intolerance, myalgia, myoglobinuria, and cramps in the exercising muscle. We report the case of a 21-year-old male patient with liver enzyme elevation who had a history of weakness, ...
Essén-Gustavsson B - - 2002
A few animal studies have shown that some amino acid concentrations vary between different muscle fibre types. In the present study, amino acid concentrations were measured in separate pools of different fibre types in human skeletal muscle, with reduced glycogen stores, before and after sustained exercise. Five subjects exercised at ...
Choi Hyang-Sook - - 2002
Compositional changes of Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka (hyuganatsu) essential oil were analyzed after storage for 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks at -21, 5, 20, and 30 degrees C. The total amount of oxides increased greatly. The contents of monoterpene alcohols and ketones also increased. The total amount of ...
Febbraio Mark A - - 2002
To test the hypothesis that a decrease in intramuscular glycogen availability may stimulate heat shock protein expression, seven men depleted one leg of muscle glycogen the day before performing 4-5 h of exhaustive, two-legged knee extensor exercise at 40 % of leg peak power output. Subjects then rested for a ...
Richards Jeff G - - 2002
The oxidative utilization of lipid and carbohydrate was examined in white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at rest, immediately after exhaustive exercise, and for 32-h recovery. In addition to creatine phosphate and glycolysis fueling exhaustive exercise, near maximal activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) at the end of exercise points ...
Gigli I - - 2002
The relationships between exercise and metabolites as well as between exercise and sarcoplasmic reticulum function were studied in gastrocnemius muscle of ovariectomized-trained rats. Prolonged moderate-intensity exercise, treadmill up-hill run for 90 min with a 10 degree incline, decreased the muscle glycogen content. Exercise until exhaustion further lowered the glycogen concentration ...
Wakshlag Joseph J - - 2002
Post-exercise carbohydrate supplementation has been routinely used to enhance glycogen concentrations in skeletal muscle, particularly during multiple-day athletic events. Consumption of protein hydrolysates mixed with carbohydrate supplements during the post-exercise period may increase insulin response and cause glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle. A group of Alaskan sled dogs were selected ...
Bonjorn Victoria Matas - - 2002
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a prior period of exercise is associated with an increase in hepatic glucagon sensitivity. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was measured in four groups of anesthetized rats infused with glucagon (2 microg. kg(-1). min(-1) iv) over a period of ...
Evans M K - - 2001
This study investigated whether increased muscle acetylcarnitine provision (acetate infusion) or hyperoxia (100% O(2)) would increase the rate of oxidative phosphorylation and reduce the reliance on muscle substrate phosphorylation after the onset of moderate exercise. Eight subjects completed three randomized trials, each separated by 1 wk: 1) saline infusion for ...
Hellsten Y - - 2001
Seven males performed two exhaustive cycling bouts (EX1 and EX2) at a work-rate of 90% of maximal oxygen uptake, separated by 60 min. During EX1 there was a significant accumulation of urate (from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.27 +/- 0.03 micromol/kg d.w.) and allantoin (from 0.39 +/- 0.05 to 0.69 ...
Steensberg A - - 2001
1. Prolonged exercise results in a progressive decline in glycogen content and a concomitant increase in the release of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from contracting muscle. This study tests the hypothesis that the exercise-induced IL-6 release from contracting muscle is linked to the intramuscular glycogen availability. 2. Seven men performed ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2001
During submaximal endurance exercise, women oxidize more lipid and less carbohydrate as metabolic substrates than men. This is reflected in a lower glycogen utilization in skeletal muscle and lower hepatic glucose production for women compared with men. These latter observations may explain the lower leucine oxidation observed during endurance exercise ...
Rush J W - - 2001
This study aimed to determine physiologically relevant kinetic and allosteric effects of P(i), AMP, ADP, and caffeine on isolated skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase a (Phos a). In the absence of effectors, Phos a had Vmax = 221 +/- 2 U/mg and Km = 5.6 +/- 0.3 mM P(i) at 30 ...
Keller C - - 2001
In humans, the plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration increases dramatically during low-intensity exercise. Measurements across the working limb indicate that skeletal muscle is the source of IL-6 production. To determine whether energy availability influences the regulation of IL-6 expression during prolonged exercise, six male subjects completed two trials consisting of ...
Lacombe V A - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of muscle glycogen depletion and subsequent replenishment on anaerobic capacity of horses. In a blinded crossover study, seven fit horses performed glycogen-depleting exercise on two occasions. Horses were infused after glycogen-depleting exercise with either 6 g/kg body wt of glucose ...
Bruce C R - - 2001
We determined the effect of an acute bout of swimming (8 x 30 min) followed by either carbohydrate administration (0.5 mg/g glucose ip and ad libitum access to chow; CHO) or fasting (Fast) on postexercise glycogen resynthesis in soleus muscle and liver from female lean (ZL) and obese insulin-resistant (ZO) ...
Rennie M J - - 2001
After exhaustive exercise, intravenous or oral glutamine promoted skeletal muscle glycogen storage. However, when glutamine was ingested with glucose polymer, whole-body carbohydrate storage was elevated, the most likely site being liver and not muscle, possibly due to increased glucosamine formation. The rate of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux and hence ...
DiMauro S - - 2001
There are 11 hereditary disorders of glycogen metabolism affecting muscle alone or together with other tissues, and they cause two main clinical syndromes: episodic, recurrent exercise intolerance with cramps, myalgia, and myoglobinuria; or fixed, often progressive weakness. Great strides have been made in our understanding of the molecular bases of ...
Jiao Y - - 2001
It was recently reported that MnSO4 stimulates glycogen synthase-dependent glucose transfer from UDPglucose into trichloroacetic acid precipitable endogenous glycoproteins (GSMn(T)) in human muscle extracts. To determine the physiologic significance of this reaction, we compared a new GS activity ratio, GSMn(T)/GSH(E) (where GSH(E) represents the usual glucose transfer to ethanol precipitable ...
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