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Results 451 - 500 of 767
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Mehrani H - - 1993
To analyze the mechanisms of glycogen phosphorylase control in organs of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, activities of glycogen phosphorylase kinase (GPK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), as well as levels of cAMP, were quantified. The complete cascade for activating glycogen phosphorylase was present in trout organs and all components ...
Craig B W - - 1993
Athletic competition requires great energy expenditure and the ability to maintain performance depends on an adequate supply of metabolic fuels, which has led to the use of dietary supplements. Much of the data concerning fructose supplementation is contradictory in nature, but it shows that fructose feeding before or during exercise ...
Putman C T - - 1993
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) and acetyl group accumulation were examined in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise after different diets. Five males cycled at 75% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) to exhaustion after consuming a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) for 3 days and again 1-2 wk later for ...
Marchini J S - - 1993
The in vivo rate of conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine (PheOH) can be estimated using combinations of stable isotope-labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine. We have compared in four healthy adult men the rates of phenylalanine conversion to tyrosine based on the following pairs of primed, continuous tracer infusions administered simultaneously: (1) ...
Zinker B A - - 1993
We hypothesized that augmented responses of glucoregulatory hormones in iron deficiency would enhance liver and muscle glycogenolysis, leading to increased gluconeogenic precursor (lactate) supply and upregulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Female weanling rats were randomly placed on either a mildly iron-deficient (-Fe; 15 mg Fe/kg diet) or an iron-sufficient (+Fe; 50 ...
Aragón-Vargas L F - - 1993
Early studies agree that fasting is detrimental to overall physical performance and to endurance performance in humans; however, a study in rats reported an ergogenic effect where time to exhaustion was increased by a glycogen-sparing effect of elevated free fatty acids in blood resulting from a 24-hour fast. Later studies ...
Rooney T P - - 1993
The effect of 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate (10 micrograms.01 ml of sunflower oil-1 x 100 g body wt-1) on the temporal pattern of exercise-induced tissue glycogen depletion and tissue lipid availability during submaximal treadmill running was determined in male rats. Animal were administered estradiol or oil for 5 days and were ...
Medbø J I - - 1993
High-intensity exercise results in a large breakdown of glycogen. The glycogen lost may reappear as hexose phosphates, lactate, or it may be fully oxidized. Part of the lactate produced may be transferred from muscle to blood. There is, however, incomplete information on the relative importance of each endpoint of glycogen ...
Romijn J A - - 1993
Stable isotope tracers and indirect calorimetry were used to evaluate the regulation of endogenous fat and glucose metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Five trained subjects were studied during exercise intensities of 25, 65, and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Plasma glucose tissue uptake and muscle glycogen ...
Burke L M - - 1993
The effect of the glycemic index (GI) of postexercise carbohydrate intake on muscle glycogen storage was investigated. Five well-trained cyclists undertook an exercise trial to deplete muscle glycogen (2 h at 75% of maximal O2 uptake followed by four 30-s sprints) on two occasions, 1 wk apart. For 24 h ...
Trudeau F - - 1993
The ergogenic effect of aspartate salts on performance during prolonged exercise is still controversial. Potential mechanisms of the suggested ergogenic effect of aspartate on exercise performance are a sparing of muscle glycogen stores or its faster resynthesis during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aspartate causes ...
Graham T - - 1993
We investigated the impact of repeated, high-intensity exercise on NH3 metabolism using the single-leg knee extensor model. The muscle glycogen level would be lowered by the initial exercise and low glycogen may stimulate NH3 production independent of any other effects of previous exercise. Therefore a high muscle glycogen condition was ...
Decombaz J - - 1993
The effect of L-carnitine on energy metabolism at a high lipolytic flux was studied. Nine healthy male subjects received L-carnitine (CARN) (3 g.d-1) for 7 d, or a placebo (CONT), both with Ca pentothenate. The treatment increased resting nitrogen excretion slightly (+15%, P < 0.02). After an overnight fast, the ...
Dernbach A R - - 1993
In untrained subjects, strenuous exercise provokes the appearance of oxidant stress markers in blood and muscle. On the other hand, trained muscle is resistant to oxidant stress unless exercise challenges the muscle glycogen supply. It is not known whether chronic high-intensity exercise alters the susceptibility of skeletal muscle to oxidant ...
Nazar K - - 1993
The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs (2-4 years, 15-20 kg) before and after restricted activity (RA) (2 months for 5 dogs, 5 months for 2 dogs), and following a subsequent ...
Doyle J A - - 1993
Eccentric contractions appear to reduce muscle glycogen replenishment during the 1- to 10-day period after exercise. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming a large amount of carbohydrate (1.6 g.kg-1.h-1) during the 4 h after glycogen-reducing exercise would produce different patterns of glycogen replenishment in human ...
Pascoe D D - - 1993
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of post-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) intake on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after high intensity weight resistance exercise in subjects not currently weight training. In a cross-over design, eight male subjects performed sets (mean = 8.8) of six single leg ...
Zendzian-Piotrowska M - - 1993
The rats were made to run daily to exhaustion, for 28 days at a speed of 1,200 m.h-1 on a treadmill set at a gradient of +10 degrees. The training increased the time of running to exhaustion [184 (SD 49) and 308 (SD 28) min on the 1st and 28th ...
