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Results 201 - 250 of 786
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Shearer Jane - - 2004
Although it is often viewed as a homogenous substrate, glycogen is comprised of individual granules or 'glycosomes' that vary in their composition, subcellular localization, and metabolism. These differences result in additional levels of regulation allowing granules to be regulated individually or regionally within the cell during both rest and exercise.
Leblanc Paul J - - 2004
This is the first study to examine the effects of endurance training on the activation state of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in human skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that 7 wk of endurance training (Tr) would result in a posttransformationally regulated decrease in flux through Phos ...
Roepstorff Carsten - - 2004
In the present study, we investigated possible sites of regulation of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation in contracting human skeletal muscle. Leg plasma LCFA kinetics were determined in eight healthy men during bicycling (60 min, 65% peak oxygen uptake) with either high (H-FOX) or low (L-FOX) leg fat oxidation (H-FOX: ...
Krustrup Peter - - 2004
PURPOSE: We tested the hypotheses that previous glycogen depletion of slow-twitch (ST) fibers enhances recruitment of fast-twitch (FT) fibers, elevates energy requirement, and results in a slow component of VO2 during moderate-intensity dynamic exercise in humans. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male subjects cycled for 20 min at approximately 50% VO2max with ...
Hargreaves Mark - - 2004
Muscle glycogen is an important fuel for contracting skeletal muscle during prolonged strenuous exercise, and glycogen depletion has been implicated in muscle fatigue. It is also apparent that glycogen availability can exert important effects on a range of metabolic and cellular processes. These processes include carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism ...
Veiseth E - - 2004
Postmortem changes in osmotic pressure; ionic strength; pH; temperature; mu- and m-calpain; calpastatin; desmin degradation; and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) were determined in ovine longissimus muscle. Our objectives were to characterize changes in these variables and to identify postmortem time points at which significant proteolysis and tenderization (as measured by ...
Nielsen Jakob N - - 2004
Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the rate-limiting step of UDP-glucose incorporation into glycogen. Exercise is a potent regulator of GS activity, leading to activation of GS immediately after exercise promoting glycogen repletion by mechanisms independent of insulin. The incorporation of UDP-glucose is energy demanding, and during intense exercise GS is deactivated, ...
Howarth Krista R - - 2004
We tested the theory that links the capacity to perform prolonged exercise with the size of the muscle tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the exercise-induced increase in TCAI concentration ([TCAI]); however, the lower [TCAI] would not compromise cycle endurance capacity. Eight ...
Chan M H Stanley - - 2004
To determine the expression and induction of cytokines in human skeletal muscle during concentric contractions, eight males performed 60 min of bicycle exercise, with either a normal (Con) or reduced (Lo Gly) preexercise intramuscular glycogen content. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after exercise and analyzed for glycogen and ...
Zehnder Monica - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a well-known phenomenon of athletes. It has been reported from muscle biopsies that the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis is reduced after eccentric compared to concentric exercise. AIM OF THE STUDY: Try to compensate by a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet the decelerated glycogen resynthesis ...
Johnson Nathan A - - 2004
The importance of muscle glycogen as a metabolic substrate in sustaining prolonged exercise is well acknowledged. Being stored in proximity to the site of contraction and able to sustain high rates of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) phosphorylation, glycogen is viewed as the primary fuel for the maintenance of exercise of a ...
van Loon Luc J C - - 2003
Both stable isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy were applied to define the use of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) stores as a substrate source during exercise on a whole-body as well as on a fibre type-specific intramyocellular level in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast, eight subjects were studied at rest, ...
Milligan C Louise - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that cortisol has a regulatory role in fish muscle glycogenesis post-exercise, rainbow trout were treated 1 h prior to exercise with either saline (control) or metyrapone (2-methyl-1, 2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone) to block cortisol synthesis. Following exercise (time 0), half of the metyrapone-treated fish received a single injection of ...
MacDonald Christopher - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that IL-6 release from muscle during exercise may be related to muscle activity of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Eight healthy, well-trained young men completed two 60-min trials on a bicycle ergometer at 70% of their peak oxygen uptake in either a glycogen-depleted or a glycogen-loaded state. ...
Goforth Harold W HW Jr Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California 92186, - - 2003
Supercompensated muscle glycogen can be achieved by using several carbohydrate (CHO)-loading protocols. This study compared the effectiveness of two "modified" CHO-loading protocols. Additionally, we determined the effect of light cycle training on muscle glycogen. Subjects completed a depletion (D, n = 15) or nondepletion (ND, n = 10) CHO-loading protocol. ...
Tsintzas K - - 2003
This study examined the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) intake during a 4 h recovery from prolonged running on muscle glycogen metabolism during subsequent exercise. On 2 occasions, 7 male subjects ran for 90 min at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake VO(2 max) on a motorized treadmill (R1) followed by a ...
