Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 982
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Omasu Fumihiro - - 2004
We investigated the relation between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype and bone mass including the effect of exercise history as a measure of physical activity. BUA (broadband ultrasound attenuation), SOS (speed of sound) and Stiffness index of the calcaneus were measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer in 105 Japanese ...
Reyes May O - - 2004
PURPOSE: This observational cross-sectional study was done to determine bone mass in physicians and to determine if variables, such as calcium intake and exercise, were related to their bone mass. METHODS: One-hundred physicians of different ethnicities (African, African American, Asian, Caribbean, and Hispanic) were studied. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), ...
Sucu Nehir - - 2004
Calcification is the most frequent cause of the clinical failure of bovine pericardium bioprosthetic valves, preventing their widespread application for surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to minimize calcific degeneration in bovine pericardium by using a chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Freshly excised bovine pericardium was dissected free ...
Chilibeck Philip D - - 2004
Research in animal models indicates that without estrogen, the effectiveness of exercise for increasing bone mineral in females is reduced. With decreased estrogen levels, there is an increase in the threshold at which strains are detected by bone, in turn reducing the transmission of mechanical to biochemical signals for bone ...
Miller Larry E - - 2004
Although postmenopausal women are encouraged to exercise to preserve bone mineral density (BMD), few studies have looked at what type of exercise is most effective.
Karlsson Magnus - - 2004
Exercise in girls during growth seems to confer a high peak bone mineral density (BMD). Exercise in adulthood, in the peri- and postmenopausal period, and in old age prevents bone loss or increases BMD with a magnitude of minor biological significance. However, these changes must be regarded as beneficial compared ...
Guillemant J - - 2004
Although sport and physical activity are generally considered as positive factors for bone metabolism some endurance trainings such as running and bicycling have few or no beneficial or even deleterious effects on bone mineral density. The present study was designed to investigate the acute effect of an intensive endurance cycling ...
Asikainen Tuula-Maria - - 2004
Women who pass menopause face many changes that may lead to loss of health-related fitness (HRF), especially if sedentary. Many exercise recommendations are also relevant for early postmenopausal women; however, these may not meet their specific needs because the recommendations are based mainly on studies on men. We conducted a ...
Nacher Mathieu - - 2004
The gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum have a characteristic banana-shape. One could wonder if this shape has been retained by selection forces because it favored transmission. By increasing the surface to volume ratio, the elongation that takes place during the maturation of P. falciparum gametocytes increases the susceptibility of gametocytes to ...
Tsalafoutas I A - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) test pattern in the quality control of a modern laser camera and the variations in the optical density (OD) of the film when different formats are used. The SMPTE pattern ...
Ushiroyama T - - 2004
To investigate the effects of physical exercise on bone mass during the climacteric and menopausal period. The study group were 1123 postmenopausal Japanese women (mean: 55.4 +/- 3.7 years). Their current bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae (L2-4) was analyzed taking the presence or absence of regular physical exercise, the ...
Fujie Hiromichi - - 2004
To study bone adaptation to detraining in growing rats, nine weeks-old immature female Wistar rats (n=110) were subjected to treadmill running programs (30 or 60 minutes-a-day) for up to 15 weeks, followed by unrestricted cage activities for the subsequent 15 weeks. The results revealed that (1) the cross-sectional area and ...
Yamazaki Satoshi - - 2004
The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether moderate walking exercise in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis would affect bone metabolism. Fifty postmenopausal women, aged 49-75 years, with osteopenia/osteoporosis were recruited: 32 women entered the exercise program (the exercise group) and 18 served as controls (the control group). The ...
Chen X - - 2004
We have investigated the effect of exercise on the bone strength, bone mineral density (BMD), and metal content in rat femurs. Five Wister rats acting as an exercised group (E group) were exercised at intervals on a treadmill every day for four weeks. Another five rats were fed in a ...
Iwamoto Jun - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exercise on bone mass, bone metabolism, and calciotropic hormones in young growing rats. Twenty 6-week-old female Wistar rats were randomized into the following four groups with 5 animals each: 7 weeks of exercise, 7 weeks of sedentary control, ...
El-Hakim I E - - 2004
Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis (DO) was found to be a procedure with low preoperative and postoperative morbidity. Direct current electrical stimulation is used clinically to treat different orthopaedic problems. It provided a significant increase in new-bone formation, and a higher mechanical strength of healing. The purpose of this study was to ...
Tatsuguchi Mariko - - 2004
The phenotypic expression of cardiomyopathy is greatly influenced by extrinsic factors other than intrinsic genetic defects, such as environmental stress. Exercise is assumed to be an important extrinsic factor, since sudden death is sometimes seen during exercise in young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the long-term effects of mild ...
