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Chou Chia-Hau - - 2005
To elucidate the role of muscle glycogen storage on regulation of GLUT4 protein expression and whole-body glucose tolerance, muscle glycogen level was manipulated by exercise and insulin administration. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were evenly separated into three groups: control (CON), immediately after exercise (EX0), and 16 h after exercise (EX16). Rats ...
Morris J G - - 2005
Nine unacclimatized university sportsmen performed a prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running test in hot (HT) (33 degrees C, dry bulb temperature, approximately 28 %, relative humidity) and moderate (MT) (17 degrees C, 63 %) environmental conditions. Subjects performed 60 m of walking, a 15-m sprint, 60 m of cruising ( ...
Bhadra N - - 2005
Our aim was to electrically activate small diameter parasympathetic fibres in the sacral anterior roots, without activating the larger somatic fibres to the external anal sphincter (EAS). Electrodes were implanted on selected roots in five adult dogs. Pressures were recorded from the rectum and EAS. Quasitrapezoidal (Qzt) pulses for selective ...
Yoshimura A - - 2005
AIM: The recruitment patterns of the intrafusal and extrafusal fibres in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats were investigated during brief-intensity exercise by assaying their glycogen content histochemically. METHODS: Six adult male rats were assigned to each of four groups that ran up a 6 ...
Benvenga S - - 2005
L-carnitine (CARN) is a water-soluble, naturally occurring quaternary amine ubiquitous in biological fluids and animal tissues; in these tissues, CARN plays an important role in energy metabolism. Skeletal muscles store about 95 % of a total of 20 g CARN contained in the adult human body, but high-intensity physical exercise ...
Zehnder Monica - - 2005
PURPOSE: Gender-specific differences in substrate utilization during exercise have been reported, typically such that women rely more on fat than men. This study investigated whether gender differences exist in the utilization of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and glycogen. METHODS: IMCL and glycogen, as well as total fat and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation ...
Devries Michaela C - - 2005
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Women use less carbohydrate during endurance exercise, as compared with men. In rodents, 17beta-estradiol (E2) supplementation robustly increases lipid use and lowers muscle and liver glycogen use during exercise. E2 supplementation has been found to influence substrate selection by decreasing glucose rate of appearance (Ra), disappearance (Rd), ...
van Loon L J C - - 2005
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In the present study, we investigated the consequences of adipose tissue lipolytic inhibition on skeletal muscle substrate use in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied ten type 2 diabetic patients under the following conditions: (1) at rest; (2) during 60 min of cycling exercise at 50% ...
Essén-Gustavsson Birgitta - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate influence of the Rendement Napole (RN-) mutation on proglycogen (PG) and macroglycogen (MG) content in skeletal muscles before and after exercise and evaluate glycogen concentrations within various muscle fiber types. ANIMALS: 5 pigs with the RN- mutation and 3 noncarrier pigs. PROCEDURE: Pigs performed 2 exercise tests ...
Braun Barry - - 2005
Compared with women, men use proportionately more carbohydrate and less fat during exercise at the same relative intensity. Estrogen and progesterone have potent effects on substrate use during exercise in women, but the role of testosterone (T) in mediating substrate use is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to ...
Pederson Bartholomew A - - 2005
Skeletal muscle glycogen is considered to be an important source of energy for contraction and increasing the level of the glucose polymer is generally thought to improve exercise performance in humans. A genetically modified mouse model (GSL30), which overaccumulates glycogen due to overexpression of a hyperactive form of glycogen synthase, ...
Jakovljevic V Lj - - 2005
The aim of this study was to assess the changes of coronary flow (CF) and nitrite outflow under inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine monomethyl ester (L-NAME) or lipoxygenase (LOX) induced by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) in isolated rat heart. The hearts of male Wistar albino rats (n=18, age ...
Creer Andrew - - 2005
Two pathways that have been implicated for cellular growth and development in response to muscle contraction are the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways. Although these pathways are readily stimulated after exercise, little is known about how nutritional status may affect stimulation of these pathways in response to ...
Shearer Jane - - 2005
Glycogenin is the self-glycosylating protein primer that initiates glycogen granule formation. To examine the role of this protein during glycogen resynthesis, eight male subjects exercised to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at 75% Vo2 max followed by five 30-s sprints at maximal capacity to further deplete glycogen stores. During recovery, ...
Deviller G - - 2005
European sea bass were reared in three different systems: one flow-through (FTS), one recirculating (RAS), and one recirculating with a high-rate algae pond (RAS + HRAP). After 1 year of rearing, the final fish weight was 15% lower in the RAS compared to the FTS. The accumulation of a growth-inhibiting ...
Shearer Jane - - 2005
Glycogenolysis results in the selective catabolism of individual glycogen granules by glycogen phosphorylase. However, once the carbohydrate portion of the granule is metabolized, the fate of glycogenin, the protein primer of granule formation, is not known. To examine this, male subjects (n = 6) exercised to volitional exhaustion (Exh) on ...