Jinnai K - - 1993
A 28-year-old male with glycogenosis type V associated with continuous hyperuricemia during mild daily activities is reported. An aerobic exercise test using a bicycle ergometer revealed that purine metabolites, i.e., ammonia, inosine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, were transiently increased by the exercise and that a subsequent increment in uric acid continued ...
Murgatroyd P R - - 1993
Glycogen forms the smallest yet most labile energy substrate store. Therefore studying carbohydrate flux may be crucial to understanding the regulation of energy balance. Indirect calorimetry has been used to measure carbohydrate oxidation overnight and during exercise in nine fasted subjects. Overnight carbohydrate oxidation (averaging 2.85 +/- 0.8 g h-1) ...
Sonko B J - - 1993
A non-invasive method for studying the dynamics of post-exercise carbohydrate storage by means of whole-body calorimetry and 13CO2 breath tests is described. Seven untrained glycogen-depleted subjects were offered naturally 13C-labelled high carbohydrate meals (97% by energy) at 30 min intervals for 5 h and asked to consume as much as ...
Sherman W M - - 1993
The effects of moderate- or high-carbohydrate diets on muscle glycogen and performance in runners and cyclists over 7 consecutive days of training were determined. Muscle biopsies were performed on 4 separate days before exercise for 1 h at 75% peak oxygen consumption (VO2) followed by five, 1-min sprints. After the ...
Constantin-Teodosiu D - - 1992
Seven subjects cycled to exhaustion [58 +/- 7 (SE) min] at approximately 75% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Needle biopsy samples were taken from the quadriceps femoris muscle at rest, after 3, 10, and 40 min of exercise, at exhaustion, and after 10 min of recovery. After 3 min ...
Sinoway L I - - 1992
Post leg exercise circulatory arrest (PLE-CA) raises blood pressure (BP) and reduces peak forearm vascular conductance (C). This reflex is evoked by activation of muscle afferents that are often sensitive to lactic acid. We tested the hypothesis that lactic acid reductions induced by muscle glycogen depletion would attenuate the lower-limb ...
Sherman W M - - 1992
1) During training for and competition in endurance exercise athletes often significantly reduce both liver and muscle glycogen reserves. 2) Replenishment of muscle glycogen probably occurs preferentially over the replenishment of liver glycogen after exercise. 3) Muscle and liver glycogen can be replenished within 24 h after exercise provided adequate ...
Yan Z - - 1992
Subjects cycled at a work load calculated to elicit 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on two occasions: the first to fatigue (34.5 +/- 5.3 min; mean +/- SE), and the second at the same workload and for the same duration as the first. Biopsies were obtained from the quadriceps femoris ...
Nazar K - - 1992
To study physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining, 10 male mongrel dogs (1-5 years) performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill (12 degrees slope, 1.6 m.s-1) during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage (40 cm-w x 80 cm-h x 110 cm-l) confinement, and after ...
Hargreaves M - - 1992
Six men were studied during 40 min of cycling exercise to examine the relationship between leg glucose uptake and muscle glycogen concentration. Exercise resulted in significant increases in leg glucose uptake, while muscle glycogen and arterial blood glucose concentrations declined. Arterial plasma insulin levels did not change significantly. There was ...
Widrick J J - - 1992
This study examined the time course of glycogen accumulation in skeletal muscle depleted by concentric work and subsequently subjected to eccentric exercise. Eight men exercised to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer [70% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2max)] and were placed on a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Approximately 12 h later they exercised ...
De Palo E - - 1992
In many human tissues, fuel is stored for immediate use, as well as for energy exchange between different parts of the body. Fat and glycogen represent, together with proteins, the principal energy storage materials. During energy requirement, e.g. muscular exercise, glycogen as a local reserve, is used first to supply ...
Spencer M K - - 1992
The effect of preexercise muscle glycogen content on the metabolic responses to exercise has been investigated. Seven men cycled at a work load calculated to elicit 75% of maximal oxygen uptake [211 +/- 17 (SE) W] on two occasions: 1) to fatigue (37.2 +/- 5.3 min) and 2) at the ...
Coyle E F - - 1992
Muscle glycogen and plasma glucose are oxidized by skeletal muscle to supply the carbohydrate energy needed to exercise strenuously for several hours (i.e., 70% maximal O2 consumption). With increasing exercise duration there is a progressive shift from muscle glycogen to blood glucose. Blood glucose concentration declines to hypoglycemic levels (i.e., ...
van der Meulen J H - - 1992
Eccentric exercise may elicit damage to the contractile elements. This primary damage is followed by secondary changes, consisting of histological changes and changes in glycogen and energy metabolism. The mechanism underlying changes in glycogen homeostasis and energy metabolism is not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Vøllestad N K - - 1992
The rates of glycogen breakdown during exhaustive intense exercise of three different intensities were determined in type I and subgroups of type II fibres. The exercise intensity corresponded to 122 +/- 2, 150 +/- 7 and 194 +/- 7% of VO2max. Muscle biopsies were taken from both legs before and ...
