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Roig M - - 2009
The aim of this systematic review was to determine if eccentric exercise is superior to concentric exercise in stimulating gains in muscle strength and mass. Meta-analyses were performed for comparisons between eccentric and concentric training as means to improve muscle strength and mass. In order to determine the importance of ...
Small K - - 2010
The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of multidirectional soccer-specific fatigue on hamstring muscle strength and angle of peak torque. Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players (mean+/-S.D.: age: 21.3+/-2.9 years; height 185.0+/-8.7 cm; body mass 81.6+/-6.7 kg) completed the SAFT(90), a multidirectional, intermittent 90-min exercise protocol based on ...
Torisu Tetsurou - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soreness evoked by eccentric jaw exercises on two types of brainstem reflexes: the short-latency stretch reflex and the longer-latency exteroceptive suppression (ES), and to test for possible relationships between magnitude of soreness and reflex responses. METHODS: The brainstem reflexes of jaw-closing muscles were recorded ...
de Jonge S - - 2010
The study examined whether the addition of a night splint to eccentric exercises is beneficial for functional outcome in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled single blinded clinical trial. Sports medicine department in a general hospital. 58 patients (70 tendons) were included. All patients completed a ...
Kerksick Chad - - 2008
Due to its alleged antioxidant properties, 17beta-estradiol (E2) may protect against muscle injury, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine whether such mechanisms existed between genders for muscle injury, oxidative stress, and apoptosis after eccentric exercise. METHODS: Eight men and eight women (no oral contraceptive use; midluteal ...
Skurvydas Albertas - - 2008
Whether muscle warming protects against exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. To determine the effect of leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise on the time course of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Crossover trial. Human kinetics laboratory. Eleven healthy, untrained men (age = 21.5 +/- 1.7 years). Participants' ...
Wu Alan H B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used drugs to reduce LDL cholesterol and risk for cardiovascular disease. Varying degrees of myopathies occur with statin use, ranging from mild myalgic symptoms alone to documented muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. The activity of creatine kinase (CK) above a population-based reference range has been used to ...
Pearce Alan J - - 2009
Clinical compression garments have been shown to improve functional control in patients with motor impairments, however, investigation in functional control has not been observed whilst wearing sports compression garments. This pilot study assessed motor control changes in the bicep brachii muscle following a bout of eccentric exercise designed to induce ...
Buckley Jonathan D - - 2010
There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPI(HD)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of ...
Black Christopher D - - 2008
Repeated bouts of eccentric exercise reduce the amount of exercise-induced muscle injury. PURPOSE: This study sought to evaluate the importance of neural adaptations by comparing the repeated bout effect on muscle injury caused by voluntary and electrically stimulated eccentric exercise. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (nine men, seven women) were assigned into ...
Black Christopher D - - 2008
Multiple mechanical factors have been implicated in the initiation of exercise-induced muscle injury. Although high absolute force levels are associated with greater injury, the importance of high force per active area independent of absolute force remains to be determined, especially in humans. PURPOSE: This study sought to examine the role ...
Yamamoto Linda M - - 2008
It is well established that resistance exercise can damage muscle tissue, but the combined effects of hypohydration and resistance exercise on muscle damage are unclear. Two common circulating markers of muscle damage, myoglobin (Mb) and creatine kinase (CK) may be attenuated by fluid ingestion post-exercise. The purpose of this study ...
Silva Luciano A - - 2008
The objective of the study was to verify the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation on parameters of oxidative damage and inflammatory response after high-intensity eccentric exercise (EE). 29 participants with a mean age of 21.3+/-4 yr, weight of 74.5+/-7.7 kg, and height of 177.2+/-6.9 cm were selected and divided randomly ...
Twist Craig - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plyometric exercise on unilateral balance performance. Nine healthy adults performed baseline measurements on the dominant limb that consisted of: a 20-s unilateral stability test on a tilt balance board, where a higher stability index represented deterioration in balance performance; ...
Ahmadi Sirous - - 2008
Eccentric exercise (EE), a common type of muscular activity whereby muscles lengthen and contract simultaneously, is associated with higher levels of force but may also evoke muscle damage. We investigated the hypothesis that unaccustomed EE might impair muscle oxygenation and muscle blood flow in healthy adults. Ten healthy males performed ...
French Duncan N - - 2008
Contrast bathing (CB) and compression garments (CG) are widely used to promote recovery. PURPOSE: To evaluate CB and CG as regeneration strategies after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). METHODS: Baseline values of muscle soreness, serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb), joint range of motion, limb girth, 10- or 30-m sprint, ...
Hubal Monica J - - 2008
This study assessed muscle fatigue patterns of the elbow flexors in untrained men and women to determine if sex differences exist during acute maximal eccentric exercise. High-intensity eccentric exercise is often used by athletes to elicit gains in muscle strength and size gains. Development of fatigue during this type of ...