Petibois Cyril - - 2005
This study was designed to describe changes in plasma fatty acyl moieties during a 2-h endurance exercise. Sixteen endurance-trained subjects cycled 2 h at 55% of maximal power output and capillary blood was sampled every 15 min. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was used to determine correlated changes between plasma fatty ...
Andersson Ulrika U Cellular Stress Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, DuCane Road, London W12 0NN, - - 2005
Recent studies have demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake. Because exercise is known to influence appetite and cause substrate depletion, it may also influence AMPK in the hypothalamus. Male rats that either rested or ran for 30 or 60 ...
Morifuji Masashi - - 2005
We investigated the effect of different types of dietary protein on glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle of exercise-trained rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (approximately 100 g; n 6 per group) were divided into sedentary or exercise-trained groups with each group being fed either casein or whey protein as ...
Cunha Tatiana Sousa - - 2005
To increase tissue glycogen content many athletes use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the literature concerning the effects of androgens on glycogen metabolism is conflicting. This study aimed to determine the influence of training and AAS on body weight (bw), triglycerides, glucose, tissue glycogen and transaminases levels. Male Wistar rats, ...
McInerney Patrick - - 2005
PURPOSE: It is not known whether it is possible to repeatedly supercompensate muscle glycogen stores after exhaustive exercise bouts undertaken within several days. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of repeated exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and triacylglycerol (IMTG) metabolism and exercise capacity in six well-trained subjects who completed an intermittent, ...
Mundy H R - - 2005
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) is an inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase is deficient, leading to impaired gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Patients prevent fasting hypoglycemia by frequent feeds of low glycemic index foods. Normal muscle does not contain glucose-6-phosphatase, and GSD-I is usually classified as a hepatic glycogenosis. ...
Rauch H G L - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: In this study we examined the pacing strategy and the end muscle glycogen contents in eight cyclists, once when they were carbohydrate loaded and once when they were non-loaded. METHODS: Cyclists completed 2 hours of cycling at approximately 73% of maximum oxygen consumption, which included five sprints at 100% ...
Ruby B C - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting an oral supplement containing 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile, isolated from fenugreek seeds [Trigonella foenum-graecum]) with a glucose beverage on rates of post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast (12 hr), subjects completed a 90-minute glycogen ...
Raja Ghazala - - 2004
It is not clear whether the amount of accumulated lactate is the main factor limiting muscle glycogen accumulation during recovery from an intense sprint performed by previously active fasted laboratory rats. To address this question, groups of fasted rats swam at moderate intensity for 30 min, each animal with a ...
Stellingwerff Trent - - 2005
This study compared the effects of inspiring either a hyperoxic (60% O(2)) or normoxic gas (21% O(2)) while cycling at 70% peak O(2) uptake on 1) the ATP derived from substrate phosphorylation during the initial minute of exercise, as estimated from phosphocreatine degradation and lactate accumulation, and 2) the reliance ...
Brown Angus M - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic glycogen supports axon function under both pathological and physiological conditions. Functional activity of the rat (RON) or mouse optic nerve (MON), representative central white matter tracts, was assessed electrophysiologically as the area under the supramaximal compound action potential (CAP). During aglycaemia the CAP area ...
Kohler Götz - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine for the first time by repeated non-invasive 13C-NMR spectrometry whether blood lactate concentration affects glycogen reduction in non-exercising muscle during prolonged (6 h) physical exercise in healthy adult males. Such an effect would indirectly show that glycogenolysis independent of nervous activation occurs ...
El Rammouz R - - 2004
The biochemical determinism of ultimate pH (pHu) was studied in the pectoralis muscle of broiler chickens. Thirty birds of 3 genetic types (a fast-growing standard (FG), a slow-growing French "Label Rouge" (SG), and a heavy line type (HL)) were kept under conventional breeding methods until the usual marketing age (6, ...
Schaart Gert - - 2004
Simultaneous analyses of glycogen in sections with other subcellular constituents within the same section will provide detailed information on glycogen deposition and the processes involved. To date, staining protocols for quantitative glycogen analyses together with immunofluorescence in the same section are lacking. We aimed to: (1) optimise PAS staining for ...
Arkinstall Melissa J - - 2004
To date, the results of studies that have examined the effects of altering preexercise muscle glycogen content and exercise intensity on endogenous carbohydrate oxidation are equivocal. Differences in the training status of subjects between investigations may, in part, explain these inconsistent findings. Accordingly, we determined the relative effects of exercise ...
Shearer Jane - - 2004
Although it is often viewed as a homogenous substrate, glycogen is comprised of individual granules or 'glycosomes' that vary in their composition, subcellular localization, and metabolism. These differences result in additional levels of regulation allowing granules to be regulated individually or regionally within the cell during both rest and exercise.
Leblanc Paul J - - 2004
This is the first study to examine the effects of endurance training on the activation state of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in human skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that 7 wk of endurance training (Tr) would result in a posttransformationally regulated decrease in flux through Phos ...
Roepstorff Carsten - - 2004
In the present study, we investigated possible sites of regulation of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation in contracting human skeletal muscle. Leg plasma LCFA kinetics were determined in eight healthy men during bicycling (60 min, 65% peak oxygen uptake) with either high (H-FOX) or low (L-FOX) leg fat oxidation (H-FOX: ...
