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Kjaergaard Jesper - - 2007
The effect of sildenafil on right ventricular contractility in hypoxic exercise is unknown, whereas reports have shown that sildenafil is associated with a smaller increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) with exercise at high altitude. The present study evaluates the changes induced by controlled hypoxia ...
Smith Adrian M - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Helicopter aircrew have reported features of hypoxia below 3048 m (10,000 ft). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of physical activity below 3048 m on the development of hypoxia. METHODS: Six subjects exercised at 30 W and 60 W for 4 min at sea level, ...
Gujic Marko - - 2007
Muscle metaboreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors exert differential effects on the cardiorespiratory and autonomic responses following hypoxic exercise. Whether these effects are accompanied by specific changes in sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex control is not known. Sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex functions were assessed by intravenous nitroprusside and phenylephrine boluses in 15 young ...
Hopkins Susan R - - 2007
Strenuous exercise combined with hypoxia is implicated in the development of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), which is believed to result from rupture of pulmonary capillaries secondary to high vascular pressures. The relative importance of hypoxia and exercise in altering the distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) is unknown. Six chronically ...
Lynn Edward G - - 2007
The major oxygen-dependent function of mitochondria partitions molecular oxygen between oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation. When oxygen becomes limiting, the modulation of mitochondrial function plays an important role in overall biologic adaptation. This review focuses on mitochondrial biology in the heart and skeletal muscle during hypoxia. The disparate ...
Amann Markus - - 2007
Our aim was to isolate the independent effects of 1) inspiratory muscle work (W(b)) and 2) arterial hypoxemia during heavy-intensity exercise in acute hypoxia on locomotor muscle fatigue. Eight cyclists exercised to exhaustion in hypoxia [inspired O(2) fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 0.15, arterial hemoglobin saturation (Sa(O(2))) = 81 +/- 1%; 8.6 ...
Szdzuy Kirsten - - 2007
We investigated the effects of sustained embryonic hypoxia on the neonatal ventilatory chemosensitivity. White Leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at 38 degrees C either in 21% O(2) throughout incubation (normoxia, Nx) or in 15% O(2) from embryonic day 5 (hypoxia, Hx), hatching time included. Hx embryos hatched approximately 11 h ...
Vila Brian - - 2007
The goal was to determine whether noninvasive ventilatory assistance (NIV) could facilitate exercise performance and benefit physiologic parameters for eight hypercapnic kyphoscoliosis patients using a cycloergometer for 6-min periods at a constant power (20 W). The exercise protocols were performed in random order while breathing unaided (spontaneous breathing test or ...
Curtis Andrew N - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interaction of core temperature and isocapnic hypoxia on human ventilation and heart rate (HR). In 2 resting head-out water-immersion trials, 8 males first breathed air and then 12% O2 in N2 while the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was ...
Ladino John - - 2007
Administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin attenuates the ventilatory response to hypoxia (VRH) in newborn piglets, but the mechanisms responsible for this depression are not clearly understood. Nitric oxide (NO) production increases during sepsis and elevated NO levels can inhibit carotid body function. The role of endothelial NO on the VRH ...
Qutub Amina A - - 2007
Hypoxia occurs in cancer, prolonged exercise, and long-term ischemia with durations of several hours or more, and the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) pathway response to these conditions differs from responses to transient hypoxia. We used computational modeling, validated by experiments, to gain a quantitative, temporal understanding of the mechanisms driving ...
Andresen Jannicke H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia is a major concern in perinatal medicine. Resuscitation and ways to prevent and minimize adverse outcomes after perinatal asphyxia are subject to extensive research. OBJECTIVES: In this study we hypothesized that, prior to hypoxia, intravenously administered nicotine might have an effect on how newborn piglets tolerate hypoxia, ...
Blood Arlin B - - 2007
Growing evidence suggests that nitrite, acting via reduction to nitric oxide by deoxyhemoglobin, may play an important role in local control of blood flow during hypoxia. To investigate the effect of hypoxia (65 Torr arterial Po(2)) on the kinetic properties of nitrite, a bolus injection of sodium nitrite (10 mg/kg ...