Nielsen J N - - 2003
Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the incorporation of uridine diphosphate-glucose into glycogen in skeletal muscle. In concert with the glucose transport step, GS activity is thought to be rate-limiting in the disposal of glucose as muscle glycogen. Glycogen synthase is regulated by both allosteric factors (primarily glucose 6-phosphate) and covalent modification ...
Raja Ghazala - - 2003
Even in the absence of food intake, several animal species recovering from physical activity of high intensity can replenish completely their muscle glycogen stores. In some species of mammals, such as in rats and humans, glycogen repletion is only partial, thus suggesting that a few consecutive bouts of high-intensity exercise ...
Garcia-Roves Pablo M - - 2003
Exercise induces an increase in GLUT4 in skeletal muscle with a proportional increase in glucose transport capacity. This adaptation results in enhanced glycogen accumulation, i.e., "supercompensation," in response to carbohydrate feeding after glycogen-depleting exercise. The increase in GLUT4 reverses within 40 h after exercise in carbohydrate-fed rats. The purpose of ...
van Loon Luc J C - - 2003
Intramuscular triglycerides (IMTG) are assumed to form an important substrate source during prolonged endurance exercise in trained males. This study investigated the effects of endurance exercise and recovery diet on IMTG content in vastus lateralis muscle. Nine male cyclists were provided with a standardized diet for 3 days, after which ...
Dawson Kristen D - - 2003
Muscle glycogenolytic flux and lactate accumulation during exercise are lower after 3-7 days of "short-term" aerobic training (STT) in men (e.g., Green HJ, Helyar R, Ball-Burnett M, Kowalchuk N, Symon S, and Farrance B. J Appl Physiol 72: 484-491, 1992). We hypothesized that 5 days of STT would attenuate pyruvate ...
Lee Sun Joo - - 2003
Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars were grown in Seoul, Suwon, and Kyongsan, Korea, in 1998, 1999, and 2000, and their isoflavone contents were assessed. After harvest, the beans were stored for 3 years at room temperature. Soybean isoflavones were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) within each crop ...
Irwin Jason T - - 2003
Considerable study has focused on the physiological adaptations for freeze tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, a northern species that overwinters within the frost zone, but little attention has been paid to the associated costs to organismal performance. Here we report that freezing causes transient impairment of locomotor endurance ...
Price T B - - 2003
This study measured muscle glycogen during a 7-day carbohydrate loading protocol. Twenty healthy subjects (12 male, 8 female) performed 1 hr treadmill/toe-raise exercise immediately before a 3-day low carbohydrate (LoCHO) diet (20 % carbohydrate, 60 % fat, 20 % protein). On day 3 they repeated the exercise and began a ...
Oh Tae-Woong - - 2003
The influences of various doses of capsaicin on endurance capacity remain to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not capsaicin delays stored tissue glycogen depletion. Rats were orally given either a vehicle or a dose of capsaicin, 6, 10, or 15 mg/kg of body ...
Bertram Hanne Christine - - 2003
Solid-state (13)C cross-polarization (CP) magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are carried out for the first time on rapidly frozen muscle biopsies taken in M. longissimus in vivo and at 1 min, 45 min, and 24 h post-mortem from three pigs. Two of the pigs were CO(2)-stunned (control ...
Marquezi Marcelo Luis - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of aspartate (ASP) and asparagine (ASG) supplementation on fatigue determinants in Wistar rats exercised to exhaustion by swimming. METHODS: The animals were tested for anaerobic threshold (AT) determination and then supplemented with 350 mM ASP + 400 mM ASG x day(-1) (AA group, n ...
Meneguello M O - - 2003
During intense exercise there is an augmented production of ammonia and IMP in the exercised muscle that could be related to the establishment of peripheral fatigue. In order to prevent this accumulation, the urea cycle in the liver eliminates ammonia in the form of urea and the skeletal muscle buffers ...
Singh Rabindarjeet R - - 2003
Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it ...
Honkavaara M - - 2003
This study evaluated the effect of transport time up to 14 hours and the effects of vehicle design on animal welfare, stress and meat quality. 18 transports (six short, medium and long) with a total of 486 animals (118 sample animals, heifers and bulls) were carried out on commercial vehicles ...
Andersson L - - 2003
The RN(-) (rendement Napole, French for Napole yield) phenotype is common in Hampshire pigs and is characterized by a 70% increase in glycogen content in skeletal muscle and large effects on meat characteristics (pH, water content, technological yield and lean meat content). The phenotype is controlled by an autosomal dominant ...
Derave Wim - - 2003
The present study was undertaken to explore the effects of creatine and creatine plus protein supplementation on GLUT-4 and glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. This was investigated in muscles undergoing a decrease (immobilization) and subsequent increase (resistance training) in activity level, compared with muscles with unaltered activity pattern. A ...
Lacombe, Véronique Anne
Horses undertake recreational activities that decrease muscle glycogen stores. Similar to humans, muscle glycogen availability may influence exercise performance. In the first study, a model of glycogen depletion was developed and used to investigate the effect of muscle glycogen availability on the athletic capacity of horses. We demonstrated that exercise-induced ...
