Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 982
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Borer Katarina T - - 2005
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that diminishes quality of life and levies a financial burden on those who fear and experience bone fractures. Physical activity as a way to prevent osteoporosis is based on evidence that it can regulate bone maintenance and stimulate bone formation including the accumulation of ...
Ay Alev - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective, controlled study, the effects of weight bearing and aquatic exercises on the calcaneal ultrasonic scores of postmenopausal sedentary women was investigated. DESIGN: A total of 62 postmenopausal sedentary women (mean age, 54.1 +/- 7 yrs) with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) T-score variables less than -1 were ...
Stafford Diane E J - - 2005
Young women have become increasingly active in athletics during the 20th century. Those involved in sports that emphasize lean body type are at high risk for the development of menstrual dysfunction, including amenorrhea. This is mediated by an alteration in function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, with loss of normal ...
Seeman Ego - - 2005
Data from retrospective and prospective observational and case-control studies suggest that activity is associated with reduced fracture risk, but consistently replicated bias may be responsible for this desired endpoint. Exercise during growth is likely to build a larger and stronger skeleton. However, cessation of exercise may erode the benefits. Modeling ...
Qin Ling - - 2005
This study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of regular Tai Chi Chun (TCC) exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and neuromuscular function in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 99 healthy postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 55.9+/-3.1 years and within 10 years after the menopause, were ...
McFadden Dennis - - 2005
Sex differences other than the simple dimorphism in size were documented for the metapodials of two primate species. Lengths of metacarpals and metatarsals were obtained from the skeletons of 64 gorillas and 42 chimpanzees. Length ratios were constructed for all possible pairings of the five bones in each individual hand ...
Remes Terhi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been suggested to account for some of the genetic variation in bone mass. However, the relationship has been controversial. It has been suggested that environmental factors such as physical activity may be one of the many reasons for this controversy.AIM. ...
Turner Charles H - - 2005
Certain exercises can induce osteogenesis and improve bone strength, yet the biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are only beginning to be understood. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including calcium signaling associated with membrane ion channels, adenosine triphosphate signaling, second messengers such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and ...
Tähtelä Riitta - - 2005
Osteoclastic tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in serum (S-TRACP 5b) was measured in postmenopausal women ( n =59, mean age 56.1 years) with vertebral osteopenia before and during 2-year treatment with an 800-mg daily dose of clodronate, with a non-amino bisphosphonate. Changes in TRACP 5b were compared with those in urinary ...
Qi Gang - - 2004
The present work proposed a methodology to monitor cement microcrack formation in the cemented femoral stem construct using the acoustic emission technique. This technique provides a unique means to automatically tally the number of microcracks, to visualize microcrack distribution, and to animate the progress of crack formation in a given ...
Kim Young-kwon - - 2004
Systematic and quantitative measurements of the roles of stereochemistry and skeleton-dependent conformational restriction were made using multidimensional screening. We first used diversity-oriented synthesis to synthesize the same number (122) of [10.4.0] bicyclic products (B) and their corresponding monocyclic precursors (M). We measured the ability of these compounds to modulate a ...
Caruso John F - - 2004
Hind-limb-suspended rats incur attenuated bone loss with beta(2)-agonists, and humans note similar changes with concurrent resistance exercise. To examine if the beta(2)-agonist albuterol helps resistance exercise reduce unloading-induced bone loss, human subjects performed 40 days of unilateral limb suspension with their left legs, otherwise refraining from normal ambulatory activity. While ...
Chernoff Neil - - 2004
Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LR) or cervical (CR), are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some debate. In rodents, the spontaneous incidence of SNR is species and strain ...
Gozansky W S - - 2005
The aim of this study was to determine whether estrogen and/or raloxifene help to conserve bone mineral density (BMD) during moderate weight loss. Postmenopausal women (n = 68) participated in a 6-month weight loss program that consisted primarily of supervised exercise training. Another 26 women were studied over 6 months ...
Whipple T J - - 2004
Resistance exercise has positive effects on bone mass, but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine if a single bout of moderate intensity resistance exercise alters biochemical markers of bone cell activity. Indices of bone turnover were measured in ...
Niehoff Anja - - 2004
Mechanical loading has been shown to modulate longitudinal bone growth and cellular activity of the growth plate. Nevertheless, limited and controversial results exist regarding the effect of exercise on a physiological level on the growth plate. The present study investigated whether dose-dependent voluntary exercise has an influence on morphological, biochemical, ...
Zwart Sara R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a critical concern for space travelers, and a dietary countermeasure would be of great benefit. Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss. OBJECTIVE: In 2 studies, we examined the ability of ...