Friedmann Birgit - - 2007
While there is some controversy whether anaerobic capacity might be improved after altitude training little is known about changes in anaerobic capacity during hypoxic exposure in highly trained athletes. In order to analyze the effects of acute moderate normobaric hypoxia on anaerobic capacity, 18 male competitive triathletes, middle- and long-distance ...
Tonshin A A - - 2007
Slow destructive processes in brain cortex were studied under deep hypoxia (anoxia). Study of the character and dynamics of DNA destruction showed that apoptosis and necrosis run in parallel under the experimental conditions. These processes typically develop in tens of hours. A similar conclusion was reached from electron microscopic study ...
Imadojemu Virginia A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve activity is increased in awake and regularly breathing patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Over time, repetitive hypoxic stress could alter sympathetic chemoreflex function in OSA. METHODS: We determined the responses to acute hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.1, for 5 min), static handgrip exercise, and ...
Gujic Marko - - 2007
The peripheral chemoreceptors are the dominant reflex mechanism responsible for the rise in ventilation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia. Animal studies have suggested that endothelin (ET) plays an important role in chemosensitivity. Moreover, several human clinical conditions in which circulating ET levels are increased are ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2007
Although acclimatization to intermittent hypoxia (IH) improves exercise performance by increasing oxygen delivery and utilization, the effects of chronic IH on platelet-leukocyte interaction and inflammation-related cytokine secretion caused by strenuous exercise remain unclear. This investigation elucidates how two intensities of IH influence eosinophil- and neutrophil-platelet aggregation (EPA and NPA) as ...
Suhr Frank - - 2007
This study aimed to investigate the biological response to hypoxia as a stimulus, as well as exercise- and vibration-induced shear stress, which is known to induce angiogenesis. Twelve male cyclists (27.8 +/- 5.4 yr) participated in this study. Each subject completed four cycle training sessions under normal conditions (NC) without ...
Favret Fabrice - - 2007
The reduction in maximal oxygen consumption in hypoxia can be due to physiological factors, the relative importance of which depends on the degree of hypoxia: the reduction in inspired PO2, the impairment of lung gas exchange contributing to an exercise-induced decrease in arterial O(2) saturation, the reduction in maximal cardiac ...
Furukawa Seishi - - 2007
AIM: We tested the hypothesis that murine embryonic cardiovascular (CV) function is vulnerable to transient changes in maternal transplacental oxygen support during the critical period of CV morphogenesis. METHODS: We measured maternal heart rate (MHR), maternal blood pressure (MBP), and embryonic heart rate (EHR) during mechanical ventilatory support, then induced ...
Katayama K - - 2007
Recent human studies have shown that resting hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), which is an index of ventilatory chemosensitivity to hypoxia, increased after short-term intermittent hypoxia at rest. In addition, intermittent hypoxia leads to increases in ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO (2)) during exercise at simulated high altitude, with the ...
Robbins Peter A - - 2007
This review of ventilatory acclimatization to altitude/hypoxia (VAH) emphasizes the widely differing timescales that VAH is considered to encompass. The review concludes: (1) that early (24-48h) VAH is unlikely to arise as a reaction to the respiratory alkalosis that is normally associated with exposure to hypoxia; (2) that changes in ...
Azzam Milène A - - 2007
We asked to what extent sustained hypoxia during embryonic growth might interfere with the normal development of thermogenesis. White Leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at 38 degrees C either in normoxia (Nx, 21% O2) or in hypoxia [Hx, 15% O2, from embryonic day 5 (E5) until hatching]. The Hx embryos ...
Yan Bing - - 2007
The effect of acute hypoxia on the human left ventricular function during exercise was evaluated by 2D and Doppler echocardiography on 11 healthy male college students. Each subject completed 6-min moderate intensity (100 W) supine cycling exercises in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. The concentration of inspired O(2) was adjusted to ...
