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West Daniel J - - 2011
: Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are encouraged to consume CHO to prevent hypoglycemia during or after exercise. However, the research comparing specific types of CHO is limited. This study compared the alterations in metabolism and fuel oxidation in response to running after preexercise ingestion of isomaltulose or ...
Pfeiffer Beate - - 2011
Current recommendations for CHO intake in the field for all modes of endurance exercise are largely on the basis of laboratory studies that measured oxidation of ingested CHO. However, the majority of these laboratory studies used cycling as the mode of exercise, and it is not known whether these results ...
Greer Beau Kjerulf - - 2011
Greer, BK, White, JP, Arguello, EM, and Haymes, EM. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation lowers perceived exertion but does not affect performance in untrained males. J Strength Cond Res 25(2): 539-544, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation affects aerobic performance, ratings of perceived ...
Richardson Danielle - - 2011
An 11-year-old, spayed female, teacup poodle was evaluated for a chronic cough, lethargy, hindlimb weakness, and reluctance to exercise. Thoracic radiographs revealed megaesophagus and aspiration pneumonia. Serum antibodies against acetylcholine receptors confirmed the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. The unusual clinical history and case outcome are discussed.
Sasai Hiroyuki - - 2011
Vespa amino acid mixture (VAAM) is a nutrient liquid with an amino acid composition that is similar to that produced by hornet (Vespa mandarina) larvae. Animal studies have shown that VAAM may enhance fat metabolism and exercise tolerance. Whether these effects are evident in humans, however, remains to be fully ...
Crowe Louis - - 2011
Recent advances in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) suggest that sophisticated techniques can exercise and train people aerobically. However, the limits of this exercise modality would be of interest to sportspeople, trainers and rehabilitation experts. Additionally, there are physical and other barriers which prevent many from undertaking aggressive voluntary exercise. Maximum ...
Ueno Akinori A Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, 2-2Kanda-Nishiki-cho, Chiyoda 101-8457, - - 2011
Recently, an electrically assisted bicycle has been widely used in daily life and becomes very popular. The user selects the stepwise assist-mode to determine the assistive torque for pleasurable running. From the viewpoint of improvement of health by exercise, the electrically assisted bicycle can be an exercise machine like a ...
Robson-Ansley Paula - - 2011
The aim of our study was twofold, firstly to examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of IL-6, hepcidin and iron following prolonged exercise and secondly, to assess the effect of carbohydrate ingestion on circulating hepcidin concentration post-exercise. The study was a randomised double-blind cross-over design, with participants consuming either a ...
Van Proeyen Karen - - 2011
Training with limited carbohydrate availability can stimulate adaptations in muscle cells to facilitate energy production via fat oxidation. Here we investigated the effect of consistent training in the fasted state, vs. training in the fed state, on muscle metabolism and substrate selection during fasted exercise. Twenty young male volunteers participated ...
Hubing Kimberly A - - 2011
To evaluate the effect of hydration and carbohydrate (CHO) status on plasma sodium, fluid balance, and regulatory factors (IL-6 & ADH) during and after exercise; 10 males completed the following conditions: low CHO, euhydrated (fluid intake = sweat loss) (LCEH); low CHO, dehydrated (no fluid) (LCDH); high CHO, euhydrated (HCEH); and high ...
Pfeiffer Beate - - 2010
The ingestion of CHO solutions has been shown to increase CHO oxidation and improve endurance performance. However, most studies have investigated CHO in solution, and sporting practice includes ingestion of CHO in solid (e.g., energy bars) as well as in liquid form. It remains unknown whether CHO in solid form ...
Betts James A - - 2010
This review considers aspects of the optimal nutritional strategy for recovery from prolonged moderate to high intensity exercise. Dietary carbohydrate represents a central component of post-exercise nutrition. Therefore, carbohydrate should be ingested as early as possible in the post-exercise period and at frequent (i.e. 15- to 30-minute) intervals throughout recovery ...
Roberts Michael D - - 2011
We examined whether the ingestion of a hydrothermally modified starch (HMS) would alter metabolic and hormonal responses to prolonged cycling compared with maltodextrin (MAL). Nine male cyclists (30 ± 2 y, 79.2 ± 2.1 kg, 4.7 ± 0.1 L of O(2)/min, 7.5 ± 1.3 y training) fasted 10 h before ...
McGlory Chris - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postexercise ingestion of different-molecular-weight glucose polymer solutions on subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity. In a repeated-measures design, 6 men ran for 60 min in the morning at 70% VO2max. Immediately post- and at 1 and 2 hr postexercise, participants consumed ...
Burke L M - - 2010
Availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for the muscle and central nervous system is critical for the performance of both intermittent high-intensity work and prolonged aerobic exercise. Therefore, strategies that promote carbohydrate availability, such as ingesting carbohydrate before, during and after exercise, are critical for the performance of many sports ...
