Search Results
Results 101 - 150 of 1063
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Querido Jordan S - - 2009
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been shown to alter the ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to submaximal exercise; however, the effect of IH on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to submaximal exercise has not been determined. This study tested the hypothesis that IH would blunt the CBF response during eucapnic and ...
Burtscher M - - 2009
The effects of repeated short-term hypoxia on exercise tolerance in patients at risk for, or with mild COPD were investigated. Eighteen patients (10 males, 8 females; 33-72 years) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive 15 sessions of intermittent hypoxia (FiO(2): 0.15-0.12) or normoxia within 3 weeks. Three ...
Møller Peter - - 2008
The objective of this review was to evaluate the association between hypoxia and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Evaluation criteria encompassed specificity and validation status of the biomarkers, study design, strength of the association, dose-response relationship, biological plausibility, analogous exposures, and effect modification by intervention. The collective interpretation indicates ...
Haufe Sven - - 2008
PURPOSE: Endurance exercise and hypoxia regulate pathways that are crucial to glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that training under hypoxia results in similar or even greater metabolic improvement compared with exercise under normoxia at a lower workload. METHODS: We randomly assigned 20 healthy men to single blind training under ...
Ferner Kirsten - - 2009
We had reported previously [Szdzuy, K., Mortola, J.P., 2007b. Ventilatory chemosensitivity of the 1-day-old chicken hatchling after embryonic hypoxia. Am. J. Physiol. (Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.) 293, R1640-R1649] that hypoxia during incubation blunted ventilatory chemosensitivity in the hatchling. Because the carotid bodies become functional in the last portion of incubation, ...
Vogiatzis Ioannis - - 2008
We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 ...
Ainslie Philip N - - 2008
We examined the effects of exposure to 10-12 days intermittent hypercapnia [IHC: 5:5-min hypercapnia (inspired fraction of CO(2) 0.05)-to-normoxia for 90 min (n = 10)], intermittent hypoxia [IH: 5:5-min hypoxia-to-normoxia for 90 min (n = 11)] or 12 days of continuous hypoxia [CH: 1,560 m (n = 7)], or both ...
Blegen Mark - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of varying intensities of exercise in normoxic and hypoxic environments on selected immune regulation and metabolic responses. Using a within-subjects design, subjects performed maximal tests on a cycle ergometer in both normoxic (PiO2 = 20.94%) and hypoxic (PiO2 = 14.65%) ...
Hoppeler H - - 2008
It is well established that local muscle tissue hypoxia is an important consequence and possibly a relevant adaptive signal of endurance exercise training in humans. It has been reasoned that it might be advantageous to increase this exercise stimulus by working in hypoxia. However, as long-term exposure to severe hypoxia ...
Bärtsch P - - 2008
Two modalities of applying hypoxia at rest are reviewed in this paper: intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE), which consists of hypoxic air for 5-6 min alternating with breathing room air for 4-5 min during sessions lasting 60-90 min, or prolonged hypoxic exposure (PHE) to normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia over up to ...
Zhuang Jianguo - - 2008
Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (VE) and VE chemoreflexes as well as airway ...
Snyder Eric M EM Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona, 1703 E. Mabel, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. - - 2008
We sought to determine the influence of sildenafil on the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the components of DLCO (pulmonary capillary blood volume VC, and alveolar-capillary membrane conductance DM) at rest and following exercise with normoxia and hypoxia. This double-blind placebo-controlled, cross-over study included 14 ...
Argacha J F - - 2008
AIM: Reductions in arterial oxygen partial pressure activate the peripheral chemoreceptors which increase ventilation, and, after cessation of breathing, reduce heart rate. We tested the hypothesis that facial cooling facilitates these peripheral chemoreflex mechanisms. METHODS: Chemoreflex control was assessed by the ventilatory response to hypoxia (10% O2 in N2) and ...
La Padula Pablo - - 2008
During acclimatization to sustained hypobaric hypoxia, retardation of age-associated decline in left ventricle mechanical activity and improved posthypoxic recovery were accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS). To evaluate the time course of regression of these effects on deacclimatization, rats exposed to 53.8 kPa in a hypopressure chamber ...
Herigstad Mari - - 2008
Hypoxic exposure lasting a few hours results in an elevation of ventilation and a lowering of end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET(CO2))) that persists on return to breathing air. We sought to determine whether this increment in ventilation is fixed (hypothesis 1), or whether it increases in proportion to the rise in metabolic ...
Sheel A William - - 2008
The focus of this symposium is on the physiological demands of exercise in hypoxia. The study of hypoxia by exercise physiologists has a strong tradition and many questions first asked over 100 years ago continue to be relevant, yet still unsatisfactorily answered. The primary theme of the following papers is ...
