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Twist Craig - - 2005
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a common occurrence following activities with a high eccentric component. Alterations to the torque-velocity relationship following EIMD would appear to have serious implications for athletic performance, particularly as they relate to impairment of maximal intensity exercise. However, this has been studied infrequently. The purpose of ...
Paschalis Vassilis - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of short vs. long length of rectus femoris during eccentric exercise of similar range of motion on selected muscle damage indicators. METHODS: Using an isokinetic dynamometer at 1.05 rad/s, 12 healthy male [mean (standard deviation), 21 (2) years] volunteers randomly underwent two exercise sessions, one ...
Marginson Vicky - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to compare symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after an initial and repeated bout of plyometric exercise in men and boys. Ten boys (9-10 yr) and 10 men (20-29 yr) completed two bouts of eight sets of 10 plyometric jumps, 2 wk apart. Perceived soreness ...
Clarkson Priscilla M - - 2005
Strenuous exercise results in damage to skeletal muscle that is manifested in delayed muscle pain, prolonged strength loss, and increases in muscle proteins in the blood, especially creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb). Some individuals experience profound changes in these variables in response to standard laboratory exercise or recreational activities. ...
Paschalis Vassilios - - 2005
We examined differences in muscle damage and muscle performance perturbations in relation to the same volumes of high (HI) and low intensity (LI) of eccentric exercise. Untrained young healthy men (n = 12) underwent 2 isokinetic quadriceps eccentric exercise sessions, 1 on each randomly selected leg, separated by a 2-week ...
Mayhew David L - - 2005
We sought to determine the effect of varying rest intervals on leukocyte levels during heavy resistance exercise. Nine college men completed 2 exercise bouts of 10 sets of 10 repetitions at 65% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg press with 1- (1MIN) or 3-minute (3MIN) rest intervals, respectively. Blood collected at ...
Sesto Mary E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Submaximal eccentric exertions occur occupationally when rapidly rising tool-generated forces exceed the operator's capacity to react against them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short duration repetitive submaximal eccentric forearm exertions at levels comparable to industrial power hand tool use on dynamic mechanical properties ...
Seger J Y - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to compare pure eccentric and concentric strength training regarding possible specific effects of muscle action type on neuromuscular parameters, such as a decreased inhibition during maximal voluntary eccentric actions. Two groups of young healthy adult men performed 10 weeks of either eccentric or concentric ...
Bottas Reijo - - 2005
This study examined acute and long-lasting effects of fatigue and muscle damage on fast and accurate elbow flexion and extension target movements (TM) with eight male students. An isokinetic machine was used to perform 100 maximal eccentric and concentric elbow flexions at 4-week intervals. Movement range was 40-170 degrees in ...
McHugh Malachy P - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine if the protective adaptation to a single bout of eccentric exercise (repeated bout effect) is dependent on the muscle length at which the eccentric contractions are performed. Ten subjects (six men, four women) performed two bouts of 120 isokinetic eccentric contractions separated ...
Javierre C - - 2004
Creatine is an ergogenic aid used in individual and team sports. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of monohydrate creatine supplementation on physical performance during 6 consecutive maximal speed 60 meter races, and the changes induced in some characteristic biochemical and ventilatory parameters. The study was ...
Minetto M - - 2005
Physical exercise is associated with elevation of serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) because of its production in the muscles. The use of IL-6 measurements in saliva has been proposed in the field of immunopathology, mainly involving salivary gland disease. We evaluated the responses of serum and salivary IL-6 in two ...
Boyle Colleen A - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on the intensity of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). 24 yoga-trained (YT; n = 12) and non-yoga-trained (CON; n = 12), matched women volunteers were administered a DOMS-inducing bench-stepping exercise. Muscle ...
Sesto Mary E - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Power hand tool use is considered a risk factor for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. It is unclear if submaximal eccentric activity inherent to power tool use adversely affects the mechanical properties of muscle. METHODS: This study investigated in vivo changes in human upper limb dynamic mechanical properties following exposure ...
Bowers E J - - 2004
Nine participants performed two bouts of a step exercise, during which the quadriceps muscle of one leg acted eccentrically. Before and after the exercise, isokinetic torque was measured over a range of knee angles to determine the optimum angle for torque. Immediately after the first bout of exercise, the quadriceps ...
Prisby Rhonda D - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Antigravity muscles that are reloaded subsequent to hindlimb unloading (HU) are prone to injury. Similarities exist between muscle damage elicited from HU and subsequent reloading and damage induced by eccentric exercise (EE). Conditioning bouts of EE reduce muscle damage following a repeat bout of EE. Since damage to reloaded ...
