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Results 251 - 300 of 1138
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Gant Nicholas - - 2007
This study examined gastric emptying, core temperature, and sprint performance during prolonged intermittent shuttle running in 30 degrees C when ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or flavored water (FW). Nine male soccer players performed 60 min of shuttle running, ingesting fluid before exercise and every 15 min during exercise. Gastric ...
Timmons Brian W - - 2007
Substrate utilization during exercise is known to differ between children and adults, but whether these differences are related to pubertal status is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pubertal status on endogenous (CHOendo) and orally ingested exogenous (CHOexo) carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates during ...
Silpi U - - 2007
Carbohydrate reserve storage in trees is usually considered a passive function, essentially buffering temporary discrepancies between carbon availability and demand in the annual cycle. Recently, however, the concept has emerged that storage might be a process that competes with other active sinks for assimilate. We tested the validity of this ...
Shirreffs Susan M - - 2007
To determine the effectiveness of 3 commonly used beverages in restoring fluid and electrolyte balance, 8 volunteers dehydrated by 1.94% +/- 0.17% of body mass by intermittent exercise in the heat, then ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Gatorade), carbonated water/apple-juice mixture (Apfelschorle), and San Benedetto mineral water in a volume equal ...
Johannsen Neil M - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in substrate oxidation between dextrose (DEX) and unmodified (UAMS) and acid/alcohol-modified (MAMS) cornstarches. Seven endurance-trained men (VO2peak = 59.1 +/- 5.4 mL.kg-1.min-1) participated in 2 h of exercise (66.4% +/- 3.3% VO2peak) 30 min after ingesting 1 g/kg body weight of ...
O'Rourke Matthew P - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate if caffeine ingestion improves 5-km time-trial performance in well-trained and recreational runners. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 15 well-trained and 15 recreational runners completed two randomized 5-km time-trials, after ingestion of either 5mgkg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. Caffeine ingestion significantly improved ...
Hill Rebecca J RJ Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia. - - 2008
This paper compares the hydration ability of three commercially-available sports drinks with water under conditions of rest and exercise, using a deuterium dilution technique. For the rest group, 0.05g/kg of body weight of deuterium, contained in gelatine capsules, was ingested with one of the test solutions and saliva samples were ...
McAnulty S - - 2007
Carbohydrate administration during exercise diminishes stress hormone release, but the relationship of these hormones with oxidative stress has not been examined. Fifteen subjects functioned as their own controls and ingested carbohydrate (6 %) or placebo in a randomized design while cycling for 2.5-h ( approximately 75 % V.O (2peak)). Blood ...
Utter Alan C - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on differentiated and undifferentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged intermittent exercise and recovery. METHODS: Twelve male subjects cycled for 2.0 h at 64% Wmax and 73% V O2peak with 3-min rest intervals interspersed every ...
Baty Jacob J - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine whether resistance exercise performance and postexercise muscle damage were altered when consuming a carbohydrate and protein beverage (CHO-PRO; 6.2% and 1.5% concentrations). Thirty-four male subjects (age: 21.5 +/- 1.7 years; height: 177.3 +/- 1.1 cm; weight: 77.2 +/- 2.2 kg) completed 3 ...
Achten Juul - - 2007
Isomaltulose (ISO) is a disaccharide that is slowly digested, resulting in a slow availability for absorption. The aim of this study was to compare the blood substrate responses and exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation rates from orally ingested sucrose (SUC) and ISO during moderate intensity exercise. We hypothesized that the oxidation ...
Noakes T D - - 2007
The most recent (1996) drinking guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) propose that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable" during exercise. Since some individuals can tolerate rates of free water ingestion that exceed their rates of free water loss during exercise, this advice has caused some ...
Bassini-Cameron Adriana - - 2007
To evaluate the effect of caffeine on white cell distribution and muscle injury markers in professional soccer players during exercise. 22 male athletes completed a placebo controlled double blind test protocol to simulate a soccer match, followed by a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Exercise caused an increase in packed cell ...
Shirreffs Susan M - - 2007
The effectiveness of low-fat milk, alone and with an additional 20 mmol/l NaCl, at restoring fluid balance after exercise-induced hypohydration was compared to a sports drink and water. After losing 1.8 (sd 0.1) % of their body mass during intermittent exercise in a warm environment, eleven subjects consumed a drink ...
Stevenson E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the 'overnight second-meal effect' results in altered substrate oxidation during the postprandial period following breakfast and subsequent sub-maximal exercise in women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seven recreationally active women were recruited for the study. In each trial, participants were provided with their evening meal on day 1, which was ...
Ghanassia Edouard - - 2007
Carbohydrates (CHO) and lipids provide the amount of energy required for physical and chemical reactions inside the human body. The various constraints the body has to resolve explain the use of these two substrates, catabolized via distinct pathways to one common final reaction. In the classic model, three main organs/tissues ...
Artioli Guilherme Giannini - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preexercise sodium-bicarbonate ingestion improves judo-related performance. The study used 2 different protocols to evaluate performance: 3 bouts of a specific judo test (n = 9) and 4 bouts of the Wingate test for upper limbs (n = 14). In both ...