Uusi-Rasi Kirsti - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remaining effects of 12-month intervention of alendronate and exercise on selected risk factors of fragility fractures in 15-month follow-up after withdrawal of intervention among early postmenopausal women. The trial consisted four experimental groups: (1) 5 mg of alendronate daily + exercise ...
Kemmler W - - 2004
CONTEXT: Although the positive effect of well-designed exercise regimes on bone mineral density (BMD) is established the osteo-anabolic relevance of habitual physical activity and non-athletic exercise is still under discussion. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise muscle strength, VO2max and anthropometric parameters on BMD in ...
Warden S J - - 2004
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone fragility resulting mostly from low bone mass and a concomitant increase in the risk for fracture. Exercise is a commonly prescribed intervention for osteoporosis because bone tissue is mechanosensitive. The ability of mechanical stimuli to influence bone biology has been known for over a ...
Sheller Michael R - - 2004
The synthetic peptide, TP508 (Chrysalin), was delivered to rabbit segmental bone defects in biodegradable controlled-release PLGA microspheres to determine its potential efficacy for enhancing healing of non-critically and critically sized segmental defects. Non-critically sized radial defects were created in the forelimbs of New Zealand White rabbits, which were randomized into ...
Watanabe Yukiko - - 2004
Long-term bed rest has potential risks of bone loss and renal stone formation. We examined the effects of resistive exercise and intravenous pamidronate on BMD, bone turnover, urinary calcium, and renal stone formation in 25 healthy males during 90-day bed rest. Pamidronate prevented femoral bone loss and renal stone formation, ...
Hiney K M - - 2004
The hypothesis that short-duration exercise may ameliorate the decrease in bone mass observed with confinement was investigated with 18 quarter horses (nine colts and nine fillies) weaned at 4 mo of age and placed into box stalls. After a 5-wk adjustment period, individuals were grouped by age and weight, and ...
Balter Susan G T - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In a previous study we developed a standardized procedure for a reproducible quantification of galvanic-induced body sway (GBS). In line with other reports, GBS shows short-term (fast) habituation upon stimulus repetition. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the degree of short-term habituation to galvanic vestibular stimulation ...
Remes T - - 2004
Physical activity is an important factor in attaining bone mass. Our aim was to investigate if low to moderate intensity exercise affects bone resorption [serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b activity] and formation (serum osteocalcin concentration) in a randomized controlled exercise intervention trial in Finnish middle-aged men. In addition, the ...
Saito M - - 2004
Different intensities of pulsed ultrasound have distinct biological effects on bone mineralization in the process of bone fracture repair, even across a narrow range (e.g., 30-120 mW/cm(2)). The aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of low-intensity (30 mW/cm(2)) and high-intensity (120 mW/cm(2)) pulsed ultrasound on collagen metabolism ...
Martin Jean T - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore female adolescents' knowledge about osteoporosis risk factors and the role of dietary calcium and exercise in the prevention of osteoporosis. METHOD: A descriptive survey design was used in this research. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 107 adolescent girls in grades 6-10 ...
Nevill Alan - - 2004
It is well known that sport and exercise play an important role in stimulating site-specific bone mineral density (BMD). However, what is less well understood is how these benefits dissipate throughout the body. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the BMD (recorded at nine sites throughout ...
Shackelford L C - - 2004
During spaceflight, skeletal unloading results in loss of bone mineral density (BMD). This occurs primarily in the spine and lower body regions. This loss of skeletal mass could prove hazardous to astronauts on flights of long duration. In this study, intense resistance exercise was used to test whether a training ...
Vainionpää Aki - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effects of high-impact exercise on the bone mineral density (BMD) of premenopausal women at the population level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of a random population-based sample of 120 women from a cohort of 5,161 women, ...
Zuch Christina L - - 2004
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), also named osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), on the progression of a striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. BMP-7, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins, has been shown to have protective effects in other animal ...
Yao Zhenqiang - - 2004
Physiological angiogenesis during bone remodeling is undefined. Treadmill-running rats displayed bone marrow angiogenesis concomitant with bone formation increase and resorption decrease and upregulation of VEGF and its R1 receptor mRNA in proximal tibia. VEGF blockade over 5 weeks of training fully prevented the exercise-induced bone mass gain. INTRODUCTION: We investigated ...
Beitz Roma - - 2004
Physical activity leads to a 30-50 % reduction in cardiovascular disease in women. Moderate activities such as walking, gardening or light sports appear to have beneficial effects. Additional exercise training may enhance these effects. Moderate-intensity activities constitute a key recommendation for primary prevention. Vigorous intensity activity may render additional benefits. ...