Krustrup Peter - - 2004
PURPOSE: We tested the hypotheses that previous glycogen depletion of slow-twitch (ST) fibers enhances recruitment of fast-twitch (FT) fibers, elevates energy requirement, and results in a slow component of VO2 during moderate-intensity dynamic exercise in humans. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male subjects cycled for 20 min at approximately 50% VO2max with ...
Hargreaves Mark - - 2004
Muscle glycogen is an important fuel for contracting skeletal muscle during prolonged strenuous exercise, and glycogen depletion has been implicated in muscle fatigue. It is also apparent that glycogen availability can exert important effects on a range of metabolic and cellular processes. These processes include carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism ...
Veiseth E - - 2004
Postmortem changes in osmotic pressure; ionic strength; pH; temperature; mu- and m-calpain; calpastatin; desmin degradation; and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) were determined in ovine longissimus muscle. Our objectives were to characterize changes in these variables and to identify postmortem time points at which significant proteolysis and tenderization (as measured by ...
Nielsen Jakob N - - 2004
Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the rate-limiting step of UDP-glucose incorporation into glycogen. Exercise is a potent regulator of GS activity, leading to activation of GS immediately after exercise promoting glycogen repletion by mechanisms independent of insulin. The incorporation of UDP-glucose is energy demanding, and during intense exercise GS is deactivated, ...
Howarth Krista R - - 2004
We tested the theory that links the capacity to perform prolonged exercise with the size of the muscle tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the exercise-induced increase in TCAI concentration ([TCAI]); however, the lower [TCAI] would not compromise cycle endurance capacity. Eight ...
Chan M H Stanley - - 2004
To determine the expression and induction of cytokines in human skeletal muscle during concentric contractions, eight males performed 60 min of bicycle exercise, with either a normal (Con) or reduced (Lo Gly) preexercise intramuscular glycogen content. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after exercise and analyzed for glycogen and ...
Zehnder Monica - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a well-known phenomenon of athletes. It has been reported from muscle biopsies that the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis is reduced after eccentric compared to concentric exercise. AIM OF THE STUDY: Try to compensate by a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet the decelerated glycogen resynthesis ...
Johnson Nathan A - - 2004
The importance of muscle glycogen as a metabolic substrate in sustaining prolonged exercise is well acknowledged. Being stored in proximity to the site of contraction and able to sustain high rates of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) phosphorylation, glycogen is viewed as the primary fuel for the maintenance of exercise of a ...
van Loon Luc J C - - 2003
Both stable isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy were applied to define the use of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) stores as a substrate source during exercise on a whole-body as well as on a fibre type-specific intramyocellular level in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast, eight subjects were studied at rest, ...
Milligan C Louise - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that cortisol has a regulatory role in fish muscle glycogenesis post-exercise, rainbow trout were treated 1 h prior to exercise with either saline (control) or metyrapone (2-methyl-1, 2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone) to block cortisol synthesis. Following exercise (time 0), half of the metyrapone-treated fish received a single injection of ...
MacDonald Christopher - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that IL-6 release from muscle during exercise may be related to muscle activity of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Eight healthy, well-trained young men completed two 60-min trials on a bicycle ergometer at 70% of their peak oxygen uptake in either a glycogen-depleted or a glycogen-loaded state. ...
Goforth Harold W HW - - 2003
Supercompensated muscle glycogen can be achieved by using several carbohydrate (CHO)-loading protocols. This study compared the effectiveness of two "modified" CHO-loading protocols. Additionally, we determined the effect of light cycle training on muscle glycogen. Subjects completed a depletion (D, n = 15) or nondepletion (ND, n = 10) CHO-loading protocol. ...
Tsintzas K - - 2003
This study examined the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) intake during a 4 h recovery from prolonged running on muscle glycogen metabolism during subsequent exercise. On 2 occasions, 7 male subjects ran for 90 min at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake VO(2 max) on a motorized treadmill (R1) followed by a ...
Nielsen J N - - 2003
Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the incorporation of uridine diphosphate-glucose into glycogen in skeletal muscle. In concert with the glucose transport step, GS activity is thought to be rate-limiting in the disposal of glucose as muscle glycogen. Glycogen synthase is regulated by both allosteric factors (primarily glucose 6-phosphate) and covalent modification ...
Raja Ghazala - - 2003
Even in the absence of food intake, several animal species recovering from physical activity of high intensity can replenish completely their muscle glycogen stores. In some species of mammals, such as in rats and humans, glycogen repletion is only partial, thus suggesting that a few consecutive bouts of high-intensity exercise ...
Garcia-Roves Pablo M - - 2003
Exercise induces an increase in GLUT4 in skeletal muscle with a proportional increase in glucose transport capacity. This adaptation results in enhanced glycogen accumulation, i.e., "supercompensation," in response to carbohydrate feeding after glycogen-depleting exercise. The increase in GLUT4 reverses within 40 h after exercise in carbohydrate-fed rats. The purpose of ...
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