Hotta N - - 2008
AIM: It was the purpose of the investigation to determine whether an altered work rate could influence the oxygen uptake (V.O(2)) and heart rate (HR) dynamics at hypoxia and normoxia. METHODS: Ten males performed a cycle exercise with 2 repetitions of 6 min each at a constant work load while ...
Sheel Andrew William - - 2008
Exposure to chronic or intermittent hypoxia produces alterations in the ventilatory response to hypoxia. These adaptations can differ depending on the severity of the hypoxic stimulus, its duration, its pattern, and the presence or absence of other chemical stimuli. As such, there are significant differences between the responses to intermittent ...
Soliz Jorge - - 2008
Proteins harboring a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain are versatile and allow archaea, bacteria, and plants to sense oxygen partial pressure, as well as light intensity and redox potential. A PAS domain associated with a histidine kinase domain is found in FixL, the oxygen sensor molecule of Rhizobium species. PASKIN is the ...
Lador Frédéric - - 2008
We tested the hypothesis that vagal withdrawal plays a role in the rapid (phase I) cardiopulmonary response to exercise. To this aim, in five men (24.6+/-3.4 yr, 82.1+/-13.7 kg, maximal aerobic power 330+/-67 W), we determined beat-by-beat cardiac output (Q), oxygen delivery (QaO2), and breath-by-breath lung oxygen uptake (VO2) at ...
Mandic Milica - - 2008
Severe hypoxia exposure and exhaustive exercise in goldfish both elicit a strong activation of substrate-level phosphorylation with the majority of the metabolic perturbations occurring in the white muscle. Approximately half of the muscle glycogen breakdown observed during severe hypoxia exposure was accounted for by ethanol production and loss to the ...
Netzer Nikolaus C - - 2008
Training in mild to moderate hypoxia (14-17% O(2) in breathing air) and extended resting in moderate hypoxia (9-13% O(2)) have been shown to have effects in animals and humans on lipid and glucose metabolism, appetite loss, and, in part, on body weight. The causality for these effects is not yet ...
Roels B - - 2008
This study aimed to determine the changes in soleus myofibrillar ATPase (m-ATPase) activity and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression after endurance training and/or chronic hypoxic exposure. Dark Agouti rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, normoxic sedentary (N; n = 14), normoxic endurance trained (NT; n = 14), ...
Szdzuy Kirsten - - 2008
Hypoxia during incubation results in hatchlings with a reduced thermogenic capacity and a blunted ventilatory (V (E)) chemosensitivity (Szdzuy, K., Mortola, J.P., 2007b. Ventilatory chemosensitivity of the 1-day-old chicken hatchling after embryonic hypoxia. Am. J. Physiol. (Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.) 293, R1640-R1649). We asked if similar effects occurred with embryonic ...
Malanda U L - - 2008
Hypoxia can affect perception of temperature stimuli by impeding thermoregulation at a neural level. Whether this impact on the thermoregulatory response is solely due to affected thermoregulation is not clear, since reaction time may also be affected by hypoxia. Therefore, we studied the effect of hypoxia on thermal perception thresholds ...
Wiemann M - - 2008
The effect of AVE1599, an inhibitor of the sodium/proton exchanger type 3 (NHE3), on phrenic nerve (PN) activity was investigated using the working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP). Hypercapnia (Delta pH: -0.1) applied for 10 min reversibly increased PN frequency (f) by 66.0 +/- 19.5% and decreased burst duration by 23.3 ...
Börner G Valentin GV Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2008
We show that, during budding yeast meiosis, axis ensemble Hop1/Red1 and synaptonemal complex (SC) component Zip1 tend to occur in alternating strongly staining domains. The widely conserved AAA+-ATPase Pch2 mediates this pattern, likely by means of direct intervention along axes. Pch2 also coordinately promotes timely progression of cross-over (CO) and ...
Lovering Andrew T AT Department of Human Physiology, 1240 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1240, USA. - - 2008
Exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting, as detected by saline contrast echocardiography, has been demonstrated in healthy humans. We have previously suggested that increases in both pulmonary pressures and blood flow associated with exercise are responsible for opening these intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways. In the present study, we hypothesized that, although cardiac output ...
Stickland Michael K - - 2008
Recently, we have shown that specific, transient carotid chemoreceptor (CC) inhibition in exercising dogs causes vasodilatation in limb muscle. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if CC suppression reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in exercising humans. Healthy subjects (N = 7) breathed hyperoxic gas (F(IO(2)) approximately ...
Kennedy Michael D - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is well known that hypoxic exercise in healthy individuals increases limb blood flow, leg oxygen extraction and limb vascular conductance during knee extension exercise. However, the effect of hypoxia on cardiac output, and total vascular conductance is less clear. Furthermore, the oxygen delivery response to hypoxic exercise ...
