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Beelen Milou - - 2009
It has been reported previously that mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate-containing solution can improve cycling performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of such a carbohydrate mouth rinse on exercise performance during a simulated time trial in a more practical, postprandial setting. Fourteen male endurance-trained ...
Mondazzi Luca - - 2009
Carbohydrates (CHO) can be classified on the basis of their glycemic index (GI), and the use of this classification has been increasingly supported by science. Because of its impact on blood glucose and insulin responses following the ingestion of CHO foods, the GI has been studied in many fields of ...
Okazaki Kazunobu - - 2009
We examined whether protein-carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation immediately after exercise each day during aerobic training facilitated plasma volume (PV) expansion and thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations in older men. Fourteen moderately active older men [68 +/- 5 (SD) yr] were divided into two groups so as to have no significant differences in ...
Okazaki Kazunobu - - 2009
This study examined whether increased plasma volume (PV) and albumin content (Alb(cont)) in plasma for 23 h after exercise were attenuated in older subjects compared with in young adult subjects, and if this attenuation abated by supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) immediately after exercise. Eight moderately active older (approximately ...
Hagger Martin S - - 2009
In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a theory-based psychological implementation intention strategy on the volume and frequency of intake of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution by participants engaged in submaximal exercise. Thirty-five participants were randomly assigned to an implementation intention or control condition. Participants assigned to the implementation intention condition ...
Candow Darren G - - 2009
Consuming sugar-free Red Bull energy drink before exercise has become increasingly popular among exercising individuals. The main purported active ingredient in sugar-free Red Bull is caffeine, which has been shown to increase aerobic exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sugar-free Red Bull energy ...
Lacerda Ana Cristina R - - 2009
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO, in the form of maltodextrin) or placebo (PLAC, in the form of gelatin) on the physical performance of cyclists during submaximal exercise until fatigue on an ergometric cycle. Nine volunteers exercised on 2 separate ...
Jeukendrup Asker - - 2009
Several nutritional strategies have been used in cycling to improve performance. Carbohydrate feeding during exercise has been shown to be effective, but recent studies have suggested that recommendations may have to be adjusted to take into account recent findings. Protein co-ingested with carbohydrate during exercise has received a lot of ...
Ballard Tasha P - - 2009
The effects of resistance exercise with and without carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on hunger, postexercise food intake, and plasma ghrelin, an orexigenic gastric peptide, are poorly characterized. We examined the individual and combined effects of a resistance exercise bout and CHO consumption on plasma ghrelin and postexercise food intake. Twenty-one apparently ...
Wong Stephen H S - - 2009
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of consuming carbohydrate- (CHO) electrolyte solution on running performance after different-glycemic-index (GI) meals. METHODS: Nine men completed 3 trials in a randomized counterbalanced order, with trials separated by at least 7 days. Two hours before the run after an overnight fast, each participant consumed ...
Steiner Jennifer L - - 2009
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on the RPE-blood lactate relationship during incremental and constant-effort exercise. METHODS: Six male and three female subjects (mean age = 27.2 +/- 8.2 yr, height [ht] = 174.5 +/- 13.5 cm, weight [wt] = 68.9 +/- 12.5 kg, body fat = ...
Hulston Carl J - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of a placebo effect from carbohydrate (CHO) intake during prolonged exercise. Ten endurance-trained male cyclists performed 3 experimental trials consisting of 120 min of steady-state cycling at 61% VO2max followed by a time trial (TT) lasting approximately 60 min. During ...
Duncan Michael J - - 2009
PURPOSE: This study examined the placebo effect of caffeine on number of repetitions (reps), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood pressure (BP), and peak heart rate (PHR) during resistance-training exercise with repetitions (reps) performed to volitional failure. METHODS: Following determination of 1-rep maximum in single-leg leg extension, 15 males performed ...
Robson-Ansley Paula - - 2009
Fatigue is a predictable outcome of prolonged physical activity; yet its biological cause remains uncertain. During exercise, a polypeptide messenger molecule interleukin- 6 (IL-6) is actively produced. Previously, it has been demonstrated that administration of recombinant IL-6 (rhIL-6) impairs 10-km run performance and heightened sensation of fatigue in trained runners. ...
Evans Gethin H - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of the osmolality and carbohydrate content of drinks on their rehydration effectiveness after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Six healthy male volunteers were dehydrated by 1.9+/-0.1% of body mass by intermittent cycle ergometer exercise in the heat before ingesting one of three solutions with different carbohydrate ...
Lima-Silva A E - - 2009
This study examined the effects of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on the time to exhaustion for moderate and heavy exercise. Seven men participated in a randomized order in two diet and exercise regimens each lasting 3 days with a 1-week interval for washout. The tests were performed at 50% of the ...
Nosaka Naohisa - - 2009
Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are known to hydrolyze readily and completely to fatty acids and to be metabolized more easily by beta-oxidation than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT). Therefore, we investigated the effect of 2 wk of ingestion of food containing a small amount (6 g) of MCT on energy metabolism during moderate-intensity ...
