Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1063
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McKay Leanne C - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine if episodic hypoxia evokes persistent increases of genioglossus muscle (GG) activity, termed long-term facilitation (LTF), in neonatal rats in vivo. Experiments were performed on anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing, intubated neonatal rats (postnatal days (P) 3-7), divided into three groups. The first group (n= ...
Macey Paul M - - 2004
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients exhibit respiratory deficits to ventilatory challenges, diminished breathing drive during sleep, and reduction of respiratory-related heart rate variation, but at least partially preserved peripheral chemoreception. We hypothesized that integration of afferent activity with respiratory motor output is deficient in CCHS, rather than chemoreceptor failure, ...
DeLorey Darren S - - 2004
The effect of hypoxic breathing on pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2p)), leg blood flow (LBF) and O(2) delivery and deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle was examined during constant-load single-leg knee-extension exercise. Seven subjects (24 +/- 4 years; mean +/-s.d.) performed two transitions from unloaded to moderate-intensity exercise (21 W) under ...
Eckert Danny J - - 2004
Any factor that inhibits the ability of an individual with asthma to recognize their symptoms appropriately may contribute to treatment delay, "near miss" events, and death during acute severe asthma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two common features of acute severe asthma--hypoxia and hypercapnia--on ...
Dick Thomas E - - 2004
Sympathetic and respiratory motor activities are entrained centrally. We hypothesize that this coupling may partially underlie changes in sympathetic activity evoked by hypoxia due to activity-dependent changes in the respiratory pattern. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) expresses a short-term potentiation in activity after hypoxia similar ...
Vesely Alex E - - 2004
As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the ...
Katayama Keisho - - 2004
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the following: (1) whether steady state oxygen uptake (VO(2)) during exercise decreases after short-term intermittent hypoxia during a resting state in trained athletes and (2) whether the change in VO(2) during submaximal exercise is correlated to the change in endurance performance ...
Deja Marek A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Diazoxide has been shown to confer significant myocardial protection in many experiments. This study was designed to assess its influence on the structural injury and functional recovery of human myocardium subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation in vitro. METHODS: The isolated electrically driven human right atrial trabeculae, obtained during cardiac surgery, were ...
Bauer Reinhard - - 2004
There are several levels of O2 deprivation with different possibilities of adaptation and compensation. All of them appear to be highly conservative in phylogenesis and are active early in ontogenetic development. The coordinated structural and functional responses to systemic and/or local hypoxia form the basis for individual adaptation to environmental ...
Burtscher Martin - - 2004
Prediction of the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in individuals going to high altitudes is still a matter of debate. Whereas some studies found that subjects with a blunted hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) are predisposed to AMS, others did not. However, the HVR has often been determined under very ...
Gojnic M - - 2004
With respect to the power of nature and the fact that it can still surprise us, even with all anticipated measures of safety, it is necessary to expand a range of true indications for surgical delivery. Thus complications of the delivery itself and conditions of increased morbidity can be reduced. ...
Ozcelik O - - 2004
Anaerobic threshold which describes the onset of systematic increase in blood lactate concentration is a widely used concept in clinical and sports medicine. A deflection point between heart rate-work rate has been introduced to determine the anaerobic threshold non-invasively. However, some researchers have consistently reported a heart rate deflection at ...
Cherniack Neil S - - 2004
Our concepts of oxygen sensing have been transformed over the years. We now appreciate that oxygen sensing is not a unique property limited to "chemoreceptors" but is a common property of tissues and that responses to changes in oxygen levels are not static but can change over time. Respiratory responses ...
Omata Naoto - - 2003
Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 degrees C, and the fractional rate constant (=k3*) of [18F]FDG proportional to the cerebral glucose metabolic rate in white matter and gray matter was investigated with positron autoradiography. In both white matter and gray matter, ...
Julian Colleen G - - 2004
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that intermittent normobaric hypoxia at rest is a sufficient stimulus to elicit changes in physiological measures associated with improved performance in highly trained distance runners. Fourteen national-class distance runners completed a 4-wk regimen (5:5-min hypoxia-to-normoxia ratio for 70 min, 5 times/wk) of ...
McAnally Ken I - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies on the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on auditory sensitivity are not readily interpretable, in most cases because the potential effect of ambient pressure on stimulus level was not considered. In this study, auditory sensitivity to 1, 8, 12, and 16 kHz tones was compared between conditions of ...
Höhne C C Experimental Anesthesia, Charité, Campus Virchow, Berlin, Germany. - - 2003
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is encountered during ascent to high altitude. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) could be an option to treat HPV because of its natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory properties. Data on effects of ANP on pulmonary and systemic circulation during HVP are conflicting, partly owing to anesthesia, surgical stress ...
Ainslie Philip N - - 2003
This study examined the effects of five nights of normobaric hypoxia on ventilatory responses to acute isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) and hyperoxic hypercapnia (AHCVR). Twelve male subjects (26.6 +/- 4.1 years, standard deviation (S.D.)) slept 8-9 h per day overnight for 5 consecutive days at a simulated altitude of 4,300 m ...
