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Results 501 - 550 of 905
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Whitehead N P - - 2001
1. This is a report of experiments on ankle extensor muscles of human subjects and a parallel series on the medial gastrocnemius of the anaesthetised cat, investigating the origin of the rise in passive tension after a period of eccentric exercise. 2. Subjects exercised their triceps surae of one leg ...
Brockett C L - - 2001
PURPOSE: It is now established that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle fiber damage and to delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the days after exercise. However, a second bout of eccentric exercise, a week after the first, produces much less damage and soreness. The purpose of this study was to ...
Sayers S P - - 2001
PURPOSE: This study examined whether ketoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuated muscle soreness (SOR), improved maximal isometric force (MIF) recovery, and/or altered myoelectric activity after high-force eccentric exercise. METHODS: 48 subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: CON: no exercise/no drug (N = 12); PLA: exercise + placebo ...
Rawson E S - - 2001
This investigation evaluated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in subjects randomly administered Cr or placebo (P) in a double-blind fashion. When injected, exogenous phosphocreatine has been shown to stabilize the muscle membrane in cardiac tissue and enhance recovery ...
Horstmann T - - 2001
PURPOSE: Power training plays an essential part in many sport disciplines. The importance of eccentric power training remains a matter of controversial discussion. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the difference in metabolic reaction between eccentric and concentric stress in comparable work. METHODS: Sixty-four men between 22 ...
Rowlands A V - - 2001
This study assessed the effects of stride length on symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after downhill running and whether the extent of the symptoms sustained in a repeated bout of downhill running are influenced by stride length manipulation in the first bout. Eighteen males aged 21.1 +/- 0.6 years (mean ...
Leger A B - - 2001
PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of eccentric exercise by the wrist extensor muscles on the function and motor control of synergist wrist extensor muscles and the antagonist wrist flexor muscles. METHODS: Ten subjects were tested repeatedly over a period of 11 d, once before ...
Kraemer W J - - 2001
The effects of resistance training with concentric or concentric-eccentric muscle actions on the acute hormonal response to a resistance exercise protocol was investigated. Thirty-two men completed a 19 week lower-body resistance training program (consisting of the leg press and leg extension exercises) in which they (1) performed concentric actions only ...
Schroeder C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of creatine supplementation on anterior compartment pressure of the lower leg at rest and following exercise. DESIGN: 14 college-age males received creatine or placebo supplementation for 34 days. At baseline, anterior compartment pressure was measured preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 1, 5, and 15 minutes postexercise ...
Fridén J - - 2001
Serum creatine kinase and dorsiflexion torque levels were measured in New Zealand White rabbits 1, 2, 7, 14, or 28 days after a single bout of eccentric exercise (n=26). No significant correlation was observed between creatine kinase activity and torque across time periods (P>0.15) and the regression relationship described only ...
MacIntyre D L - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to examine the time-course and relationships of technetium-99m (99mTc) neutrophils in muscle, interleukin-6 (IL-6), myosin heavy chain fragments (MHC), eccentric torque, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following eccentric exercise in humans. Twelve male subjects completed a pre-test DOMS questionnaire, performed a strength test ...
McHugh M P - - 2001
The repeated bout effect refers to the protective effect provided by a single bout of eccentric exercise against muscle damage from a similar subsequent bout. The aim of this study was to determine if the repeated bout was associated with an increase in motor unit activation relative to force production, ...
Hamlin M J - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not losses of strength or endurance following eccentric and concentric exercise are associated with reduced excitation. The effects of eccentric and concentric work on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and surface electromyogram (EMG) of the quadriceps were studied in 10 ...
Hamlin M J - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the previously reported muscle weakness and increases in EMG and EMG/force ratio after eccentric exercise were related to ensuing soreness or simply to the exercise mode. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, maximal voluntary force and the surface electromyogram (EMG) of the quadriceps were ...
Sorichter S - - 2001
The release of muscle proteins after downhill running, which mainly includes eccentric muscle action, was compared in females (F; n=9) and males (M; n=9). They performed 20 min of downhill treadmill running with 16% decline with a target heart rate of 70% of the individual VO2peak, which was determined two ...
Koskinen S O - - 2001
In the present study the release of proteins degrading extracellular matrix compounds to circulation was measured after damaging exercise in humans. Muscle damage was induced by downhill running; furthermore, the exercise was performed at both cold temperature (5 degrees C) and room temperature (22 degrees C) to study also the ...
Thompson H S - - 2001
Changes in heat shock proteins (HSPs), HSP27 and HSC/HSP70 were characterized in human biceps brachii muscle following damaging high-force eccentric exercise. Male and female volunteers performed a maximal eccentric resistance exercise with the elbow flexor muscles of the non-dominant arm known to be sufficient to cause substantial muscle damage. Protein ...