Shepley B - - 1992
This study examined some of the physiological and performance effects of three different tapers in highly trained athletes. After 8 wk of training, nine male middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to one of three different 7-day tapers: a high-intensity low-volume taper (HIT), a low-intensity moderate-volume taper (LIT), or a rest-only ...
Håglin L - - 1992
Five Swedish Landrace pigs with a mean weight of 51 +/- 5 kg performed an exercise test on a treadmill at a speed of 1.8 m/s and a duration of 10 min. Hypophosphatemia was then induced in these pigs by addition of aluminium hydroxide (liquid antacid) to the normal feed. ...
Cooper C B - - 1992
The VCO2-VO2 (alveolar CO2 output-alveolar O2 uptake) relationship (V-slope) during increasing work rate (ramp) cycle ergometer exercise has two approximately linear components: a lower component slope (S1) with a value of about 0.95 and a steeper, upper component (S2). We examined the effect of muscle glycogen depletion (protocol 1) and ...
Ahlquist L E - - 1992
This study was conducted to determine whether the pedaling frequency of cycling at a constant metabolic cost contributes to the pattern of fiber-type glycogen depletion. On 2 separate days, eight men cycled for 30 min at approximately 85% of individual aerobic capacity at pedaling frequencies of either 50 or 100 ...
Bangsbo J - - 1992
1. The effect of elevated muscle glycogen on anaerobic energy production, and glycogenolytic and glycolytic rates was examined in man by using the one-legged knee extension model, which enables evaluation of metabolism in a well-defined muscle group. 2. Six subjects performed very intense exercise to exhaustion (EX1) with one leg ...
Robergs R A - - 1991
During the initial hours of recovery from prolonged exhaustive lower body exercise, muscle glycogen synthesis occurs at rates approximating 1-2 mmol.kg-1 wet wt.hr-1 if no carbohydrate is consumed. When carbohydrate is consumed during the recovery, the maximal rate of glycogen synthesis approximates 7-10 mmol.kg-1 wet wt.hr-1. The rate of post-exercise ...
Pagnotta A - - 1991
The role of blood-borne glucose in the restoration of white muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in the active, pelagic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the more sluggish, benthic winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were examined. During recovery from exhaustive exercise, the animals were injected with a bolus of universally labelled [14C]glucose ...
Busse M W - - 1991
1. We have examined the relationship between expiratory ventilation (VE), plasma potassium concentration ([K+]P), blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]B), and plasma pH (pHP) in five trained men before and after glycogen depletion and repletion in two successive incremental bicycle ergometer tests (tests A and B). 2. Though pHP was significantly higher ...
Martineau L - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simultaneous alterations in the availability of plasma free fatty acids and muscle glycogen would impair the maintenance of thermal balance during cold water immersion in humans. Eight seminude subjects were immersed on two occasions in 18 degrees C water for 90 ...
Podolin D A - - 1991
The relationships between the lactate threshold (TLa), plasma catecholamines, and ventilatory threshold (TVE) were examined under normal and glycogen-depleted conditions. Nine male subjects performed a graded exercise test on a bicycle ergometer in a normal glycogen (NG) state and in a glycogen-depleted (GD) state to determine if manipulation of muscle ...
Mottola M F - - 1991
To examine the effects of maternal exercise on liver and skeletal muscle glycogen storage, female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, nonpregnant runner, pregnant nonrunning control, pregnant runner, and prepregnant exercised control groups. The exercise consisted of treadmill running at 30 m/min on a 10 degree incline for 60 ...
Costill D L - - 1991
Although fats and protein contribute to energy demands of exercise, carbohydrate, principally glycogen, is the preferred fuel for muscular activity. Because of its limited storage, depletion of muscle glycogen has been shown to be one factor responsible for fatigue and exhaustion during prolonged exercise. Thus, dietary carbohydrate plays a key ...
Simi B - - 1991
This study was conducted to obtain additional information about the adaptations after 12 wk of high-fat diet (HFD) per se or HFD combined with endurance training in the rat using a two [diet: carbohydrate (CHO) or HFD] by two (training: sedentary or trained) by two (condition at death: rested or ...
Ball-Burnett M - - 1991
1. The effects of prolonged exercise on energy metabolism in type I and type II muscle fibres in the vastus lateralis muscle were investigated in six male subjects (20.0 +/- 0.5 years, mean +/- S.E.M.) who performed one-legged cycling at 61% of maximum O2 consumption (VO2,max; determined with one leg) ...
Wagenmakers A J - - 1991
Eight highly trained cyclists were studied during exercise after glycogen depletion (test A) and during carbohydrate (CHO) loading (test B). In test B subjects were able to complete 2 h of exercise at 70-75% maximal workload (Wmax), whereas the initial intensity of 70% Wmax had to be reduced to 50% ...
McDermott J C - - 1991
Glycogen decrements have been observed in non-exercising muscles during exercise. We therefore investigated whether the degraded glycogen was retained within the muscle in the form of glycolytic intermediates, or whether it was effluxed from the non-exercising muscles. For these studies a suspension harness was used to unload the hindlimb muscles ...
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