Marjerrison Andrea D - - 2007
This study examined the effect of preexercise carbohydrate (CHO) feeding on performance on a Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) in 11 boys (10.2 +/- 1.3 y old). Four WAnTs with 2 min recovery were performed 30 min after consuming a CHO (1 g CHO/kg) or placebo drink. Peak power (PP) and ...
Millard-Stafford Mindy L - - 2007
Caffeine is regarded as a diuretic despite evidence that hydration is not impaired with habitual ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a caffeinated sports drink impairs fluid delivery and hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions (28.5 degrees C, 60% relative humidity). Sixteen cyclists completed 3 ...
Simister Robert J RJ MRI Unit, The National Society for Epilepsy and Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, - - 2007
To use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate plus glutamine (GLX) in adult patients with refractory epilepsy associated with malformations of cortical development (MCD). We used MRS to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr) and choline containing compounds (Cho), as ...
Pandey Suresh K - - 2007
A lactose moiety was regioselectively introduced at various positions of N-hexyl-mesopurpurinimide (a class of chlorin containing a fused six-membered imide ring system, lambda(max): 700 nm) to investigate the effect of its presence and position on photosensitizing efficacy. The resulting novel structures produced a significant difference in in vitro and in ...
Broom D R - - 2007
Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted from endocrine cells in the stomach and other tissues. Acylation of ghrelin is essential for appetite regulation. Vigorous exercise induces appetite suppression, but this does not appear to be related to suppressed concentrations of total ghrelin. This study examined the effect of exercise and ...
Stellingwerff Trent - - 2007
Using contemporary stable-isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy, we assessed the impact of carbohydrate supplementation on whole-body and fiber-type-specific intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) and glycogen use during prolonged endurance exercise. Ten endurance-trained male subjects were studied twice during 3 h of cycling at 63 +/- 4% of maximal O(2) uptake with either ...
Mc Clean Conor M - - 2007
Oxidative stress is postulated to be responsible for the postprandial impairments in vascular function. The purpose of this study was to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of postprandial oxidative stress before and after an acute bout of moderate exercise. Ten trained male subjects (age 21.5 +/- 2.5 years, ...
Goto Kazushige - - 2007
This study compared the fat metabolism between "a single bout of prolonged exercise" and "repeated bouts of exercise" of equivalent exercise intensity and total exercise duration. Seven men performed three trials: 1) a single bout of 60-min exercise (Single); 2) two bouts of 30-min exercise, separated by a 20-min rest ...
Backhouse S H - - 2007
This study was designed to determine the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on affective states and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise. Seventeen male soccer players completed a prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise protocol for 90 min on two occasions, separated by at least 7 ...
Ahrens Jennifer N - - 2007
Although the effects of caffeine ingestion on athletic performance in men have been studied extensively, there is limited previous research examining caffeine's effects on women of average fitness levels participating in common modes of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 levels of ...
Easton Chris - - 2007
The authors examined the effects of combined creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) supplementation on responses to exercise in the heat. Subjects (N=24) were matched for body mass and assigned to either a Cr or placebo (Pl) group. Twice daily during two 7-d supplementation regimens, the Cr group received 11.4 g ...
Ahrens Jennifer N - - 2007
People of all ages and fitness levels participate regularly in aerobic-dance bench stepping (ADBS) to increase fitness and control body weight. Any reasonable method for enhancing the experience or effectiveness of ADBS would be beneficial. This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of caffeine on physiological responses ...
Cureton Kirk J - - 2007
This double-blind experiment examined the effects of a caffeinated sports drink during prolonged cycling in a warm environment. Sixteen highly trained cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo, carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (CES), and caffeinated sports drink (CES+CAF). Subjects cycled for 135 min, alternating between 60% and 75% VO2max every 15 min for ...
Zhu Weili - - 2007
Post-prandial hyperglycaemia impairs endothelial function as evaluated by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Exercise is an intervention to protect against cardiovascular disease and to improve FMD. In this study, we examined whether the effect of acute hyperglycaemia on endothelial function in healthy young men is restored by aerobic exercise. Using ...
Murray Bob - - 2007
There is a large and growing body of scientific evidence that documents the benefits of ingesting salt and glucose (carbohydrates) during prolonged exercise. Those benefits include maintenance of cardiovascular function, enhanced carbohydrate oxidation, blunted decline in plasma sodium concentration and improved performance. The consumption of approximately 1g of carbohydrate per ...
Schisler Jason A - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study determined if recreational type of endurance exercise is limited by a short-term fast, such as an overnight fast or benefited by a carbohydrate supplement prior to and during endurance exercise. METHODS: Six individuals ran at 70% VO2max for 90 min under three dietary conditions (fed, fasted for ...
Wallis Gareth A - - 2007
PURPOSE: The effect of different quantities of carbohydrate (CHO) intake on CHO metabolism during prolonged exercise was examined in endurance-trained females. METHOD: On four occasions, eight females performed 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% .VO2max with ingestion of beverages containing low (LOW, 0.5 g.min(-1)), moderate (MOD, 1.0 g.min(-1)), or ...
