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Results 251 - 300 of 1063
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Raff Hershel - - 2006
The synthesis of adrenal steroids requires molecular oxygen. Because arterial hypoxemia is a common clinical condition, the purpose of the present study was to examine steroidogenesis in vitro under physiological changes in O(2) tension (Po(2)) in cells from human adrenal glands with aldosterone-secreting adenomas (ASA; n=3) or with bilateral adrenal ...
Donnelly David F - - 2005
Carotid body chemoreceptors undergo significant maturational changes in the post-natal period over a period of days to weeks. This is likely initiated by the rise in Pa(O2) at the time of birth and reflects the changing value of "normoxia" from 25 Torr to near 100 Torr. Chemoreceptors in the newborn ...
Eckert Danny J - - 2005
RATIONALE: The combination of acute hypoxia and increased respiratory load is encountered in several respiratory diseases including acute life-threatening asthma and sleep apnea. Hypoxia has been shown to inhibit respiratory load perception in healthy and asthmatic subjects, and could contribute to treatment delays and impaired function of protective reflexes. OBJECTIVES: ...
Ma Yi Long - - 2005
Although hypoxia tolerance in heterothermic mammals is well established, it is unclear whether the adaptive significance stems from hypoxia or other cellular challenge associated with euthermy, hibernation, or arousal. In the present study, blood gases, hemoglobin O2 saturation (S(O2), and indexes of cellular and physiological stress were measured during hibernation ...
Seidl M D - - 2005
The mechanisms, dynamics and effects of hypoxia acclimation were studied in the water flea Daphnia magna over three successive generations (parental, first and second filial generation: P, F1 and F2). The P generation was raised under normoxic conditions at 20 degrees C and became exposed to environmental hypoxia (10-19% air ...
Izumizaki Masahiko - - 2005
The effects of body position on ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli have rarely been studied in experimental animals, despite evidence that position may be a factor in respiratory results. The purpose of this study was to test whether body position could affect acute ventilatory responses to 4-min periods of moderate ...
Reischl G - - 2005
18F-labeling of the nitroimidazole nucleoside analogue 1-(5-fluoro-5-deoxy-alpha-D-arabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (FAZA) was developed to use this tracer in PET for detection of hypoxia. Parameters for labeling and hydrolysis were optimized with regard to amount of precursor, temperature and time. Labeling yields reached a maximum of 62+/-4% at 100 degrees C within 5 min ...
Zeevi-Levin Naama - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Altered gap junctional coupling of ventricular myocytes plays an important role in arrhythmogenesis in ischemic heart disease. Since hypoxia is a major component of ischemia, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia causes gap junctional remodeling accompanied by conduction disturbances. METHODS: Cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were exposed to hypoxia ...
Prieur Fabrice - - 2005
PURPOSE: We postulated that the relationship between VO2 and work rate (VO2-WR relationship) during incremental exercise is dependent on O2 availability, and that training-induced adaptations alter this relationship. We therefore studied the effect of endurance training on VO2 response during incremental exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2=0.134). METHODS: Before and ...
Day Trevor A - - 2005
Time-dependent ventilatory responses to hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges, such as posthypoxic frequency decline (PHxFD) and posthypercapnic frequency decline (PHcFD), could profoundly affect breathing stability. However, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate these phenomena. To determine the contribution of specific carotid body chemostimuli to PHxFD and PHcFD, we developed ...
Mortola Jacopo P - - 2005
We measured the effects of hypoxia and changes in ambient temperature (T) on the oxygen consumption (VO2) of chicken embryos at embryonic days 11, 16 and 20 (E11, E16 and E20, respectively), and post-hatching day 1 (H1). Between 30 and 39 degrees C, at E11 and E16, VO2 changed linearly ...
Perrey S - - 2005
AIM: It is well established that altering O2 delivering to contracting skeletal muscle affects human performance. In this respect, a reduced O2 supply (e.g., hypoxia) increases the rate of muscle fatigue. This study aimed to determine the effects of moderate hypoxia and exercise intensity on oxygen uptake (VO2) and cardiac ...