Saunders Michael J - - 2009
This study examined whether a carbohydrate + casein hydrolysate (CHO+ProH) beverage improved time-trial performance vs. a CHO beverage delivering approximately 60 g CHO/hr. Markers of muscle disruption and recovery were also assessed. Thirteen male cyclists (VO2peak = 60.8 +/- 1.6 ml . kg-1 . min-1) completed 2 computer-simulated 60-km time ...
Gliottoni Rachael C - - 2009
This experiment examined the effect of a moderate dose of caffeine on quadriceps muscle pain during a bout of high-intensity cycling in low- versus high-caffeine-consuming males. College-age men who were low (< or =100 mg/day; n = 12) or high (> or =400 mg/day; n = 13) habitual caffeine consumers ...
Chambers E S - - 2009
Exercise studies have suggested that the presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth activates regions of the brain that can enhance exercise performance but direct evidence of such a mechanism is limited. The first aim of the present study was to observe how rinsing the mouth with solutions containing glucose ...
Moore Laura J S - - 2010
This study investigated the effects of low or high glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed prior to a 40 km time trial (TT) on metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Ten male cyclists consumed high GI or low GI meals, providing 1 g kg(-1) body mass of carbohydrate, 45 min prior to ...
Swart J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and performance during repetitive maximal effort 40 km time trials as well as after an intervention that aimed to decrease certainty about the remaining distance of the exercise bout. In addition, we examined the RPE during ...
Pritchett, K; ;
Objective. To evaluate the effects of two different pre-exercise feeding schedules (15 minutes and 60 minutes prior to exercise) of a mixed-nutrient nutritional bar on blood glucose levels and subsequent intermittent, high-intensity cycling performance. Methods. Ten moderately trained athletes participated in this counterbalanced, crossover, repeated measures study. Participants completed a ...
Hulston Carl J - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether combined ingestion of moderate amounts of glucose plus fructose would result in higher rates of exogenous CHO oxidation compared with an isocaloric amount of glucose alone. METHODS: Seven endurance-trained male cyclists performed three experimental trials consisting of 150 min ...
Ivy John L - - 2009
CONTEXT: Not all athletic competitions lend themselves to supplementation during the actual event, underscoring the importance of preexercise supplementation to extend endurance and improve exercise performance. Energy drinks are composed of ingredients that have been found to increase endurance and improve physical performance. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was ...
Matsumoto Keitaro - - 2009
The effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on the lactate threshold (LT) were investigated as an index of endurance exercise capacity. Eight trained male subjects (21+/-2 y) participated in a double-blind crossover placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups and were provided either a BCAA drink ...
Passe D H - - 2009
We measured the dose-response effects of drink sodium content (treatments: 0 mmol/l, 18 mmol/l, 30 mmol/l, 40 mmol/l, and 60 mmol/l) on sensory perception and palatability in athletes at four time points: in a sedentary laboratory setting (non-exercise context), pre-exercise, and after 60 min and 120 min of aerobic-circuit exercise. ...
Kammer Lynne - - 2009
This study compared the effects of ingesting cereal and nonfat milk (Cereal) and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Drink) immediately following endurance exercise on muscle glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation state of proteins controlling protein synthesis: Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and eIF4E. Trained cyclists or triathletes (8 male: 28.0 +/- 1.6 yrs, ...
Ganio Matthew S - - 2009
Endurance athletes often ingest caffeine because of its reported ergogenic properties. Although there are a vast number of studies quantifying caffeine's effects, many research studies measure endurance performance using a time-to-exhaustion test (subjects exercise at a fixed intensity to volitional exhaustion). Time-to-exhaustion as a performance measure is not ideal because ...
Walter Ashley A - - 2009
The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of a thermogenic nutritional supplement containing caffeine, capsaicin, bioperine, and niacin on muscular strength and endurance performance. Twenty recreationally-active men (mean +/- SD age = 21.5 +/- 1.4 years; stature = 178.2 +/- 6.3 cm; mass = 76.5 ...
Bishop Nicolette C - - 2009
Physical stress induces a marked redistribution of T lymphocytes that may be influenced by carbohydrate (CHO) availability, yet the effect of these on T lymphocyte migration towards infected tissue is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of strenuous exercise and CHO ingestion on subsequent ...
Tarnopolsky Mark A - - 2008
The ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance exercise performance is multifactorial; however, there is evidence for an effect on both the central nervous system and the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. The increase in exercise performance seen following intracerebroventrical caffeine injection in rats provides strong evidence for a central ergogenic ...
Broad Elizabeth M - - 2008
Twenty nonvegetarian active males were pair-matched and randomly assigned to receive 2 g of L-carnitine L-tartrate (LC) or placebo per day for 2 wk. Participants exercised for 90 min at 70% VO2max after 2 days of a prescribed diet (M +/- SD: 13.6 +/- 1.6 MJ, 57% carbohydrate, 15% protein, ...
Burke Louise M - - 2008
Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better ...