Marqueste Tanguy - - 2004
Following downhill exercise, muscle damage and local inflammatory reactions, induced by lengthening contractions, are observed and voluntary muscle activation decreases. The hypothesis that feedback carried by the group IV muscle afferents could be involved has often been raised but never measured in vivo in these conditions. In this experiment, we ...
de Geus B - - 2004
19-Norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) are the two main urinary indicators used to detect illegal use of nandrolone. Recent studies showed that 19-NA and 19-NE can be endogenously produced in non-treated humans. The concentrations were close to the threshold of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), i.e. 2 ng/ml for men ...
Proske U - - 2004
During eccentric exercise contracting muscles are forcibly lengthened, to act as a brake to control motion of the body. A consequence of eccentric exercise is damage to muscle fibres. It has been reported that following the damage there is disturbance to proprioception, in particular, the senses of force and limb ...
Córdova Alfredo - - 2004
Strenuous physical exercise of the limb muscles commonly results in damage, especially when that exercise is intense, prolonged and includes eccentric contractions. Many factors contribute to exercise-induced muscle injury and the mechanism is likely to differ with the type of exercise. Competitive sports players are highly susceptible to this type ...
Friedmann B - - 2004
AIMS: In order to investigate the muscular adaptations to a novel form of strength training, 18 male untrained subjects performed 4 weeks of low resistance-high repetition knee extension exercise. METHODS: Nine of them trained on a conventional weight resistance device (Leg curler, CON/ECC group), with loads equivalent to 30% of ...
Belin de Chantemèle Eric - - 2004
The objectives to determine both the contribution to orthostatic intolerance (OI) of calf venous volume during a stand-test, and the effects of a combined eccentric-concentric resistance exercise countermeasure on both vein response to orthostatic test and OI, after 90-day head-down tilt bed-rest (HDT). The subjects consisted of a control group ...
Shafat A - - 2004
Reactive oxygen species may contribute to exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage, and antioxidants may protect against such damage. This study examined the effectiveness of prophylactic supplementation with vitamins C and E on symptoms of muscle damage in a single blind, two-group study design. Twelve male volunteers were randomly assigned to either ...
Philippou Anastassios - - 2004
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the magnitude and time-course of the shift in the angle-force curves obtained from maximal voluntary contractions of the elbow flexors, both before and 4 consecutive days after eccentric and isometric exercise. The maximal isometric force of the elbow flexors of ...
Bloomer Richard J - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of antioxidant therapy on indirect markers of muscle damage following eccentric exercise (EE). Eighteen women were randomized to an antioxidant supplement or a placebo before a bout of EE. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, muscle soreness (MS), maximal isometric force ...
Jönhagen Sven - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The use of sports massage is very common in the athletic community. However, only a few studies have shown any therapeutic effect of massage. HYPOTHESIS: Sports massage can improve the recovery after eccentric exercise. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Sixteen subjects performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of ...
Dobridge J D - - 2004
This study examined if estrogen (E) usage (in the form of hormone replacement therapy [HRT]) has a protective effect on skeletal muscle damage in postmenopausal women. Nine postmenopausal women (age 55.2 +/- 9.9 [mean +/- SD]) performed two exercise sessions at 70% of their maximal heart rate on HRT (E-HI) ...
Daley Amanda - - 2004
Although much research has examined the relationship between exercise and affect, few studies have considered the effects of exercise bouts of different durations and few researchers have questioned the longer term effects that might be associated with acute exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ...
Jayaraman R C - - 2004
The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of topical heat and/or static stretch treatments on the recovery of muscle damage by eccentric exercise. For this purpose, 32 untrained male subjects performed intense eccentric knee extension exercise, followed by 2 weeks of treatment (heat, stretch, heat plus stretch) ...
Nosaka Kazunori - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that altering the pre-exercise muscle temperature would influence the magnitude of muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. SUBJECTS: Female students who had no experience in resistance training were placed into either a microwave treatment group (n = 10) or an icing treatment group (n = ...
Shahbazpour N - - 2004
AIM: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the levels of muscle soreness, serum total cholesterol (TC) and creatine kinase (CK) in the first 48 hours following fatiguing eccentric exercise performed with the triceps brachii. METHODS: Eleven untrained male college students performed a total of 50 eccentric elbow extensions ...
Smith J E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon. METHODS: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. ...
Hasselblatt M - - 2004
The contribution of extracranial tissue damage to serum S100beta increases was examined in 18 marathon runners without clinical or laboratory signs of brain damage. Postrace serum S100beta and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations increased (p < 0.001), and areas under the curve were highly correlated (p = 0.001). To conclude, serum ...
Gill Nicholas D - - 2004
This study examined the effects of supplementation with either creatine monohydrate powder in solution (CP) or a widely available creatine serum (CS) on performance in a repeated maximal sprint cycling test (10 x 6 seconds, 24-second passive rest between sprints). Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 competitive male athletes ...