Durand E - - 2004
Previous studies suggested that defective arousal might be a major mechanism in sleep-disordered breathing such as sudden infant death syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. In this study, we examined the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the arousal response to hypoxia in 4-day-old mice. We hypothesized that IH would increase ...
Sausen Kenneth P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia poses a documented threat to aerospace and diving operations in healthy people and is a component of many clinical conditions. Practical training for aircrew, and research on clinically relevant hypoxic conditions frequently rely exclusively on large, expensive hypobaric chambers. PURPOSE: Here we describe and report the efficacy of ...
Fukuoka Yoshiyuki - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that the promotion of hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness (HVR) and/or hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness (HCVR) mostly acting on the carotid body with a changing work rate can be attributed to faster hypoxic ventilatory dynamics at the onset of exercise. Eleven subjects performed a cycling exercise with two repetitions ...
Patel S - - 2003
The "insertion" (I) rather than "deletion" (D) variant of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with both lower tissue ACE activity and elite performance at high altitude. Three genotypes, II, ID and DD, are thus represented in the population. The authors examined whether an improved ventilatory response to ...
Kato Takahide - - 2004
The present study examined the effect of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis on exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and increases in plasma lactate and ammonia levels. Six male subjects underwent exercise of increasing intensity until exhaustion: (1) in normoxia (20.9% O(2)) (=MAX), (2) in hypoxia (12% O(2)) (=HP) in which hypoxic condition had been ...
Voituron Yann - - 2003
We studied the ability of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda to survive freezing exposure and the associated subsequent metabolic variations. This species that typically overwinters under water tolerates the conversion of 55% of its body water into ice. This ice content is attained after a few hours (between 8 and ...
Julian David - - 2003
Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical ...
Pokorski M - - 2003
This study seeks to determine the pattern of electroencephalogram changes during stimulatory ventilatory responses to acute progressive hypoxia. Electroencephalograms were recorded in the 10-20 electrode system during progressive poikilocapnic hypoxic tests based on the rebreathing routine. Healthy subjects were used for he study. A major finding was that hypoxia decreased ...
Sarrafzadeh A S - - 2003
The objective was to measure metabolic changes monitored by bedside microdialysis during impending and manifest hypoxia in traumatic brain injury. In 41 patients, a PtiO2-catheter (Licox; 1/min) was placed into non-lesioned frontal white matter together with a microdialysis catheter (CMA, hourly). Data were analysed for identification of episodes of impending ...
Baylor Alfred E AE - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Clinical data indicate that gut perfusion deficits must be rectified within 24 hours after traumatic injury to decrease organ failure and death. Ischemia/reperfusion injury to the gut causes enterocyte apoptosis (Apo), which may contribute to intestinal barrier failure. The temporal response of enterocyte Apo to acidosis and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) ...
Thurlow Ralph W - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Four days of hypoxia produce an extensive fetal polyuria with little change in amniotic fluid volume in the ovine fetus. We hypothesized that fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption would increase with prolonged hypoxia to offset the polyuria. STUDY DESIGN: After a 24-hour normoxic period, nine ovine fetuses were subjected ...
Ohkuwa Tetsuo - - 2003
This study clarified the effects of long-term hypoxia and hypoxic exercise on monoamines in the whole brain, and in four specific regions of the rat brain. The male Wistar rat progenitors (P1 group) were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia (16.0% oxygen) and exercise (MHE-P1), hypoxia and sedentary (MHS-P1), normoxia ...
Friedmann B - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that severe hypoxia during low-resistance/high-repetition strength training promotes muscle hypertrophy, 19 untrained males were assigned randomly to 4 weeks of low-resistance/high-repetition knee extension exercise in either normoxia or in normobaric hypoxia ( FiO(2) 0.12) with recovery in normoxia. Before and after the training period, isokinetic strength ...
de Paula Patrícia M - - 2003
Hypoxia causes hyperpnea and anapyrexia (a regulated decrease in body temperature, T(b)) but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in hypoxia-induced anapyrexia and hyperpnea, but the site(s) of action is not known. Nitric oxide synthase is present in the rostral ventrolateral medulla ...
Hopkins Susan R - - 2003
Acute hypoxia increases heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Qt) at a given oxygen consumption (VO2) during submaximal exercise. It is widely believed that the underlying mechanism involves increased sympathetic activation and circulating catecholamines acting on cardiac beta receptors. Recent evidence indicating a continued role for parasympathetic modulation of HR ...
Velez-Roa Sonia - - 2003
beta-Adrenergic agonists may increase chemosensitivity in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the beta1-agonist dobutamine increases peripheral chemosensitivity in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized and crossover study. In 15 healthy subjects, we examined the effects of dobutamine on breathing, hemodynamics, and sympathetic nerve activity (measured using microneurography) during normoxia, isocapnic hypoxia ...
Dinenno Frank A - - 2003
Systemic hypoxia in humans evokes forearm vasodilatation despite significant reflex increases in sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve activity and noradrenaline spillover. We sought to determine whether post-junctional alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness to endogenous noradrenaline release is blunted during systemic hypoxia. To do so, we conducted a two-part study in healthy young adults. In ...