Slivka Dustin - - 2008
The ingestion of carbohydrate (+CHO) and caffeine (+CAF) during exercise is a commonly used ergogenic practice. Investigations are typically conducted with subjects who are in a rested state after an overnight fast. However, this state of positive energy balance is not achieved during many work and exercise circumstances. The aim ...
Graham Terry E - - 2008
Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, has been studied for decades as a putative ergogenic aid. In the past 2 decades, the information has overwhelmingly demonstrated that it indeed is a powerful ergogenic aid, and frequently theories have been proposed that this is due to alterations in fat and carbohydrate metabolism. ...
Carr A - - 2008
AIM: This study examined the effects of 6 mgxkg(-1) caffeine ingestion in team-sport players (N.=10) on repeated-sprint running performance (5 sets of 6 x 20 m) and reaction times, 60 min after caffeine or placebo ingestion. METHODS: Best single sprint and total set sprint times, blood lactate and simple and ...
Hulston Carl J - - 2008
PURPOSE: 1) To investigate the effect of caffeine on exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation and glucose kinetics during exercise; and 2) to determine whether combined ingestion of caffeine and CHO enhanced cycling performance compared with CHO alone. METHODS: Ten endurance-trained cyclists performed three experimental trials consisting of 105 min steady-state (SS) ...
Howarth Krista R - - 2009
Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate (CHO) during recovery from exercise can affect muscle glycogen synthesis, particularly if CHO intake is suboptimal. Another potential benefit of protein feeding is an increased synthesis rate of muscle proteins, as is well documented after resistance exercise. In contrast, the effect of nutrient manipulation on ...
Beneke Ralph - - 2009
The half maximal constant (k (el)) of the relative rate of carbohydrate oxidation (relCHO) was individually approximated (relCHO = 100/(1 + k (el)/BLC(2)) as a function of the blood lactate concentration (BLC) in 11 pre-pubertal boys and 11 male adolescents (age: 11.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 16.4 +/- 0.2 years, height: ...
Hudson Geoffrey M - - 2008
This study compared independent effects of caffeine and aspirin on muscular endurance (repetitions), heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (RPE), and perceived pain index (PPI) during light resistance training bouts performed to volitional failure. It was hypothesized that the hypoalgesic properties of these ergogenic aids would decrease pain perception and potentially ...
Dugas J P - - 2009
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of fluid replacement on thermoregulation and cycling performance in hot, humid conditions. Six male cyclists (PPO = 426 +/- 39 W) performed six 80 km time trials. Subjects replaced 0% (0); 33% (33); 66% (66); or 100% (100) of the ...
Klein Janet - - 2009
The influence of alanine on plasma amino acid concentrations and fuel substrates as well as cycling performance was examined. Four solutions [6% alanine (ALA); 6% sucrose (CHO); 6% alanine and 6% sucrose (ALA-CHO); an artificially sweetened placebo (PLC)] were tested using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design. During each trial, ten ...
McFarlin Brian K - - 2008
Carbohydrate consumption during strenuous aerobic exercise reportedly minimizes post-exercise suppression of the innate immune system. One of the most common measurements of innate immunity is natural killer cell activity (NKCA). It is not known whether actual carbohydrate consumption or merely the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption mediates alteration in NKCA. The ...
Skillen Rebecca A - - 2008
This study examined the effect of amino acids in a carbohydrate beverage on cycling performance. Twelve male athletes (28.5 +/- 2.1 yr) cycled at 75% VO2peak for 90 min followed by a ride to exhaustion at 85% VO2peak, before (T1) and on 2 consecutive days (T2 and T3) after 2 ...
Weinheimer Eileen M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This controlled feeding study examined the effects of exercise on daily water intake (particularly ad libitum water intake), water output, whole-body water balance, and hydration status in physically active, premenopausal women. DESIGN: The randomized crossover design consisted of three 8-day trials: placebo and no exercise, placebo and exercise (1-hour ...
Taylor Robert E - - 2008
Malt liquor (ML) beverages have become increasingly popular among urban minority groups, due partly to their inexpensive price and targeted advertising. We hypothesized that nonfermented by-products contained in ML beverages will alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of its ethanol content. In addition, we determined the effect of ...
Jeukendrup Asker E - - 2008
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of CHO ingestion during high intensity exercise performance lasting approximately 25 min. Twelve endurance trained male cyclists (age 19-41 years; body mass 73.2 +/- 4.2 kg; VO(2)max 66.4 +/- 6.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a simulated 16 km time trial ...
Chen Y J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the glycemic index (GI) of a pre-exercise (PRE-ex) meal on plasma cytokine responses and endurance performance when carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) drink was consumed during exercise. METHODS: Eight endurance-trained male runners (age: 28.6+/-2.7 years; body mass: 61.9+/-1.71 kg; V O(2max): 58.5+/-1.6 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) completed three trials ...
Fujii Naoto - - 2008
We tested the hypothesis that, in humans, hypohydration attenuates hyperthermic hyperpnea during exercise in the heat. On two separate occasions, thirteen male subjects performed a fluid replacement (FR) and a no-fluid replacement (NFR) trial in random order. The subjects performed two bouts of cycle exercise (Ex1 and Ex2, 30-60 min) ...
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