Grone Andrea - - 2004
Cytokeratin expression was assessed in footpad epidermis from dogs using immunohistochemistry. Four groups of dogs were studied: dogs with experimentally induced distemper and with canine distemper virus (CDV) in footpad epidermis (group 1, n = 7); dogs with experimentally induced distemper and without CDV in footpad epidermis (group 2, n ...
Hiney K M - - 2004
The ability of short-duration high-intensity exercise to stimulate bone formation in confinement was investigated using immature Holstein bull calves as a model. Eighteen bull calves, 8 wk of age, were assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) group-housed (GR, which served as a control), 2) confined with no exercise ...
Wang Man-Ying - - 2004
The relations among the reaction forces engendered during an upper-extremity dynamic impact-loading exercise (DILE) program and bone mineral density adaptations (DeltaBMD) in the radius were investigated in 24 healthy premenopausal women (mean age = 29 +/- 6 years). Subjects performed DILE 36 cycles/day, 3 days/week for 24 weeks. The exercised ...
Kemmler Wolfgang - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise can prevent at least some of the negative effects on health associated with early menopause. Here we determine the effects of intense exercise on physical fitness, bone mineral density (BMD), back pain, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal women. METHODS: The study population ...
Chan Kaiming - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential benefits of programmed Tai Chi Chun (TCC) exercise on the weight-bearing bones of early postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Age-matched and randomized prospective intervention. SETTING: University medical school. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-two healthy postmenopausal women (mean age, 54.0+/-3.5y) within 10 years of menopause onset were recruited and ...
Xiao De Sheng - - 2004
The possible role of nitric oxide on the exercise-induced changes in bleomycin-detectable iron (BDI) in the liver, spleen, bone marrow cells and heart was investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: S1 (Sedentary), S2 (Sedentary + L-NAME [N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester]), E1 (Exercise) and E2 (Exercise + L-NAME). ...
Lee Stuart M C - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: An interim resistance exercise device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to spaceflight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (1 G) ...
Sinaki Mehrsheed M Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn 55905, - - 2004
To determine the effect of regular exercise with use of stepper or skier machines on muscle strength, cardiovascular fitness, bone mineral density, and markers of bone turnover in women aged 29 to 45 years. We evaluated 14 women: 5 who used a stepper machine for at least 3 hours each ...
Ihle Rayan - - 2004
To help refine nutritional guidelines for military servicewomen, we assessed bone turnover after manipulating the energy availability of 29 young women. Bone formation was impaired by less severe restrictions than that which increased bone resorption. Military servicewomen and others may need to improve their nutrition to avoid these effects. INTRODUCTION: ...
Wu Jian - - 2004
Exercise-induced bone gains are lost if exercise ceases. Therefore, continued exercise at a reduced frequency or intensity may be required to maintain these benefits. In this study, we evaluated whether 4 wk of reduced exercise after 4 wk of running exercise in growing male mice results in the maintenance of ...
Panda Rames C - - 2004
PID controllers are widely used in industries and so many tuning rules have been proposed over the past 50 years that users are often lost in the jungle of tuning formulas. Moreover, unlike PI control, different control laws and structures of implementation further complicate the use of the PID controller. ...
Kelley George A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are major public health problems. The purpose of this study was to conduct an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of resistance exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. METHODS: Studies were retrieved via (1). computerized ...
Secombe C J - - 2004
AIM: To determine whether variation in x-ray-beam angle significantly affected photodensity of the third carpal bone (C3) in the horse using the tangential radiographic view, and indirectly determine whether radioabsorptiometry (RA) could be used to assess differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of C3 between exercised and non-exercised horses. METHODS: ...
de Jong Zuzana - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more at risk for the development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures than are their healthy peers. In this randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, the effectiveness of a 2-year high-intensity weight-bearing exercise program (the Rheumatoid-Arthritis-Patients-In-Training [RAPIT] program) on bone mineral density (BMD) was compared with ...
Khawaja K - - 2004
A 10 month old girl presented with a history of constipation from early life. She was found to be hypercalcaemic with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Her mild motor delay and hypotonia were thought to be linked to chronic hypercalcaemia, but when these features failed to improve despite normocalcaemia on a low ...
Boyar Handan - - 2004
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the brain, errors in the development of the vasculature, produce high flow arteriovenous shunts. They steal blood from surrounding brain tissue, which is chronically hypoperfused. Hypoperfusion is a condition of inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation resulting in abnormal tissue metabolism. In the present study Fourier transform ...
Karlsson M K - - 2004
Exercise during adolescence, especially during the pre-pubertal years, builds a skeleton with a high bone mineral density (BMD) and possibly a larger skeleton with a different skeletal architecture. This would lead to a stronger skeleton more resistant to trauma. These changes could be of biological significance for fracture reduction, if ...
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