Murphy Cheryl - - 2010
Research measuring whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) after both exercise and nutrition has generally focused on resistance exercise; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the effect of postaerobic exercise nutrition, especially in older adults. It is not known if postexercise protein feeding has a beneficial effect on protein turnover ...
Ferguson-Stegall Lisa - - 2010
Ingesting carbohydrate plus protein during prolonged variable intensity exercise has demonstrated improved aerobic endurance performance beyond that of a carbohydrate supplement alone. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a supplement containing a mixture of different carbohydrates (glucose, maltodextrin, and fructose) and a moderate amount of protein ...
James Lewis J - - 2011
The present study examined the effects of milk protein on rehydration after exercise in the heat, via the comparison of energy- and electrolyte content-matched carbohydrate and carbohydrate-milk protein solutions. Eight male subjects lost 1·9 (sd 0·2) % of their body mass by intermittent exercise in the heat and rehydrated with 150 % ...
Siegler Jason C - - 2010
Although much research has investigated the types of exercise that are enhanced with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion, to date, there has been limited research on the dosage and timing of ingestion that optimizes the associated ergogenic effects. This study investigated the effects of various NaHCO3 loading protocols on the time-dependent ...
Karelis Antony D - - 2010
It is well established that carbohydrate (CHO) administration increases performance during prolonged exercise in humans and animals. The mechanism(s), which could mediate the improvement in exercise performance associated with CHO administration, however, remain(s) unclear. This review focuses on possible underlying mechanisms that could explain the increase in exercise performance observed ...
Paton Carl D - - 2010
This investigation reports the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on fatigue and hormone response during repeated sprint performance with competitive cyclists. Nine male cyclists (mean ± SD, age 24 ± 7 years, VO(2max) 62.5 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four high-intensity experimental sessions, consisting of four sets of 30 s sprints (5 sprints each set). Caffeine (240 mg) or placebo was ...
Demura S - - 2010
L-ornithine has an important role in ammonia metabolism via the urea cycle. This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on performance during incremental exhaustive ergometer bicycle exercise and ammonia metabolism during and after exercise. In all, 14 healthy young adults (age: 22.2±1.0 years, height: 173.5±4.6 cm, body ...
Goto Masaki - - 2010
We examined whether protein and carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during 5-day training enhanced plasma volume (PV) expansion and thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations in young men. Eighteen men [age 23 ± 4 (SD) yr] were divided into two groups according to supplements: placebo (CNT: 0.93 kcal/kg, 0.00 g protein/kg, n = 9) ...
Rutherford Jane A - - 2010
This study examined whether acute taurine (T) ingestion before prolonged cycling would improve time-trial (TT) performance and alter whole-body fuel utilization compared with a control (CON) trial and a placebo (PL) trial in which participants were told they received taurine but did not. Eleven endurance-trained male cyclists (27.2 ± 1.5 ...
Stearns Rebecca L - - 2010
Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate has been shown to enhance muscle recovery, particularly after intense bouts of exercise. However, performance benefits of ingesting a protein-carbohydrate drink during exercise remains unclear. Therefore, we used a systematic review with meta-analysis to examine the influence of protein ingestion during exercise on subsequent endurance ...
Cameron Sonya L - - 2010
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. METHODS: Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes ...
Jordan Leora Y - - 2010
To explore whether nitrogen retention can differ on an isonitrogenous diet by changing when protein is consumed, we performed a short-term study in older individuals (64.5 ± 2.0 years) performing daily exercise while in energy balance. Participants consumed an isonitrogenous-isocaloric diet with the timing of a protein or carbohydrate beverage ...
Lima-Silva Adriano E - - 2010
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if the carbohydrate (CHO) availability alters the rate of increase in the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during high intensity exercise and whether this would be associated with physiological changes. Six males performed high intensity exercise after 48 h of controlled, ...
Price Michael J - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on intermittent running and subsequent performance. Eight healthy men volunteered to take part in the study. One hour after the ingestion of either NaHCO(3) or placebo (sodium chloride; NaCl) participants undertook 20 x 24-second runs ...
Tremblay Jonathan - - 2010
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a high-CHO diet (80% CHO) and glucose ingestion (2 g x kg(-1)) during exercise (120 min, 57% VO2max) on fuel selection in women taking (W+OC) or not (W-OC) oral contraceptives and in men (six in each group). METHODS: Substrate oxidation was measured using indirect ...
Jeukendrup Asker E - - 2010
Carbohydrate feeding has been shown to be ergogenic, but recently substantial advances have been made in optimizing the guidelines for carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise. It was found that limitations to carbohydrate oxidation were in the absorptive process most likely because of a saturation of carbohydrate transporters. By using a ...
Jeukendrup Asker E - - 2010
Carbohydrate during exercise has been demonstrated to improve exercise performance even when the exercise is of high intensity (>75% VO2max) and relatively short duration (approximately 1 h). It has become clear that the underlying mechanisms for the ergogenic effect during this type of activity are not metabolic but may reside ...