Amann Markus - - 2007
We examined the effects of hypoxia severity on peripheral versus central determinants of exercise performance. Eight cyclists performed constant-load exercise to exhaustion at various fractions of inspired O2 fraction (FIO2 0.21/0.15/0.10). At task failure (pedal frequency < 70% target) arterial hypoxaemia was surreptitiously reversed via acute O2 supplementation (FIO2 = ...
Vogiatzis Ioannis - - 2007
Previous work suggests that exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), causing only moderate arterial oxygen desaturation (SaO2 : 92 +/- 1%), does not exaggerate diaphragmatic fatigue exhibited by highly trained endurance athletes. Since changes in arterial O2 tension have a significant effect on the rate of development of locomotor muscle fatigue during ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2007
Acclimatization to intermittent hypoxia (IH) improves exercise performance by enhancing oxygen delivery and utilization, but the effect of IH on hemodynamic control remains unclear. This study investigates how two intensities of IH influence hemodynamic control to develop an IH regimen that improves aerobic fitness and minimizes risk of peripheral vascular ...
Chien Jen-Chung - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic events and cardiac arrest may cause brain damage in critical infants. This study investigated cerebral tissue oxygenation and oxygen extraction in a piglet model of hypoxic events, cardiac arrest and effects of resuscitation. METHODS: For the hypoxia experiment, anesthetized newborn piglets were randomized to a hypoxia group (n ...
Kacin Alan - - 2007
The effect of acute and 23 days of intermittent exposures to normobaric hypoxia on the forehead sweating response during steady-state exercise was investigated. Eight endurance athletes slept in a normobaric hypoxic room for a minimum of 8 h per day at a simulated altitude equivalent to 2,700 m for 23 ...
Janáky Márta - - 2007
PURPOSE: To explore the retinal functions in healthy volunteers during acute hypoxic exposure, applying a set of electrophysiological tests. METHODS: Standard electroretinograms (ERGs) of the retina (rod-(scotopic) ERGs, cone-(photopic) ERGs, maximal responses and oscillatory potentials (OPs)) and 30-Hz flicker ERGs were recorded according to ISCEV (International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology ...
Coste Olivier - - 2007
An impairment of immunity is reported after long-haul flights, and the mild hypobaric hypoxia caused by pressurization in the passenger airline cabin may contribute to it. In this controlled crossover study, the effects of two levels of hypoxia, equivalent to 8000 and 12,000 feet above sea level, on the rhythm ...
Paffett Michael L - - 2007
Several molecular and cellular adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia exist within the vasculature. Many of these processes involve oxygen sensing which is transduced into mediators of vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation and vasodilation in the systemic circulation. A variety of oxygen-responsive pathways, such as HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1 and HOs (haem oxygenases), ...
Faoro Vitalie - - 2007
The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil has been reported to improve hypoxic exercise capacity, but the mechanisms accounting for this observation remain incompletely understood. Sixteen healthy subjects were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study on the effects of 50-mg sildenafil on echocardiographic indexes of the pulmonary circulation and on cardiopulmonary ...
Khot Sandeep - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Delayed posthypoxic demyelination may rarely complicate an episode of severe hypoxia, with or without exposure to carbon monoxide. Following recovery from initial coma, progressive neurologic deterioration ensues with outcomes ranging from death to full recovery. Delayed posthypoxic demyelination is hypothesized to be immunemediated, with support coming from recent animal ...
Bernhardt Wanja M - - 2007
Since the first description of a protective effect of hypoxic preconditioning in the heart, the principle of reducing tissue injury in response to ischemia by prior exposure to hypoxia was confirmed in a number of cells and organs. However, despite impressive preclinical results, hypoxic preconditioning has so far failed to ...
Grocott Mike - - 2007
Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) is a large healthy volunteer field study investigating human adaptation to environmental hypoxia. More than 200 individuals were studied at sea-level and in four laboratories on the trek to Everest Base Camp (5,300 m). Fifteen physicians climbed high on Everest and continued the studies as they ...
Liu Chun - - 2007
The activity within the autonomic nervous system may be altered following sustained exposure to hypoxia, and it is possible that this increase in activity underlies the early acclimatization of both ventilation and the pulmonary vasculature to hypoxia. To test this hypothesis, seven individuals were infused with the ganglionic blocker trimetaphan ...
