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Triplett Darren - - 2010
A number of recent research studies have demonstrated that providing glucose and fructose together in a beverage consumed during exercise results in significantly higher oxidation rates of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) than consuming glucose alone. However, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the increased exogenous CHO oxidation improves endurance performance. ...
Donaldson Carolyn M - - 2010
The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of the evidence surrounding glycemic index (GI) and endurance performance. Athletes are commonly instructed to consume low-GI (LGI) carbohydrate (CHO) before exercise, but this recommendation appears to be based on the results of only a few studies, whereas others ...
Pritchard-Peschek Kellie R - - 2010
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of 180 mg of pseudoephedrine (PSE) on cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Six well-trained male cyclists and triathletes (age 33 +/- 2 yr, mass 81 +/- 8 kg, height 182.0 +/- 6.7 cm, VO2max 56.8 +/- 6.8 ml x kg(-1) ...
Phillips Shaun M - - 2010
The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of consuming a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution on the intermittent, high-intensity endurance performance and capacity of adolescent team games players. Fifteen participants (mean age 12.7 +/- 0.8 years) performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they ...
Machado Marco - - 2010
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine ingestion before a resistance exercise session on markers of muscle damage (CK, LDH, ALT, AST) and leukocyte levels. METHODS: Fifteen soccer athletes completed two resistance exercise sessions that differed only in the ingestion of caffeine or a ...
Millard-Stafford Melinda L - - 2010
PURPOSE: Effects of acute carbohydrate ingestion on blood lactate (BLa) response to graded exercise was examined in highly trained male and female swimmers. METHODS: Twenty-three swimmers performed the United States Swimming Lactate Protocol, a graded interval test (5x200 on 5 min), following ingestion of carbohydrate sports drink (CHO) and placebo ...
Olek R A - - 2010
The ergogenic effect of arginine has been demonstrated in research focusing on its intake before exercise. However, in these studies, the effect of arginine in combination with other various metabolites were assessed. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single oral intake of arginine, without any other ...
Skinner Tina L - - 2010
PURPOSE: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between caffeine and 2000-m rowing performance. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 10 competitive male rowers (mean +/- SD: age = 20.6 +/- 1.4 yr, body mass = 87.7 +/- 10.5 kg, height = 186.8 +/- 6.8 cm, (.)VO2peak = ...
Rasmussen Peter - - 2010
Brain activation provokes nonoxidative carbohydrate consumption and during exercise it is dominated by the cerebral uptake of lactate resulting in that up to approximately 1 mmol/ 100 g of glucose equivalents cannot be accounted for by cerebral oxygen uptake. The fate of this 'extra' carbohydrate uptake is unknown, but it ...
Cox A J - - 2010
This study examined the influence of 28 days of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on plasma cytokine responses to cycle ergometry. Sixteen highly trained male cyclists and triathletes (age: 30.6+/-5.6 y; VO2max: 64.8+/-4.7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean+/-SD) participated in the study. One group (n=8) consumed a higher-CHO (8.5+/-1.7 g ...
de Sousa Maysa Vieira - - 2010
This study evaluated the effects of a micro cycle of overload training (1st-8th day) on metabolic and hormonal responses in male runners with or without carbohydrate supplementation and investigated the cumulative effects of this period on a session of intermittent high-intensity running and maximum-performance-test (9th day). The participants were 24 ...
VanHaitsma T A - - 2010
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative and additive effects of caffeine and albuterol (short-acting beta (2)-agonist) on the severity of EIB. Ten asthmatic subjects with EIB (exercise-induced bronchoconstriction) participated in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy crossover study. One hour before an exercise challenge, each subject was ...
Toone Rebecca J - - 2010
This study was designed to compare the effects of energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) and carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplements on cycling time-trial performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists and triathletes each completed 2 trials in a randomized and counterbalanced order that were separated by 5-10 d and applied in a double-blind manner. Participants performed ...
Pottier A - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to further explore the influence of ingestion and mouth rinse with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) on the performance during a approximately 1 h high-intensity time trial on trained subjects. Subjects rinsed around the mouth or ingested a 6% isotonic CES or placebo (14 ...
Oh Jae-Keun - - 2010
Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) is a potent antioxidant and procirculatory agent that may contribute to improvement of endurance performance during highly intense exercise. This study evaluated the acute effect of an ECP-supplemented drink against a placebo on maximum endurance capacity and related physiological parameters. Twenty men 18-23 yr old volunteered ...
Jeukendrup A E - - 2010
This study compared the effects of ingesting water (WATER), an 8.6% glucose solution (GLU) and an 8.6% glucose+fructose solution (2:1 ratio, GLU+FRU) on gastric emptying (GE), fluid delivery, and markers of hydration status during moderate intensity exercise. Eight male subjects (age=24+/-2 years, weight=74.5+/-1.2 kg, VO2max=62.6+/-2.5 mL/kg/min) performed three 120 min ...