Caruso J F - - 2001
Healthy, sedentary, college-age subjects (n = 16) performed concentric or eccentric maximal unilateral isokinetic (1.08 rad s(-1)) elbow flexor contractions (4 sets of 12 repetitions) to fatigue as physiological data were concurrently collected. Net caloric expenditure was determined using indirect calorimetry, whereas the electromyogram examined root mean square (RMS) and ...
Kulig K - - 2001
PURPOSE: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity changes in the primary elbow flexors during two isotonic exercise protocols varying in eccentric velocity and the ratio of eccentric to concentric activity. METHODS: Twelve men performed two exercise protocols. The right and left arms were randomly assigned to one of ...
Burke D G - - 2001
Since the discovery that oral ingestion of creatine leads to an increase in intramuscular creatine, its supplementation has become widespread. However, the dosage necessary to maximize retention and create significant increases in intramuscular creatine is poorly understood. In this study, 24-hour urinary creatine and creatinine levels of 20 university men's ...
Stuewe S R - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: The creatine kinase (CK) energy shuttle of cardiomyocytes channels metabolic energy from the mitochondria to sites of energy utilization at contracting myofibrils and sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic reticular ion pumps. Although plasticity of the myocardial CK system in response to hemodynamic overload has been repeatedly demonstrated, the effects of aerobic ...
Harrison B C - - 2001
PURPOSE: This study examined the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle injury. METHODS: 21 college-aged male volunteers were assigned to three groups: control, immediate HBO (iHBO), and delayed HBO (dHBO). All subjects performed 6 sets (10 repetitions per set) of eccentric repetitions with a ...
Ihara H - - 2001
We investigated whether the injury of skeletal muscle owing to the action of free radicals and the subsequent oxidative damage to tissues occurred during anaerobic exercise. To estimate injury to skeletal muscle, we determined certain indices of oxidative damage to skeletal muscle; i.e., leukocyte counts, concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, urate, ...
Vickers A J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Post-exercise muscle soreness is a dull, aching sensation that follows unaccustomed muscular exertion. Primarily on the basis of previous laboratory-based research on eccentric exercise, soreness is usually said to follow an inverted U-shaped curve over time, peaking 24 - 48 hours after exercise. As such, it is often described ...
Arnett M G - - 2000
The objective was to determine whether serum creatine kinase (CK) and serum CK MB activity following exercise-induced muscle damage activity differs among females of varying menarchial status and to determine whether there is a relationship between serum estradiol (E2) concentration, CK, and CK MB activity. Fifteen menarchial (M), 15 premenarchial ...
Vincent H K - - 2000
This study investigated the effects of strenuous eccentric exercise on bilateral force-matching ability. After unilaterally performing 50 maximal eccentric elbow actions, participants were evaluated for bilateral force-matching ability. Participants were asked to match a reference force held by the control (CNT) arm with their exercised (EXD) arm. The experimental condition ...
Oshima-Franco Y - - 2000
Bothrops jararacussu venom and its major toxin, bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), possess myotoxic and neurotoxic activities. The ability of commercial equine antivenom to neutralize these activities was studied in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) preparations by indirect stimulation (0.1 HZ, 0.2 ms). The time required to produce ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2000
Creatine monohydrate supplementation has been shown to enhance high-intensity exercise performance in some but not all studies. Part of the controversy surrounding the ergogenic effect(s) of creatine monohydrate supplementation may relate to design issues that result in low statistical power. A further question that remains unresolved in the creatine literature ...
Stupka N - - 2000
Unaccustomed exercise is followed by delayed-onset muscle soreness and morphological changes in skeletal muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that women have an attenuated response to muscle damage. We studied the effect of eccentric exercise in untrained male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) subjects using a unilateral exercise ...
Schuback K - - 2000
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on muscle metabolic response in connection with a maximal treadmill exercise test, known to cause a marked anaerobic metabolic response and adenine nucleotide degradation. First, 6 Standardbred trotters performed a standardised maximal exercise test until ...
Chen Y J - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to document alterations of creatine kinase-B (CK-B) in the left and right ventricles of rats and CK-MB release into the circulation following a single bout of stressful prolonged intense exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, with 8% bodyweight attached to each tail, were forced to swim ...
Tarnopolsky M A - - 2000
Creatine plays a role in cellular energy metabolism and potentially has a role in protein metabolism. Creatine monohydrate supplementation has been shown to result in an increase in skeletal muscle total and phosphocreatine concentration, increase fat-free mass, and enhance high-intensity exercise performance in young healthy men and women. Recent evidence ...
Bellinger B M - - 2000
We investigated the effect of oral creatine supplementation (20 g d(-1) for 7 days) on metabolism during a 1-h cycling performance trial. Twenty endurance-trained cyclists participated in this double-blind placebo controlled study. Five days after familiarization with the exercise test, the subjects underwent a baseline muscle biopsy. Thereafter, a cannula ...