Ito Tsuyoshi T Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, - - 2004
Bedrest and spaceflight are associated with profound losses of muscle bulk and strength which hinder patient's or astronaut's health and reintegration into daily life. We attempted to do two things in this small pilot study. First, we assessed the potential of hybrid electrical stimulation-volitional contraction exercise program to increase proximal ...
Nurmi-Lawton Jaana A - - 2004
The skeletal effects from intensive exercise throughout puberty are undefined. Forty-five female gymnasts and 52 controls were studied over 3 years, including a heredity aspect. The effects of size, maturity, exercise, and diet were identified using a multilevel regression model. Results demonstrated sustained skeletal benefits resulting from exercise throughout all ...
Elias V - - 2003
In the absence of a tree-level scalar-field mass, renormalization-group methods permit the explicit summation of leading-logarithm contributions to all orders of the perturbative series within the effective potential for SU(2)xU(1) electroweak symmetry. This improvement of the effective potential function is seen to reduce residual dependence on the renormalization mass scale. ...
Kontulainen S - - 2004
Exercise is recommended to enhance bone health but data on the maintenance of the exercise-induced bone benefit is sparse. The purpose of the study was to assess the maintenance of the musculoskeletal benefits obtained in an 18-month intervention of high-impact exercise in premenopausal women (34 former trainees and 31 controls). ...
Jackson Brendan F - - 2003
To evaluate changes in serum concentrations of biochemical markers of bone metabolism and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) associated with treadmill exercise in young horses. 12 two-year-old Thoroughbred mares. During a 20-week study period, 6 horses were exercised on a treadmill 3 times a week (exercise group) and 6 horses ...
Frangolias Despina D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Exercise has been shown to maintain or increase bone mineral density (BMD) in non-CF populations. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to elucidate the relationship between exercise, body composition and dietary intake with BMD in an adult CF population with heterogeneous disease severity. DESIGN: We measured spinal (L1-4) ...
Smith Scott M - - 2003
Counteracting bone loss is required for future space exploration. We evaluated the ability of treadmill exercise in a LBNP chamber to counteract bone loss in a 30-day bed rest study. Eight pairs of identical twins were randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups. Exercise within LBNP decreased the bone ...
Hermida Juan C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The use of larger femoral head sizes in total hip arthroplasty has been shown to reduce the rate of dislocation and to increase the range of motion; however, such components have been associated with unacceptably high polyethylene wear rates. Studies have shown dramatic differences in wear rates between nominally ...
MacKelvie Kerry J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Childhood weight-bearing physical activity is recognized as an important determinant of peak bone mass, and physical activity intervention may represent a feasible strategy for primary prevention of osteoporosis. Previous school-based exercise interventions have all been of <10 months in duration. We implemented a high-impact, circuit-based, jumping intervention (10 minutes, ...
Shiga Kazuki - - 2003
Difructose anhydride III (DFAIII), a nondigestible disaccharide, promotes intestinal calcium absorption. Exercise-induced mechanical stimuli are essential for bone growth. In the present study, we examined the effects of consuming DFAIII and voluntary running exercise on calcium absorption and bone characteristics using male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 wk old). The study was ...
Matsuo Tatsuhiro - - 2003
We examined the effects of a voluntary resistance exercise (climbing) together with high-protein snacks (60% protein) on bone mass and strength in rats given glucocorticoid-injections (2 mg/kg/day) as a model of age-related osteopenia. Fifty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks age, were assigned to exercise or sedentary groups. These groups were ...
Severin Gabriele E - - 2003
We investigated the effects of the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol (NP) on the zooplankton assemblages of 230 L aquatic microcosms during a four-week preapplication period, a six-week NP treatment via controlled release, and a six-week postapplication period. Zooplankton assemblage change, investigated by ordination principal response curves (PRC), was due to lower ...
Joo Y-I - - 2003
Appropriate endurance exercise is capable of increasing bone mass and strength in both animals and humans. We examined the skeletal changes induced by treadmill running exercise in young growing rats with a particular emphasis on three-dimensional trabecular bone microarchitecture. Fourteen male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (CON; n = ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2003
Healthy term infants who are not breast-fed may need long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in their feeding, based on the changes in plasma and tissue fatty composition. However, consistent functional effects across different studies conducted over the past two decades has been more difficult to document. The interpretation of these ...
Lariviere Jane A - - 2003
PURPOSE: There is evidence that rowing exercise targets the spine, but the dose of exercise required to build bone is poorly understood. To further explore this topic, we studied the bone response at the spine in novice and experienced female collegiate rowers over their 6-month competitive season. We hypothesized that, ...
Papanek Paula E - - 2003
Over the last thirty years, participation by girls and women in organized athletics has increased dramatically. This presents unique challenges in the area of sports medicine, orthopaedics, and pediatrics. While the benefits of participation in sports and exercise vastly outweigh the risks of permanent injury, an evolving concern is the ...