Simmonds Michael J - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine if improved supramaximal exercise performance in trained cyclists following caffeine ingestion was associated with enhanced O(2) uptake (VO2 kinetics), increased anaerobic energy provision (accumulated O(2)-AO(2)-deficit), or a reduction in the accumulation of metabolites (for example, K(+)) associated with muscular fatigue. Six highly ...
Kato Yushi - - 2010
The study investigated exercise patterns resulting in the more efficient promotion of amino acid utilization. High-protein snacks (HPS; 15 g protein, 18 g sugar) were ingested by 8 young adult subjects 3 h after the basal meal ingestion. Sixty minutes after the HPS ingestion, the subjects performed arm flex/extend exercises ...
Snell Peter G - - 2010
The effect of moderate dehydration and consequent fluid replenishment on short-duration maximal treadmill performance was studied in eight healthy, fit (VO2max = 49.7 +/- 8.7 mL kg-1 min-1) males aged 28 +/- 7.5 yrs. The study involved a within subject, blinded, crossover, placebo design. Initially, all subjects performed a baseline ...
Astorino Todd A - - 2010
Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may ...
Goldstein Erica R - - 2010
Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1.) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed ...
Siegler Jason C - - 2010
Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 ...
Mart?nez-Lagunas Vanessa - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the aerobic capacity characteristics of an isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) plus protein (PRO) drink and a low-calorie CHO plus PRO drink against a traditional 6% CHO sports beverage. Twelve male and female trained cyclists exercised on 4 separate occasions at intensities that ...
Chien Kuei-Yu - - 2010
PURPOSE: Prednisolone has been widely used due to its relatively short pituitary inhibition and its moderate potency. Exercise is one of the non-pharmacological interventions for glucocorticoid- induced osteoporosis prevention. However, the effects of exercise on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone were unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ...
Hoffman Jay R - - 2010
The effect of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AG; Sustamine) ingestion on performance changes and markers of fluid regulation, immune, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and recovery was examined in response to exhaustive endurance exercise, during and in the absence of dehydration. Ten physically active males (20.8 +/- 0.6 y; 176.8 +/- 7.2 cm; 77.4 ...
Hadjicharalambous Marios P - - 2010
The present study examined putative modulators and indices of brain serotonergic and dopaminergic function, perceptual responses, and endurance exercise performance following caffeine co-ingested with a high fat meal. Trained humans (n = 10) performed three constant-load cycling tests at 73% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) until exhaustion at 10 degrees ...
Blacker Sam D - - 2010
This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. TEN MALE PARTICIPANTS (BODY MASS: 81.5 +/- 10.5 kg, age: 28 +/- 9 years, O(2)max: 55.0 +/- 5.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km.h(-1)), carrying a ...
O'Reilly John - - 2010
The concept of the glycaemic index (GI) was first introduced in the early 1980s as a method of functionally ranking carbohydrate foods based on their actual postprandial blood glucose response compared with a reference food (either glucose or white bread). Although the GI is a debatable topic among many exercise ...
de Salles Painelli Vitor - - 2010
It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ...
Newsom Sean A SA School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, 401 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2214, - - 2010
The content of meals consumed after exercise can impact metabolic responses for hours and even days after the exercise session. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low dietary carbohydrate (CHO) vs. low energy intake in meals after exercise on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism the ...
Lane Amy R - - 2010
This study examined the effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) consumption on the free testosterone to cortisol (fTC) ratio during a short-term intense micro-cycle of exercise training. The fTC ratio is a proposed biomarker for overreaching-overtraining (i.e., training stress or imbalance) in athletes. The ratio was studied in two groups, control-CHO ...
Lima-Silva Adriano Eduardo - - 2010
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low carbohydrate (CHO) availability on heart rate variability (HRV) responses during moderate and severe exercise intensities until exhaustion. Six healthy males (age, 26.5 +/- 6.7 years; body mass, 78.4 +/- 7.7 kg; body fat %, 11.3 +/- 4.5%; V(O)(2)(max) ...
Dean Sara - - 2009
Researchers have long been investigating strategies that can increase athletes' ability to oxidize fatty acids and spare carbohydrate, thus potentially improving endurance capacity. Green-tea extract (epigallocatechin-3-gallate; EGCG) has been shown to improve endurance capacity in mice. If a green-tea extract can stimulate fat oxidation and as a result spare glycogen ...
Cermak Naomi M - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Ingesting protein (PRO) with CHO during prolonged exercise is purported to improve performance compared with CHO alone by altering the regulation of skeletal muscle energy provision. However, no study has directly investigated this issue. We tested the hypothesis that compared with CHO alone, coingestion of PRO would alter markers ...