Ping Wong Chee - - 2010
Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid climate. Chronic supplementation of caffeine on endurance performance have been studied extensively in different populations. However, concurrent research on the effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise in the Malaysian context especially in a ...
Walshe I - - 2010
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that can mediate numerous biological actions including fatigue. Circulating IL-6 increases during prolonged exercise, and furthermore, the signalling receptors sIL-6R and sgp130 are also increased. The variability of the response of these markers to exercise is unknown; therefore, we examined the changes in these markers ...
Entin Pauline L - - 2010
People intuitively walk at a speed that minimizes energy cost per meter. Therefore, the selective advantages of energetic efficiency are thought to drive individuals' preferred walking speed (PWS). This presumption disregards fuel partitioning, which may, in fact, be significant due to the disparate sizes of the carbohydrate (CHO) and fat ...
Ihsan Mohammed - - 2010
The effect of crushed ice ingestion as a precooling method on 40-km cycling time trial (CTT) performance was investigated. Seven trained male subjects underwent a familiarization trial and two experimental CTT which were preceded by 30 min of either crushed ice ingestion (ICE) or tap water (CON) consumption amounting to ...
Ghosh Asok Kumar - - 2010
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a combination of sago and soy protein ingested during moderate-intensity cycling exercise can improve subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity compared with a carbohydrate in the form of sago and with a placebo. The participants were 8 male recreational cyclists with age, weight, ...
Fernández Juan M - - 2010
The acute ingestion of a supplement with different glycemic carbohydrates, including fructose, is a typical practice for athletes before exercising. Observational evidence suggests that different metabolic responses may modify the exercise-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether endothelial reactivity, stimulated by anaerobic exercise (AnE) ...
Roberts Simon P - - 2010
In this study, we investigated the effect of ingesting carbohydrate alone or with caffeine on performance of a rugby union-specific shuttle running protocol. On three occasions, at least one week apart in a counterbalanced trial order, eight male rugby union forwards ingested either placebo or carbohydrate (1.2 g x kg(-1) ...
Oöpik Vahur - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine if the ingestion of sodium citrate (CIT) alters blood levels of fluid and electrolyte regulatory hormones at rest and during exercise. Using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design, 13 young, male well-trained runners performed continuous incremental running tests to volitional exhaustion on a ...
Gant Nicholas - - 2010
Carbohydrate and caffeine are known to independently improve certain aspects of athletic performance. However, less is understood about physiological and performance outcomes when these compounds are coingested in a rehydration and carbohydrate-replacement strategy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adding a moderate dose of caffeine ...
Breen Leigh - - 2010
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether adding protein to a CHO beverage would improve late-exercise cycle time-trial performance over CHO alone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of coingesting protein with CHO during exercise on postexercise markers of sarcolemmal disruption and the recovery of muscle function. METHODS: ...
Howarth Krista R - - 2010
We examined the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) availability on whole body and skeletal muscle protein utilization at rest, during exercise, and during recovery in humans. Six men cycled at approximately 75% peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2peak)) to exhaustion to reduce body CHO stores and then consumed either a high-CHO (H-CHO; 71 ...
Cox Gregory R - - 2010
We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = ...
Hackney Kyle J - - 2010
PURPOSE: To determine whether protein supplementation (PRO) before an acute bout of heavy resistance training (HRT) would influence postexercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and the nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RER). HYPOTHESIS: REE would be increased and RER would be decreased up to 48 h after timed PRO and HRT compared ...
Ross Megan L R - - 2010
We investigated the effect of carbohydrate ingestion after maximal lengthening contractions of the knee extensors on circulating concentrations of myocellular proteins and cytokines, and cytokine mRNA expression in muscle. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy males completed 5 sets of 10 lengthening (eccentric) contractions (unilateral leg press) at 120% 1 ...
Depner Chris M - - 2010
Inflammation associated with adipose tissue is modulated by macronutrient availability. For example, glucose increases inflammation in obese but not lean individuals. Little is known about how macronutrient intake influences inflammation associated with muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of macronutrient intake differences during recovery from ...
Ganio Matthew S - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte plus caffeine, carnitine, taurine, and B vitamins solution (CE+) and a carbohydrate-electrolyte-only solution (CE) vs. a placebo solution (PLA) on cycling performance and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures design, 14 male cyclists ...
Mikulski T - - 2010
The study was designed to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to acute modification of body carbohydrate stores by exercise and subsequent meals and to find out whether the responses depend on the training status of subjects. Nine sedentary students and 10 endurance athletes took part in four experimental sessions. During ...
Rollo Ian - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution would improve 1-h running performance in runners who had consumed a meal 3 h before exercise. Ten endurance-trained male runners completed two trials that required them to run as far as possible in 1 h ...
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