Tremblay M - - 2003
Exercise training, like diazepam, is commonly employed as a means of reducing anxiety. Both diazepam and exercise training have been shown to modify carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as influence calcium metabolism in skeletal muscle. As receptor binding and thereby efficacy of diazepam has been demonstrated to be modulated ...
Gardner G E - - 2003
Background - An adequate level of muscle glycogen at the time of slaughter is essential for ensuring the production of premium quality meat, and minimising the incidence of dark cutting in beef. Therefore nutritional management procedures need to be established for cattle to maximise muscle glycogen concentration at slaughter. Objective ...
Helge Jørn W - - 2003
In this study, the hypothesis that the release of interleukin (IL)-6 from human muscle is linked to exercise intensity and muscle glucose uptake was investigated. In the overnight fasted state, seven healthy males performed knee extension exercise, kicking with both legs, each at 25 % of maximal power (W(max)) for ...
Gibala Martin J - - 2002
It has been suggested that a decrease in the total concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAIs)--secondary to a reduction in glycogen availability--compromises oxidative energy provision in skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise. However, no study has directly tested this hypothesis. We therefore studied six men (28 +/- 2 years) during ...
Baldwin Jacinta - - 2003
The hypothesis that fatigue during prolonged exercise arises from insufficient intramuscular glycogen, which limits tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) activity due to reduced TCA cycle intermediates (TCAI), was tested in this experiment. Seven endurance-trained men cycled at approximately 70% of peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak)) until exhaustion with low (LG) or ...
Lavoie Jean-Marc - - 2002
The crucial role of the liver as the only organ to produce glucose used by skeletal muscle during exercise is well known. Since hepatic glucose production is central to blood glucose homeostasis during exercise, it has been postulated that the liver may inform the central nervous system and other organs ...
Morris Stephen - - 2002
Intermittent locomotion by terrestrial crustaceans may under specific circumstances increase walking distance and may allow partial re-oxidization of anaerobic products, and replenishment of ATP and arginine phosphate. The Christmas Island red crab G. natalis undertakes a substantial breeding migration each year. The leg muscles of G. natalis subjected to bouts ...
Fournier P A - - 2002
The finding that during recovery from high intensity exercise, rats have the capacity to replenish their muscle glycogen stores even in the absence of food intake has provided us with an experimental model of choice to explore further this process. Our objective here is to share those questions arising from ...
Hawley John A - - 2002
Several procedures have been utilized to elevate plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration and increase fatty acid (FA) delivery to skeletal muscle during exercise. These include fasting, caffeine ingestion, L-carnitine supplementation, ingestion of medium-chain and long-chain triglyceride (LCT) solutions, and intravenous infusion of intralipid emulsions. Studies in which both untrained ...
Bröjer J - - 2002
The purpose was to investigate the degradation of proglycogen and macroglycogen in skeletal muscle during intense exercise. Ten Standardbred trotters performed a maximal treadmill exercise test comprising a warm-up period, an exercise period, starting at 7 m/s with increments of 1 m/s every 60 s until the onset of fatigue ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2002
This study examined the effect of epinephrine on glucose disposal during moderate exercise when glycogenolytic flux was limited by low preexercise skeletal muscle glycogen availability. Six male subjects cycled for 40 min at 59 +/- 1% peak pulmonary O2 uptake on two occasions, either without (CON) or with (EPI) epinephrine ...
Svensson M B - - 2002
Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with ...
Okafor P N - - 2002
Edible seeds of seven varieties of legumes commonly consumed by Nigerians in large quantities were evaluated for total protein, cyanogens, nitrate and nitrite contents, and trypsin inhibitor activity using chemical, biochemical, enzymatic, and spectrophotometric methods. All analyzed samples contained cyanogen and nitrate with levels ranging from 5.88 +/- 0.26 to ...
Lavoie Jean-Marc - - 2002
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the exercise-induced increase in insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 is not always linked to a decrease in blood glucose level and to examine whether the decreasing levels of liver glycogen during exercise may be associated with the ...
Nielsen Jakob N - - 2002
It has been suggested that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle. We used patients with chronic high muscle glycogen stores and deficient glycogenolysis (McArdle's disease) as a model to address this issue. Six McArdle patients were compared with control ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2002
This study investigated intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) and glycogen utilisation, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation (PDHa) and acetyl group accumulation during prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Seven endurance-trained men cycled for 240 min at 57 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2,max)) and duplicate muscle samples were obtained at rest and at 10, 120 and 240 ...
Tarnopolsky Mark A - - 2002
Fatigue can have many causes in active people. A metabolic myopathy-though uncommonly identified as a cause of fatigue during sporting events-must be considered in certain circumstances, and the diagnosis may be helpful for preventive and genetic counseling. In general, symptoms of disorders of glycogen breakdown and glucose utilization (glycogen storage ...
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