Michaut A - - 2004
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training period induces a reduction of neuromuscular fatigability following an eccentric exercise. Before (Pre-T) and after (Post-T) a 7-wks sub-maximal eccentric training, ten active males performed a fatiguing exercise consisting of five sets of ten maximal eccentric elbow flexions. ...
Miyama Motoyoshi - - 2004
This study compared the magnitude of muscle damage induced when consecutive drop jumps (DJs) were performed on sand vs. firm (wood) surfaces from a height of 0.6 m. Eight subjects performed DJs on a sand surface at a depth of 0.2 m (S condition), and 8 other subjects performed DJs ...
Baker Julien S - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to compare power outputs, and blood concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides (LH), malondialdehyde (MDA), creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb) and lactate ([La-]B) following 30 s of maximal cycle ergometry when resistive forces were derived from total-body mass (TBM) or fat-free mass (FFM). Alpha-tocopherol (AT), retinol ...
Brudnak Mark A - - 2004
Creatine monohydrate is a popular sports supplement used to maintain levels of high-energy phosphates during exercise. As a supplement, varying amounts are consumed per person corresponding to parameters such as body mass and level of training (i.e. maintenance versus loading doses). Numerous studies have reported beneficial effects including increased muscle ...
Nelson Matthew R - - 2004
In Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), muscles become sore 24 to 48 hours after eccentric and unaccustomed activity. Fiber stiffness, due to decreased muscle glycogen, may predispose muscle to greater damage during eccentric exercise. This study sought to determine if inadequate carbohydrate intake following a protocol to decrease muscle glycogen ...
Huggett Deanna L - - 2004
The authors compared heart-rate and blood-pressure responses to typical isometric (ISO) and isokinetic (90 degrees /s) eccentric (ECC) resistance-training protocols in older adults. Twenty healthy older adults (74 +/- 5 years old) performed randomly ordered ISO and isokinetic ECC exercise (3 sets of 10 repetitions) at a target intensity of ...
Thompson D - - 2004
We have previously shown that vitamin C supplementation affects recovery from an unaccustomed bout of demanding exercise, with the most pronounced effect being that on plasma interleukin-6 concentration. However, because of the proposed role of interleukin-6 in the regulation of metabolism, it was unclear whether this represented a reduced response ...
Tomiya Akihito - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-6 is locally produced in skeletal muscles and shows a remarkable increase in plasma after eccentric exercises. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the cell types in the muscles responsible for IL-6 production after eccentric exercises. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: An eccentric contraction model was made using electrical stimulation. ...
Kano Y - - 2004
AIM: We examined the time course of capillary structure changes in rat skeletal muscle at 1, 3 and 7 days after strenuous eccentric exercise. METHODS: The right gastrocnemius muscles of anaesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to 300 controlled eccentric contractions using electrical stimulation. The contralateral gastrocnemius muscle was used ...
Valour D - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of eccentric training to improve elbow flexor muscle power in elderly subjects. Fourteen older female volunteers (age range 60-78 years) were randomly assigned into either a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). For the TG, the 21-session 7-week ...
Malm Christer - - 2004
Muscular adaptation to physical exercise has previously been described as a repair process following tissue damage. Recently, evidence has been published to question this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate inflammatory processes in human skeletal muscle and epimysium after acute physical exercise with large eccentric components. Three ...
Weerapong, Pornratshanee
Eccentric exercise is part of regular rehabilitation and sports training. Unaccustomed eccentric exercise causes muscle damage that presents as delayed soreness, strength and range of motion loss, swelling, and increased passive stiffness. These symptoms reduce the ability to exercise and might be harmful if further exercise is continued. Several interventions ...
Hirose Lisa - - 2004
The aims of this study were to examine the plasma concentrations of inflammatory mediators including cytokines induced by a single bout of eccentric exercise and again 4 weeks later by a second bout of eccentric exercise of the same muscle group. Ten untrained male subjects performed two bouts of the ...
Byrne Christopher - - 2004
Exercise-induced muscle damage is a well documented phenomenon particularly resulting from eccentric exercise. When eccentric exercise is unaccustomed or is performed with an increased intensity or duration, the symptoms associated with muscle damage are a common outcome and are particularly associated with participation in athletic activity. Muscle damage results in ...
Lennon Jay T - - 2004
Subsidies are donor-controlled inputs of nutrients and energy that can affect ecosystem-level processes in a recipient environment. Lake ecosystems receive large inputs of terrestrial carbon (C) in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM inputs may energetically subsidize heterotrophic bacteria and determine whether lakes function as sources or sinks ...
Howatson G - - 2003
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ice massage on the signs and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage. METHODS: Nine recreationally resistance trained males performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on 2 separate occasions; this was performed on the dominant or ...
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