Orth Teresa A - - 2005
Systemic hypoxia produces microvascular inflammation in several tissues, including skeletal muscle. Exercise training (ET) has been shown to reduce the inflammatory component of several diseases. Alternatively, ET could influence hypoxia-induced inflammation by improving tissue oxygenation or increasing mechanical antiadhesive forces at the leukocyte-endothelial interface. The effect of 5 wk of ...
Chen R-W - - 2005
Neurotoxicity in primary neurons was induced using hypoxia/hypoglycemia (H/H), veratridine (10microM), staurosporine (1microM) or glutamate (100microM), which resulted in 72%, 67%, 75% and 66% neuronal injury, respectively. 3-Aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (PAN-811; 10microM; Panacea Pharmaceuticals, Gaithersburg, MD) pretreatment for 24 h provided maximal neuroprotection of 89%, 42%, 47% and 89% against these ...
Povea Camilo - - 2005
Changes in heart rate variability induced by an intermittent exposure to hypoxia were evaluated in athletes unacclimatized to altitude. Twenty national elite athletes trained for 13 days at 1200 m and either lived and slept at 1200 m (live low, train low, LLTL) or between 2500 and 3000 m (live ...
Chiu Li-Ling - - 2005
Altitude training is a frequently used method for enhancing endurance performance in athletes. But its acute effect on carbohydrate metabolism in cardiac muscle is unknown. In this study, we determined the acute effect of an exercise-hypoxia challenge on glycogen storage and GLUT4 protein expression in heart muscle. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley ...
Foster K A - - 2005
Oxygen and NADH are essential components in the production of ATP in the CNS. This study examined the dynamic interaction between tissue oxygen tension (pO(2)) and NADH imaging changes within hippocampal tissue slices, during metabolic stresses including hypoxia and synaptic activation. The initiation of abrupt hypoxia (from 95% O(2) to ...
McCulloch Kristine M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to develop a piglet model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, which would allow for serial assessments of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. METHODS: In 12 newborn piglets, we produced hypoxia by 8% oxygen breathing for 5-91 minutes. We combined ischemia by reversible bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for ...
Ricart Antoni - - 2005
We examined the effects of the 5-phosphodiesterase (5-PDE) inhibitor sildenafil on pulmonary arterial pressure and some oxygen transport and cardiopulmonary parameters in humans during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at rest and after exercise. In a double-blind study, 100 mg sildenafil or placebo was administered orally to 14 healthy volunteers 45 ...
Townsend Nathan E - - 2005
This study tested the hypothesis that live high, train low (LHTL) would increase submaximal exercise ventilation (V(E)) in normoxia, and the increase would be related to enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). Thirty-three cyclists/triathletes were divided into three groups: 20 consecutive nights of hypoxia (LHTLc, n = 12), 20 nights of ...
Houssiere Anne - - 2005
To investigate the effects of muscle metaboreceptor activation during hypoxic static exercise, we recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, blood pressure, ventilation, and blood lactate in 13 healthy subjects (22 +/- 2 yr) during 3 min of three randomized interventions: isocapnic hypoxia (10% O(2)) (chemoreflex activation), isometric handgrip ...
Donoghue Simon - - 2005
Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) consists of a progressive increase in ventilation and decrease in end-tidal Pco(2) (Pet(CO(2))). Underlying VAH, there are also increases in the acute ventilatory sensitivities to hypoxia and hypercapnia. To investigate whether these changes could be induced with very mild alterations in end-tidal Po(2) (Pet(O(2))), two ...
Sári Réka - - 2004
AIM: The role of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) in ethanol (ETOH)-induced pancreatitis is controversial. Our aim was to characterise the effect of ETOH on basal and stimulated SO motility. METHODS: SOs removed from white rabbits were placed in an organ bath (Krebs solution, pH7.4, 37 degrees). The effects of ...