Sheehan Kathleen M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: This study measured the response of deoxypyridinoline, a biomarker of bone resorption, during 11 weeks of Marine recruit training. METHODS: Urine samples were obtained from 155 female and 58 male Marine recruits from the first morning void every 3 days during training. Training miles of weight-bearing exercise were recorded ...
Viano David C - - 2003
Since the earliest crash investigations, whiplash has been found to occur more often in women than men. This study addresses seat properties that may explain a reason for the higher rates in women, and changes in whiplash in general over the past two decades. Three exemplar seats were defined on ...
Mitchell Matthew J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and vertebral fractures are a consequence of glucocorticoid immunosuppression therapy in lung transplant recipients (LTR). The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of a 6-month program of specific resistance exercise designed to reverse glucocorticoid-induced vertebral osteoporosis. METHODS: Sixteen lung transplant candidates were randomly and ...
Oksa Juha - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: The ability of fighter pilots to perform efficient anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM) is vital for their G-tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the use of a lumbar support that optimizes the posture of the spine enhances the effectiveness of AGSM. METHODS: Eleven fighter pilots performed ...
Delbem A C B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Er:YAG laser on the formation of CaF(2), after the application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF), and its influence on the anti-cariogenic action in human dental enamel. BACKGROUND DATA: Er:YAG laser was designed to promote ablation of the enamel. ...
Cooper Mark S - - 2003
Individual susceptibility to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is difficult to predict clinically. We recently characterized expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) in human osteoblasts. This enzyme generates active cortisol (or prednisolone) from inactive cortisone (or prednisone) and regulates glucocorticoid action in vitro. We, thus, hypothesized that osteoblastic 11beta-HSD1 mediates susceptibility to ...
Karlsson K M - - 2003
The relationship between duration of exercise and serum remodeling markers of bone turnover was evaluated by osteocalcin (OC), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in 24 male premier league soccer players exercising 12 hours/week ...
Duhe, Shelly Ann
Physical activity may increase long bone calcium (Ca) content to preserve bone strength in postmenopausal women. This study determined the effect of compulsory swimming and voluntary running exercise on bone mineral density, bone Ca and phosphorus (P) content, and femoral neck and tibia strength in ovariectomized (OVX) retired breeder rats, ...
Going Scott - - 2003
Osteoporosis is a major public health concern. The combination of exercise, hormone replacement therapy, and calcium supplementation may have added benefits for improving bone mineral density compared to a single intervention. To test this notion, 320 healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women, who did or did not use hormone replacement therapy (HRT), ...
Dowker S E P - - 2003
A longitudinal study was made of the 3D development of subsurface enamel lesions in whole human molars. X-ray microtomography (XMT) was used to measure the 3D distribution of linear attenuation coefficients in the tissue at 8-15 stages during cumulative times of 36-107 days demineralisation through approximately 1-mm-wide windows. Although lesion ...
Villareal Dennis T - - 2003
To determine whether exercise training added to ongoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in physically frail elderly women. Prospective controlled trial. University-based research center. Twenty-eight women on HRT, aged 75 and older with physical frailty. Participants were assigned to 9 months of supervised (EXER) or home ...
Uusi-Rasi K - - 2003
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-month trial we evaluated effects of weight- bearing jumping exercise and oral alendronate, alone or in combination, on the mass and structure of bone, risk factors for falling (muscle strength and power, postural sway, and dynamic balance), and cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal women. A total ...
Järvinen Teppo L N - - 2003
Aged bones have been considered to have reduced capacity to respond to changes in incident loading. By subjecting young and adult rats to increased loading and subsequent deconditioning, we observed quantitatively similar adaptive responses of bone in these two groups, but young skeletons adapted primarily through geometric changes and adult ...
Ishihara A - - 2003
The densities and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the femur in 40- and 60-week-old senescence-accelerated mice prone 6 (SAMP6) were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and compared with those in age-matched control mice (ICR). In addition, the effects of 20 weeks of voluntary running exercise with increasing loads on ...
Rosenblum Jennifer - - 2003
Treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa is a topic that continues to spark debate. Two particular areas of controversy include the role of exercise and the use of selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Few randomized controlled trials have addressed these two issues. The psychological impact of exercise in patients with ...
Van Langendonck L - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine whether high-impact exercises have an osteogenic effect in 21 prepubertal female monozygotic twins aged 8.7 (SD 0.7) years. Bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, and body composition were derived from DXA. Skeletal maturity was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse ...
Saino H - - 2003
Exercise in youth may affect bone "quality" as well as quantity. Using the rat model, 1.5-month-old females were divided into four weight-matched groups, exercised short-term (6 weeks, E(s), n = 20) and long-term (14 weeks, E(L), n = 10) by access to monitored running wheels, and corresponding "sedentary" controls (S(S) ...
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