Vassilis Paschalis - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty-four young healthy men performed 120 maximal voluntary eccentric actions at each thigh's quadriceps muscle at an angular velocity of 60 degrees .s. The participants were then randomly ...
Turner Tanya S - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise-induced damage of the elbow flexor muscles on steady motor performance during isometric, shortening, and lengthening contractions. Ten healthy individuals (age 22+/-4 yr) performed four tasks with the elbow flexor muscles: a maximum voluntary contraction, a one repetition maximum ...
Etheridge Timothy - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute protein ingestion on the recovery of muscle function and markers of muscle damage in the 72 h post eccentric-exercise. Nine recreationally active males recorded quadriceps maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), peak 5 s power output (PPO), and perceived ...
Sesto Mary E ME Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2008
Prior work has shown that changes in mechanical parameters and magnetic resonance imaging parameters occur following submaximal eccentric activity but it is unclear whether similar changes occur following submaximal concentric activity. This study compared mechanical response parameters and MRI relaxation parameters following submaximal concentric or eccentric exertions. This single site, ...
LaStayo Paul - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to describe an electromyogram (EMG) pattern during a submaximal eccentric task in 7 subjects adapted to high-force chronic eccentric exercise and 6 subjects naive to eccentric exercise. The EMG in all subjects was quantified during identical submaximal (200 W) eccentric and concentric cycle ergometry ...
Marqueste Tanguy - - 2008
Although the exact mechanisms are still unclear, it is commonly acknowledged that acute eccentric exercise alters muscle performance, whereas the repetition of successive bouts leads to the disappearance of the deleterious signs. To clarify this issue, we measured blood creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and proton transverse relaxation time ...
Drexel H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Eccentric endurance exercise (e.g. hiking downwards) is less strenuous than concentric exercise (e.g. hiking upwards) but its potential to reduce cardiovascular risk is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomly allocated 45 healthy sedentary individuals (16 men and 29 women, mean age 48 years) to one of two groups, one ...
Hubal Monica J - - 2008
This study proposed that attenuated expression of inflammatory factors is an underlying mechanism driving the repeated-bout effect (rapid adaptation to eccentric exercise). We investigated changes in mRNA levels and protein localization of inflammatory genes after two bouts of muscle-lengthening exercise. Seven male subjects performed two bouts of lower body exercise ...
Vissing Kristian - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare the responsiveness of changes in Ca(2+)-content and calpain-calpastatin gene expression to concentric and eccentric single-bout and repeated exercise. An exercise group (n = 14) performed two bouts of bench-stepping exercise with 8 weeks between exercise bouts, and was compared to a control-group ...
Newton Michael J - - 2008
This study compared resistance-trained and untrained men for changes in commonly used indirect markers of muscle damage after maximal voluntary eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Fifteen trained men (28.2 +/- 1.9 years, 175.0 +/- 1.6 cm, and 77.6 +/- 1.9 kg) who had resistance trained for at least 3 ...
Tofas Trifon - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute plyometric exercise on indices of muscle damage and collagen breakdown. Nine untrained men performed an intense bout of plyometric jumping exercises (experimental group) and nine men remained at rest (control group). Seven days before and 24, 48, ...
Su Quan-Sheng - - 2008
To investigate the effects of allicin supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and antioxidative capacity, a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in well-trained athletes. Subjects were randomly assigned to an allicin supplementation group (AS group) and a control group, and received either allicin or placebo for 14 days ...
Jiménez-Jiménez Rodrigo - - 2008
The present study was aimed to investigate in elderly humans changes in NF-kappaB activation and in the expression of the inflammation-related genes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by acute eccentric exercise and by submaximal eccentric training. Eleven subjects, ...
Kearns Amy K - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins are well tolerated by most patients, but can produce a variety of skeletal muscle problems including myalgia, creatine kinase (CK) elevations and clinically important rhabdomyolysis. We have previously demonstrated that the CK response to downhill walking is greater in statin compared ...
Hedayatpour Nosratollah - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim of this human study was to apply novel topographical mapping techniques to investigate sensory and EMG manifestations of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in multiple locations of the quadriceps. METHODS: Bipolar surface EMG signals were recorded from 11 healthy men with 15 pairs of electrodes located at 10, ...
Sewright Kimberly A - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study examined sex differences in strength loss, muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) after high-intensity eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors in a large group of men and women. METHODS: One hundred participants (58 women, 42 men) performed 50 maximal eccentric contractions of the ...