Petersen Ann M - - 2003
A regulated decrease in internal body temperature (Tb) appears to play a protective role against metabolic disruptions such as exposure to ambient hypoxia. This study examined the possibility that Tb depression is initiated when low internal oxygen levels trigger the release of adenosine, a neural modulator known to influence thermoregulation. ...
Fugelseth D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess by Doppler echocardiography the effects of 24 hours of whole body mild hypothermia compared with normothermia on cardiac output (CO), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and the presence of a persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) after a global hypoxic-ischaemic insult in unsedated newborn animals. DESIGN: Thirty five pigs (mean ...
Fatemian Marzieh - - 2003
The acute hypercapnic ventilatory response (AHCVR) arises from both peripheral and central chemoreflexes. In humans, one technique for identifying the separate contributions of these chemoreflexes to AHCVR has been to associate the rapid component of AHCVR with the peripheral chemoreflex and the slow component with the central chemoreflex. Our first ...
Simard Edith - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that intermittent hypoxia elicits plasticity in respiratory chemoreflexes in bullfrog tadpoles. Metamorphic tadpoles (Taylor-Kollros stages XVI-XX) were subjected to intermittent hypoxia (PW(O(2))=45 Torr; 12 h/day) or constant normoxia (PW(O(2))=156 Torr) for 2 weeks before ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercarbia were measured. Buccal pressure changes were ...
McDeigan Gwendolyn E - - 2003
To determine the effects of endotoxemia on the neonatal ventilatory response to hypoxia, 17 chronically instrumented and unanesthetized newborn piglets (</=7 d) were studied before and 30 min after the administration of Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin (n = 8) or normal saline (n = 9). Minute ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart ...
Ray A D - - 2003
Exercise exacerbates acute mountain sickness. In infants and small mammals, hypoxia elicits a decrease in body temperature (Tb) [hypoxic thermal response (HTR)], which may protect against hypoxic tissue damage. We postulated that exercise would counteract the HTR and promote hypoxic tissue damage. Tb was measured by telemetry in rats (n ...
Viemari Jean-Charles - - 2003
In vivo (plethysmography) and in vitro (en bloc preparations) experiments were performed from embryonic day 16 (E16) to postnatal day 9 (P9) in order to analyse the perinatal maturation of the respiratory rhythm-generator in mice. At E16, delivered foetuses did not ventilate and survive but at E18 they breathed at ...
Sanson Angela J - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Recent investigations have demonstrated a wealth of knowledge about the biology of nitric oxide (NO) and the synthases (NOS) that generate it, under both physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. In this study, we investigated the generation of NO under conditions of hypoxia in the absence of confounding functions such as ...
Tresguerres M - - 2003
In the present study, the influence of short-term osmotic variations on some electrophysiological properties related to NaCl absorption across posterior gills of Chasmagnathus granulatus was investigated. The transepithelial potential difference (V(te)) of isolated and perfused gills increased significantly when hyposmotic saline (699 mosmol l(-1)) was used instead of isosmotic solution ...
Tooley James R - - 2003
Hypothermia is potentially therapeutic in the management of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, not all studies have shown a neuroprotective effect. It is suggested that the stress of unsedated hypothermia may interfere with neuroprotection. We propose that selective head cooling (SHC) combined with mild total-body hypothermia during anesthesia enhances local ...
Katayama Keisho - - 2003
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the influence of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia at rest on endurance performance and cardiorespiratory and hematological adaptations in trained endurance athletes. Twelve trained male endurance runners were assigned to either a hypoxic group (n = 6) or a control group (n = ...
Xu Fadi - - 2003
Inspiratory central drive is augmented by acute hypoxia that leads to a hyperventilation, but it is inhibited by capsaicin (Cap)-induced stimulation of pulmonary C fibers (PCFs) that produces an expiratory apnea. We hypothesized that acute hypoxia should shorten or eliminate the Cap-induced apnea. The ventilatory responses to bolus injection of ...
Tissier Cindy - - 2002
The main factors of myocardial ischemia are hypoxia, substrate deprivation, acidosis, and high extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]e), but the influence of each of these factors has not yet been evaluated in a cardiomyocyte (CM) culture system. Electromechanical responses to the individual and combined components of ischemia were studied in CM ...
Pedersen Bente Klarlund - - 2002
Stress-induced immunological reactions to exercise have stimulated much research into stress immunology and neuroimmunology. It has been suggested that exercise can be employed as a model of temporary immunosuppression, which occurs during physical stress, such as hypoxia. Acute exercise and acute hypoxia mediate in principle identical effects on circulating lymphocyte ...
Gamboa Alfredo - - 2003
High-altitude (HA) natives have blunted ventilatory responses to hypoxia (HVR), but studies differ as to whether this blunting is lost when HA natives migrate to live at sea level (SL), possibly because HVR has been assessed with different durations of hypoxic exposure (acute vs. sustained). To investigate this, 50 HA ...
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