Scott Christopher B - - 2007
The purpose of this investigation was to identify the onset of the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) after ingestion of a high carbohydrate (CHO) and a high protein (PRO) 1255 kJ (300 kcal) drink. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEF were measured over 30-minute periods via indirect calorimetry using a ...
Yarrow Joshua F - - 2007
This study examined the efficacy of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) monotherapy supplementation immediately prior to moderate- and high-intensity single bout exercise performance. Thirteen resistance trained men (22.8 +/- 2.5 years; 81.6 +/- 12.6 kg) participated in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover experiment. Each subject completed one familiarization ...
Green Howard J - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of altered muscle glycogen content on the mechanical and metabolic responses to prolonged exercise of moderate intensity. METHODS: Eight volunteers (.VO2peak = 49.3 +/- 1.2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) cycled to fatigue on two occasions: after a 3-d low-carbohydrate diet (Lo CHO), which had been preceded by glycogen-depleting ...
McClaran Steven R - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of two low-levels of caffeine ingestion in non habitual caffeine users at various submaximal and maximal exercise intensities. Nine male subjects (19-25 yr; 83.3 +/- 3.1 kg; 184 +/- 2 cm), underwent three testing sessions administered in a randomized ...
Verbalis Joseph G - - 2007
Over the past 2 decades, exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) has emerged as an important complication of prolonged endurance physical activities. Data collected since the first reports of EAH have strongly implicated a dilutional hyponatraemia from inappropriate retention of body water as the primary cause of EAH. Although high rates of fluid ...
Kreider Richard B - - 2007
Ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) following intense exercise has been reported to increase insulin levels, optimize glycogen resynthesis, enhance PRO synthesis, and lessen the immuno-suppressive effects of intense exercise. Since different forms of CHO have varying glycemic effects, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the ...
Nelson Jeff L - - 2007
During athletic competition or recreational pursuits, a body's hydration level can become compromised, resulting in a decrement in performance. Glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) has been used to induce hyperhydration in an attempt to offset the deleterious effects of dehydration. When glycerol is consumed orally, it is rapidly absorbed primarily in the small ...
Sims Stacy T - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine whether preexercise ingestion of a highly concentrated sodium beverage would increase plasma volume (PV) and reduce the physiological strain of moderately trained males running in the heat. METHODS: Eight endurance-trained (.VO2max: 58 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) (SD 5); 36 yr (SD 11)) runners completed this double-blind, ...
Watson Phillip - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: This study examined changes in serum S100beta concentration, a peripheral marker of BBB permeability, in response to exercise in the heat with and without fluid ingestion. METHODS: Eight physically active males completed up to 90 min of intermittent exercise at a power output corresponding to 55% VO2peak in a ...
Backhouse Susan H - - 2007
This study examined the influence of water ingestion on affect and perceived exertion during sub-maximal running. Fifteen endurance-trained men performed two counterbalanced 90-min treadmill runs at 70% V O2 max. No fluid was ingested during one trial (NF-trial), whereas a single water bolus (5.0 mLkg(-1) body mass) was ingested immediately ...
Marwood Simon - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to determine whether glutamine ingestion, which has been shown to enhance the exercise-induced increase in the tricarboxylic acid intermediate (TCAi) pool size, resulted in augmentation of the rate of increase in oxidative metabolism at the onset of exercise. In addition, the potential interaction ...
Pilegaard Henriette - - 2006
To investigate pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1alpha subunit phosphorylation and whether free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate PDH activity, seven subjects completed two trials: saline (control) and intralipid/heparin (intralipid). Each infusion trial consisted of a 4-h rest followed by a 3-h two-legged knee extensor exercise at moderate intensity. During the 4-h resting period, ...
Jiang Xiaogang - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Although the corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) has been studied already for 16 years, doubts regarding its reproducibility have remained. AIM: To assess the reproducibility of CC-EMG under controlled conditions and the influence of confounding factors. METHODS: Three CC-EMG recording sessions were performed in 13 healthy young men under the ...
Berger Nicolas J A - - 2006
PURPOSE: The influence of metabolic alkalosis (ALK) on pulmonary O2 uptake (pVO2) kinetics during high-intensity cycle exercise is controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of ALK induced by sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on pVO2 kinetics, using a sufficient number of repeat-step transitions to provide high ...
Fulco C S - - 2007
Recent work from our laboratory demonstrated that carbohydrate supplementation (CHOS) during exercise improved prolonged time-trial (TT) performance of sea-level residents (SLR) living at 4300 m while they were in daily negative energy balance (- 1250 kcal x day (-1); [ ]). The purposes of the current study were to determine ...
de Sousa Maysa Vieira - - 2007
The present study evaluated the acute effects of carbohydrate supplementation on heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), metabolic and hormonal responses during and after sessions of high-intensity intermittent running exercise. Fifteen endurance runners (26 +/- 5 years, 64.5 +/- 4.9 kg) performed two sessions of intermittent exercise under ...
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