Wong S H - - 2009
This study examined the effect of ingesting a high or low glycemic index (GI) meal during a short-term recovery period on endurance running capacity. On two occasions, seven men (age 30.0+/-2.6 yr, body mass 60.7+/-1.4 kg, VO (2max) 62.1+/-2.2 ml.kg (-1).min (-1)) ran at 70% VO (2max) on a level ...
Ishijima Toshimichi - - 2009
This study examined the effects of maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids with or without carbohydrate on subjective responses of untrained men during prolonged exercise in a hot environment. Six healthy untrained subjects completed 90 min of cycling exercises at 55% maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) in a hot environment (temperature: 28(o)C, ...
Rollo Ian - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO-E) on performance during a 1-hr treadmill run. Eight male endurance-trained runners (age 31 +/- 8 yr, M +/- SD) completed three 1-hr performance runs separated by 1 wk. The study used a double-blind placebo ...
Ali Ajmol - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, during the 90-min Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test, on soccer skill performance. Seventeen male soccer players ingested either a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or placebo solution equivalent to 8 ml . kg(-1) body mass before exercise and ...
Chapman Robert F - - 2009
The effects of caffeine on exercise performance have been well documented, with most reviews focusing on the metabolic, hormonal, and/or central nervous system effects. However, caffeine's effects on ventilation and pulmonary function are often overlooked. Studies have shown that caffeine is a strong ventilatory stimulant, increasing the sensitivity of the ...
Tremblay Jonathan H - - 2009
PURPOSE: To compare fuel selection during prolonged arm (AE) and leg exercise (LE) with water or glucose ingestion. METHODS: Ten subjects (VO2max: 4.77 +/- 0.20 and 3.36 +/- 0.15 L x min(-1) for LE and AE, respectively) completed 120 min of LE and AE at 50% of the mode-specific maximal ...
Kellawan J Mikhail - - 2009
To examine the effects of caffeine during exercise in fire protective ensemble (FPE), 10 healthy males completed 3 x 10 min bouts of treadmill exercise on two separate days. Sixty minutes prior to exercise either 6 mg/kg of caffeine (CAFF) or dextrose placebo (PLA) capsules were ingested (randomly assigned, double ...
Temesi John - - 2010
Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise and as a pre-exercise bolus improves exercise performance in able-bodied athletes. Little is known about the potential for carbohydrate ingestion to improve exercise performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI), nor the potential physiological limitations of such a practice resulting from an SCI. Therefore, this ...
Okazaki Kazunobu - - 2009
The incidence of heat illness and heat stroke is greater in older than younger people. In this context, exercise training regimens to increase heat tolerance in older people may provide protection against heat illness. Acute increases in plasma volume (PV) improve thermoregulation during exercise in young subjects, but there is ...
Desbrow Ben - - 2009
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of a low and moderate caffeine dose on exogenous CHO oxidation and endurance-exercise performance. METHODS: Nine trained and familiarized male cyclists (mean +/- SD: 29.4 +/- 4.5 yr, 81.3 +/- 10.8 kg body weight [BW], 183.8 +/- 8.2 cm, V O2peak = 61.7 +/- ...
Little Jonathan P - - 2009
The glycemic index (GI) of a preexercise meal may affect substrate utilization and performance during continuous exercise. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of low- and high-GI foods on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. METHODS: Seven male athletes participated in three experimental trials (low-GI, high-GI, and fasted control) separated ...
Evans Gethin H - - 2009
The effectiveness of different carbohydrate solutions in restoring fluid balance in situations of voluntary fluid intake has not been examined previously. The effect of the carbohydrate content of drinks ingested after exercise was examined in 6 males and 3 females previously dehydrated by 1.99 +/- 0.07% of body mass via ...
Foskett Andrew - - 2009
There is little evidence regarding the benefits of caffeine ingestion on cognitive function and skillful actions during sporting performance, especially in sports that are multifaceted in their physiological, skill, and cognitive demands. PURPOSE: To examine the influence of caffeine on performance during simulated soccer activity. METHODS: Twelve male soccer players ...
Woolf Kathleen - - 2009
Research suggests that caffeine may improve performance in aerobic exercise; the evidence for anaerobic performance is mixed. This study examined the effect of caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight [BW]) vs. placebo on performance-based anaerobic exercise tests used during the National Football League (NFL) Combine. Collegiate football athletes (n = 17; ...
Costa Ricardo J S - - 2009
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of immediate and 1-hr-delayed carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) feeding after prolonged exercise on leukocyte trafficking, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, saliva secretory IgA (S-IgA) responses, and circulating stress hormones. In randomized order, separated by 1 wk, 9 male runners completed ...
Beelen Milou - - 2009
It has been reported previously that mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate-containing solution can improve cycling performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of such a carbohydrate mouth rinse on exercise performance during a simulated time trial in a more practical, postprandial setting. Fourteen male endurance-trained ...
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