McDonald M Danielle - - 2007
The neurochemical, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is involved in the regulation of toadfish pulsatile urea excretion as well as the teleost hypoxia response. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether environmental conditions that activate branchial chemoreceptors also trigger pulsatile urea excretion in toadfish, since environmental dissolved oxygen levels ...
Katayama Keisho - - 2007
The effect of various levels of oxygenation on quadriceps muscle fatigability during isolated muscle exercise was assessed in six male subjects. Twitch force (Q(tw)) was assessed using supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation. In experiment 1, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and Q(tw) of resting quadriceps muscle were measured in normoxia [inspired ...
Grataloup O - - 2007
This study focuses on the influence of the arterial oxygen saturation level at exhaustion on peak heart rate under acute moderate hypoxia, in endurance-trained subjects. Nineteen competing male cyclists performed exhaustive ramp exercise (cycle ergometer) under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (15 % O (2)). After the normoxic trial, the subjects ...
Papadelis Christos - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was the development and evaluation of nonlinear electroencephalography parameters which assess hypoxia-induced EEG alterations, and describe the temporal characteristics of different hypoxic levels' residual effect upon the brain electrical activity. METHODS: Multichannel EEG, pO2, pCO2, ECG, and respiration measurements were recorded from 10 subjects ...
Douglas Robert M - - 2007
Chronic constant hypoxia (CCH) and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) are known to have deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Because of the difference in the pattern of hypoxic exposure, it is possible that the pathological outcome would vary. The N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio is a reliable marker of neuronal ...
Liu Qiuli - - 2006
Previously, we found heightened expression of inhibitory neurochemicals and depressed expression of excitatory neurochemicals with a sudden drop in metabolic activity around postnatal day (P) 12 in rat brainstem respiratory nuclei, suggesting that this period is a critical window during which respiratory control or regulation may be distinctly different. To ...
Ainslie Philip N - - 2007
We examined the relationship between changes in cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular function in 14 healthy volunteers with and without hypoxia [arterial O(2) saturation (Sa(O(2))) approximately 80%] at rest and during 60-70% maximal oxygen uptake steady-state cycling exercise. During all procedures, ventilation, end-tidal gases, heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (BP; Finometer) ...
Chu Aaron L - - 2007
This study assessed whether the elevated sensitivity of ventilation to hypoxia during exercise is accounted for by an elevation of esophageal temperature (T(es)). Eleven males volunteered for two exercise sessions on an underwater, head-out cycle ergometer at a steady-state rate of oxygen consumption (V(.)(O(2))) of approximately 0.87 l/min (SD 0.07). ...
Wood Helen E - - 2007
Both exercise and hypoxia increase pulmonary ventilation. However, the combined effects of the two stimuli are more than additive, such that exercise may be considered to potentiate the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia (AHVR), and vice versa. Exposure to sustained hypoxia of 8 h duration or more has been shown ...
Mortola Jacopo P - - 2007
In neonatal mammals, the drop in oxygen consumption (VO2) during moderate degrees of hypoxia is a manifestation of metabolic depression, and occurs without anaerobic energy compensation. We examined the possibility that embryos also respond to hypoxia with a similar hypometabolic response, by measuring the extent of the O2 debt during ...
Romer Lee M - - 2007
We hypothesized that severe hypoxia limits exercise performance via decreased contractility of limb locomotor muscles. Nine male subjects [mean +/- SE maximum O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)) = 56.5 +/- 2.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] cycled at > or =90% Vo(2 max) to exhaustion in normoxia [NORM-EXH; inspired O(2) fraction ...
SokoĊ‚owska B - - 2006
This study seeks to determine the effects on respiratory function of acute intermittent hypoxia. The experiments were performed on anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 one-minute episodes of hypoxia (14% O(2) in N(2)) interspersed with three-minute normoxic recovery periods. Ventilatory variables, minute ventilation (MV) and its ...
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