Rork Tyler H - - 2004
We investigated the effects of 0.35-mM acetaminophen and its vehicle on isolated, perfused guinea pig hearts made hypoxic and subsequently reoxygenated. Hearts were allowed 30 min postinstrumentation to reach baseline, steady-state values, and then were exposed to 6 min of hypoxia (5% O(2), 5% CO(2), balance N(2)) followed by 36 ...
Tang Kechun - - 2004
To determine if hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) may regulate skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in response to exercise or hypoxia, rats underwent 1h sciatic nerve electrical stimulation (ES), hypoxic exposure (H) or combined stimuli. HIF-1alpha protein levels increased six-fold with maximal (8V) ES with or without H. Similar ...
Talbot Nick P - - 2005
The time course of the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia in humans has not been fully defined. In this investigation, study A was designed to assess the form of the increase in pulmonary vascular tone at the onset of hypoxia and to determine whether a steady plateau ensues over the ...
Maccormack T J - - 2004
Adenosine is a product of adenylate phosphate breakdown that can exert protective effects on tissues during energy limitation. Accumulation of cardiac adenosine under hypoxia is well documented in mammals but has not been shown in fish. Adenosine content was measured in heart and brain tissue from short-horned sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius ...
Chiu Li-Ling - - 2004
We compared the chronic effect of intermittent hypoxia and endurance training on the glucose tolerance and GLUT4 protein expression in rat skeletal muscle. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for weight and assigned to one of the following four groups: control, endurance training, hypoxia, or hypoxia followed by endurance training. Hypoxic ...
Guenette Jordan A - - 2004
Recent studies claim a higher prevalence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) in women relative to men and that diminished peripheral chemosensitivity is related to the degree of arterial desaturation during exercise in male endurance athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the acute ventilatory response ...
Friedmann Birgit - - 2004
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to find out if the determination of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) during incremental treadmill tests in normoxia and acute normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 0.15) defines equivalent relative submaximal intensities in these environmental conditions. METHODS: 11 male middle and long distance runners performed ...
Dauger S - - 2004
AIM: To study the ventilatory and arousal/defence responses to hypoxia in newborn mutant mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. METHODS: Breathing variables were measured non-invasively in mutant (n = 31) and wild-type age-matched mice (n = 57) at 2 and 8 days of age using flow ...
Bocqueraz Olivier - - 2004
PURPOSE: This study was designed to describe the responses of fluid-regulating hormones during exercise in acute hypobaric hypoxia and to test the hypothesis that they would be dependent on the relative intensity of exercise rather than the absolute workload. METHODS: Thirteen men cycled for 60 min on four occasions in ...
Hupperets Maarten D W - - 2004
Acclimatization to chronic hypoxia (CH) increases ventilation (V(I)) and the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) over 2-14 days but hypoxic desensitization blunts the HVR after years of CH. We tested for hypoxic desensitization during the first 2 months of CH by studying five normal subjects at sea level (SL) and ...
Shang Eva H H - - 2004
Hypoxia occurs over large areas in aquatic systems worldwide, and there is growing concern that hypoxia may affect aquatic animals, leading to population decline and changes in community by elimination of sensitive species. For the first time, we report that sublethal levels of hypoxia can significantly increase (+77.4%) malformation in ...
Schmitz Anke - - 2004
Terrestrial invertebrates experience hypoxia in many habitats and under a variety of physiological conditions. Some groups (at least insects) are much more capable of recovery from anoxia than most vertebrates, but there is still a tremendous unexplained variation in hypoxia/anoxia tolerance among terrestrial invertebrates. Crustaceans and arachnids may be less ...
Hicks James W - - 2004
During exposure to hypoxia all vertebrates utilize a suite of cardiovascular and ventilatory responses that, in combination, strive to maintain adequate delivery of oxygen to the metabolizing tissues. In addition to maintaining oxygen delivery through cardio-respiratory responses, oxygen demands in the tissues can also be reduced. Reptiles use this alternative ...
Lapenna Domenico - - 2004
Transmural distribution of low molecular weight iron (LMWI), total iron, and protein carbonyls (PC) was investigated in the perfused rabbit heart under aerobic conditions, and after 60 min hypoxia followed or not by 3 min reoxygenation. In the aerobic perfused hearts, LMWI, total iron and PC did not show significant ...