Dalbo V J - - 2008
Creatine is one of the most popular athletic supplements with sales surpassing 400 million dollars in 2004. Due to the popularity and efficacy of creatine supplementation over 200 studies have examined the effects of creatine on athletic performance. Despite the abundance of research suggesting the effectiveness and safety of creatine, ...
Paschalis V - - 2008
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of a repeated eccentric exercise on position sense and muscle reaction angle. Fourteen healthy women underwent an isokinetic exercise session on their knee flexors, which was repeated after 4 weeks. Muscle damage indices, position sense and joint reaction angle ...
White James P - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine if timing of a supplement would have an effect on muscle damage, function and soreness. METHODS: Twenty-seven untrained men (21 +/- 3 yrs) were given a supplement before or after exercise. Subjects were randomly assigned to a pre exercise (n = 9), received carbohydrate/protein drink before exercise ...
Lippi Giuseppe - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although there is comprehensive information on traditional biomarkers of muscle and cardiac damage following exercise, less is known on the kinetics of innovative markers, including ischemia modified albumin (IMA), glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB), carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in athletes performing a sub-maximal ...
Howatson Glyn - - 2008
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can be caused by novel or unaccustomed exercise and results in a temporary decrease in muscle force production, a rise in passive tension, increased muscle soreness and swelling, and an increase in intramuscular proteins in blood. Consequently, EIMD can have a profound effect on the ability ...
Lippi G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Although there is information on biochemical markers of muscle and cardiac damage following strenuous exercise, little is known about the kinetics of these markers in athletes performing sub-maximal exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy, trained, Caucasian males took part in a 21-km run. Blood samples were collected before the ...
Maffulli Nicola - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of eccentric strengthening exercises (ESE) in athletic patients with Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS: Forty-five athletic patients (29 men, average age 26 years +/- 12.8, range 18 - 42; 16 women, average age 28 years +/- 13.1, range 20 - 46; average height: 173 +/- 16.8, range ...
Roig Marc - - 2008
The capacity of eccentric actions to produce muscle hypertrophy, strength gains, and neural adaptations without stressing the cardiopulmonary system has led to the prescription of eccentric training programmes in patients with low tolerance to exercise, such as elders or those with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this systematic review ...
Tiidus Peter M PM Peter M. Tiidus, PhD: Professor and Chair, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, - - 2008
To evaluate the effectiveness of muscle rehabilitation modalities, it is first necessary to develop a model to test measures that would assess physiological, sensory, and functional muscle recovery. This study attempted to develop such a model for wrist injury. Healthy male and female adults (n = 25). SUBJECTS performed wrist ...
Miles Mary P - - 2008
This investigation determined whether inflammatory mediators 1) have diurnal variations, 2) respond to high-force eccentric exercise, and 3) associate with markers of muscle damage after high-force eccentric exercise. College-aged men and women (n = 51) completed exercise (3 x 15 maximal eccentric elbow flexor actions using 1 arm) and control ...
Hameed M - - 2008
Recovery from micro damage resulting from intensive exercise has been shown to take longer in older muscles. To investigate the factors that may contribute to muscle repair, we have studied the expression of two splice variants of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene. IGF-IEa and mechano growth factor (MGF) were ...
Lucia Alejandro - - 2008
McArdle disease is caused by inherited deficit of human muscle glycogen phosphorylase with subsequent blockade in muscle glycogenolysis. Patients usually experience severe exercise intolerance and 'chronic' skeletal muscle damage. We determined circulating levels of 27 cytokines in a group of 31 adult McArdle patients (15 male 16 female; mean (+/-S.E.M.) ...
Finsterer J - - 2007
A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the ...
Racinais S - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate whether (1) spinal modulation would change after non-exhausting eccentric exercise of the plantar flexor muscles that produced muscle soreness and (2) central modulation of the motor command would be linked to the development of muscle soreness. Ten healthy subjects volunteered to perform ...
Rawson Eric S - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that creatine supplementation reduces muscle damage and inflammation following running but not following high-force, eccentric exercise. Although the mechanical strain placed on muscle fibers during high-force, eccentric exercise may be too overwhelming for creatine to exert any protective effect, creatine supplementation may protect skeletal muscle stressed ...
Falvo Michael J - - 2007
Previous research has demonstrated that prior exercise may reduce the magnitude of muscle soreness and impaired function (i.e., repeated bout effect [RBE]) observed during subsequent eccentric exercise. Previous investigations have predominantly used research designs that include single-joint exercise performed by untrained individuals. It is unknown how resistance trained individuals respond ...
Jubeau Marc - - 2008
This study aimed to compare voluntary and stimulated exercise for changes in muscle strength, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate, and markers of muscle damage. Nine healthy men had two leg press exercise bouts separated by 2 wk. In the first bout, the quadriceps muscles were stimulated by biphasic rectangular pulses ...
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