Linnamo V - - 2000
Eccentric and concentric force and median frequency of the EMG power spectrum were measured during and immediately after maximal eccentric (EE) and concentric (CE) exercise and during the recovery period of 1 week. Eight male subjects performed EE and CE consisting of 100 maximal eccentric and concentric actions with elbow ...
Connelly D M - - 2000
This study quantifies concentric and eccentric dorsiflexor muscle torque at various movement velocities and determines the neuromuscular effects from short-term practice of repeated maximal voluntary contractions using an isokinetic resisted exercise program in older adults. Twenty-eight subjects (76.3+/-4.6 years) trained concentric and eccentric dorsiflexion 3 days per week for 2 ...
Chen T C - - 2000
This study investigated whether performing repeated bouts of maximal voluntary isokinetic eccentric exercise (MAX1) on 3 (MAX3) and 6 days (MAX6) after the initial bout would produce significant changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage and total work. A secondary purpose was to determine whether participants' psychological maximal effort ...
Sheppard H L - - 2000
A survey was used to collect anonymous cross-sectional data on demographics, exercise habits, and use of creatine and other supplements by exercisers in civilian (C) and military (M) health clubs. M (n = 133) reported more aerobic training and less use of creatine and protein supplements than C (n = ...
Sayers S P - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of muscle activity level on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity after high-force eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. METHODS: Twenty-six male volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups for a 4-d treatment period after exercise: immobilization ...
Sayers S P - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether activity would affect the recovery of muscle function after high-force eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. METHODS: Twenty-six male volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups for a 4-d treatment period: immobilization (N = 9), control (N ...
Coombes J S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on serum indicators of muscle damage after prolonged exercise. We hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, sixteen male ...
Gibala M J - - 2000
We have previously quantified the extent of myofibrillar disruption which occurs following an acute bout of resistance exercise in untrained men, however the response of well-trained subjects is not known. We therefore recruited six strength-trained men, who ceased training for 5 days and then performed 8 sets of 8 uni-lateral ...
Casey A - - 2000
Fatigue sustained during short-term, high-intensity exercise in humans is associated with the inability of skeletal muscle to maintain a high rate of anaerobic ATP production from phosphocreatine hydrolysis. Ingestion of creatine monohydrate at a rate of 20 g/d for 5-6 d was shown to increase the total creatine concentration of ...
Hortobágyi T - - 2000
The metabolic, cardiovascular, and neural cost of eccentric muscle contraction is less than that of concentric contraction, but the strength and neural adaptations in eccentric contractions are significantly greater following resistive exercise. We thus compared the short-term effects of exercise with an eccentric overload (n = 10) with those of ...
Spurway N C - - 2000
Ten male and ten female young adults trained the knee extensors of one leg eccentrically and those of the other concentrically for 6 weeks, using a gymnasium leg-extension machine. Before and after training, both legs of each subject were tested isometrically for maximum voluntary knee-extensor force, and in both eccentric ...
Langberg H - - 2000
Type I collagen is known to adapt to physical activity, and biomarkers of collagen turnover indicate that synthesis can be influenced by a single intense exercise bout, but the exact time pattern of these latter changes are largely undescribed. In the present study, 17 healthy young males had their plasma ...
Gutenbrunner C - - 2000
Since the serum level of the enzyme creatine (phospho)kinase (CPK) is frequently used for diagnostic purposes and since circadian variations of this parameter have been observed under different stress conditions, it had to be determined whether they are induced by an endogenous circadian rhythm or whether they are activity-related masking ...
Vorgerd M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with creatine can improve exercise intolerance in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease). DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with oral creatine monohydrate supplementation. PATIENTS: Nine patients with biochemically and genetically proven McArdle disease were treated. INTERVENTION: Five days of daily high-dose creatine intake (150 mg/kg body weight) ...
Shomrat A - - 2000
The effect of creatine supplementation on exercise performance in vegetarians was examined. Creatine was ingested for 1 week by a group of vegetarians (VC) and meat-eaters (MC); a control group of meat-eaters was fed only glucose (MG). Exercise performance during three, 20-s maximal cycling tests (modified Wingate anaerobic test, WAnT) ...
Frenette J - - 2000
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that vinculin and talin, two cytoskeletal proteins of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), would be up-regulated following damaging eccentric contractions. Mouse plantar flexor muscles were submitted in situ to three 5 min periods of eccentric contractions. Talin and vinculin content, in ...
O'Grady M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of prolonged systemic administration of diclofenac sodium (Voltaren), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on objective indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. METHODS: Fifty-four volunteers (mean age, 26.4 yr; range, 18-35) participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. To achieve steady-state tissue levels, either placebo or ...
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