Chou Shih-Wei - - 2004
Altitude training is a common method used to enhance endurance performance in athletes. We have examined the interactive effect of exercise training and chronic hypoxic on glycogen storage and GLUT4 protein expression in cardiac muscles. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were weight balanced and assigned to one of the following four ...
Burtscher Martin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia has been suggested to increase exercise tolerance by enhancing stress resistance and improving oxygen delivery. Because the improvement of exercise tolerance reduces mortality in the elderly with and without coronary artery disease intermittent hypoxia might be a valuable preventive and therapeutic tool. However, controlled studies are lacking. ...
Kahraman Levent - - 2004
The physiological mechanisms that might be involved in an association between heat stress and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are obscure. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of acute hypoxia and elevated body temperature (T(B)) might prevent autoresuscitation from hypoxic apnea (AR). We exposed 21-day-old mice (total = 216) ...
Moosavi S H - - 2004
Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by ...
Vovk Andrea - - 2004
The rate and duration of peripheral chemoreceptor resensitization following sustained hypoxia was characterized in young and older (74-year-old) adults. In addition, cerebral blood velocity (CBV) was measured in young subjects during and following the relief from sustained hypoxia. Following 20 min of sustained eucapnic hypoxia (50 mmHg), subjects were re-exposed ...
Skovgaard Nini - - 2004
We performed simultaneous measurements of ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production in the South American lizard, Tupinambis merianae, equipped with a mask and maintained at 25 degrees C. Ventilation of resting animals was stimulated by progressive exposure to hypercapnia (2, 4 and 6%) or hypoxia (15, 10, 8 and ...
Cutler Michael J - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with sustained elevation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and altered chemoreflex control of MSNA, both of which likely play an important role in the development of hypertension in these patients. Additionally, short-term exposure to intermittent hypoxic apneas can produce a sustained elevation of MSNA. ...
Pokorski Mieczysław - - 2004
The redox signaling is germane for the hypoxia-sensing mechanisms at the carotid body. This raises the strong possibility that agents possess reducing and antioxidant attributes, such as ascorbate, could influence the hypoxic respiratory response. However, water solubility of ascorbate makes its effectiveness at membrane-associated target sites dubious. In this study, ...
Timmerman Cindy M - - 2004
This study demonstrates that short-term behavioral and physiological responses may permit the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna to cope successfully with extreme hypoxia and suggests an interaction between behavioral response (aquatic surface respiration [ASR]) and physiological compensation. Poecilia latipinna acclimated to chronic hypoxia (6 wk at 1.0 mg L(-1) O(2)) exhibited ...
Duhamel T A - - 2004
In this study, the response of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to prolonged exercise, performed in normoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.21) and hypoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.14) was studied in homogenates prepared from the vastus lateralis muscle in 10 untrained men (peak O(2) consumption = 3.09 +/- 0.25 l/min). ...
DeLoughery Thomas G - - 2004
Hypoxia has been implicated as a stimulant of coagulation. As exertion is known to affect haemostasis, we sought to control for this by using a standardized protocol. Subjects were exercised both at room air and at 12% oxygen. Exercise produced an increase in procoagulant factors, which was reduced with hypoxic ...
Pokorski Mieczysław - - 2004
In this study, we attempted to determine the role of GABA neurotransmission in augmentation of hypoxic respiration by antecedent hyperoxic breathing. The experiments were performed in anesthetized, paralyzed and vagotomized cats divided into control and bicuculline (a GABA(A) receptor blocker)-injected groups. The experimental protocol consisted of exposing the animals to ...
Jack Sandy - - 2004
Idiopathic hyperventilation (IH) is a poorly understood condition of sustained hypocapnia and controversial etiology. Although behavioral/emotional factors may contribute, it is uncertain whether chemosensitivity is altered, hyperventilation is maintained during exercise, and the associated breathlessness reflects the hyperventilation. In 39 patients with IH and 23 control subjects, we described ventilatory ...
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