Shatilo Valeriy B - - 2008
The efficacy and safety of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) were investigated in healthy, 60- to 74-yr-old men. Fourteen men (Gr 1) who routinely exercised daily for 20 to 30 min were compared with 21 (Gr 2) who avoided exercise. Their submaximal work-load power values before the IHT training were 94 ...
Cummings Kevin J - - 2008
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely play a role in the hypoxic ventilatory response. We determined whether hypoxic responses were influenced by alterations in cellular redox status induced by reductions in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) activity, a cytosolic anti-oxidant enzyme. Using whole-body, continuous-flow plethysmography, we compared ventilatory responses to moderate hypoxia (10% ...
Wood H E - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to develop a non-dimensional approach towards the description of interaction between the three respiratory stimuli of hypoxia, hypercapnia and exercise and to use this approach to quantify the relative strengths of their interactions. Only a part of the study related to the overall interaction ...
Mackenzie Richard W A - - 2008
Investigations studying the secretion of EPO (erythropoietin) in response to acute hypoxia have produced mixed results. Further, the errors associated with the various methods used to determine EPO are not well documented. The purpose of the current study was to determine the EPO response of 17 trained male subjects to ...
Ye Rongzhong - - 2008
Since increased ventilation is known to be a common strategy used by aquatic animals to cope with hypoxia, we tested in present study the hypothesis that hypoxia can promote the bioaccumulation of naphthalene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), in Penaeus aztecus, a penaeid shrimp subject to hypoxia and PAH ...
Hehre Dorothy A - - 2008
The ventilatory response to hypoxia is influenced by the balance between inhibitory (GABA, glycine, and taurine) and excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) brainstem amino acid (AA) neurotransmitters. To assess the effects of AA in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) on the ventilatory response to hypoxia at 1 and 2 wk of ...
Bisgard Gerald - - 2008
Exposure to hyperoxia in the first few weeks of life causes life-long impairment of carotid chemoreceptor function in rats, e.g., depressed carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and phrenic nerve responses to acute hypoxia. We determined the maximal CSN responses of anesthetized adult rats to severe hypoxia (ventilation with 100% N2) or ...
胡, 揚
Thesis (Ph. D. in Health and Sport Sciences)--University of Tsukuba, (A), no. 2189, 1999.3.25
Woodman James D - - 2008
Patterns of gas exchange among terrestrial arthropods are highly variable from continuous to discontinuous with discretely partitioned phases. The underlying initiation and co-ordination of these patterns is relatively poorly understood. Here we present a novel method for the simultaneous measurement of central nervous system (CNS) activity of the metathoracic ganglion ...
Wilkins Brad W - - 2008
We previously reported that hypoxia-mediated reductions in alpha-adrenoceptor sensitivity do not explain the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise, suggesting an enhanced vasodilator signal. We hypothesized that beta-adrenoceptor activation contributes to augmented hypoxic exercise vasodilatation. Fourteen subjects (age: 29 +/- 2 years) breathed hypoxic gas to titrate arterial O(2) saturation (pulse ...
Richardson Matt X - - 2008
Spleen contraction resulting in an increase in circulating erythrocytes has been shown to occur during apnea. This effect, however, has not previously been studied during normobaric hypoxia whilst breathing. After 20 min of horizontal rest and normoxic breathing, five subjects underwent 20-min of normobaric hypoxic breathing (12.8% oxygen) followed by ...
Marshall Helen C - - 2008
In a placebo-controlled study, the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposures (IHE) or a placebo control for 10 days, were examined on the extent of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH), cerebral and muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) and VO(2peak). Eight athletes who had previously displayed EIH (fall in saturation of arterial oxygen (SaO(2)) of ...
Subudhi Andrew W - - 2008
We sought to describe cerebrovascular responses to incremental exercise and test the hypothesis that changes in cerebral oxygenation influence maximal performance. Eleven men cycled in three conditions: 1) sea level (SL); 2) acute hypoxia [AH; hypobaric chamber, inspired Po(2) (Pi(O(2))) 86 Torr]; and 3) chronic hypoxia [CH; 4,300 m, Pi(O(2)) ...
Fano Silvia - - 2007
Hypoxia or global ischemia causes rapid loss of consciousness and a sudden increase in spontaneous transmitter release suggesting that coordinated synaptic activity is impaired. Gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) are thought to provide for binding of parallel processed information in the brain, contributing to cognition and formation of short-term memory. We ...
Waypa Gregory B - - 2008
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) becomes activated in response to alveolar hypoxia and, although the characteristics of HPV have been well described, the underlying mechanism of O(2) sensing which initiates the HPV response has not been fully established. Mitochondria have long been considered as a putative site of oxygen sensing because ...
Thomas Peter - - 2007
The long-term effects on marine fish populations of the recent increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia are unknown. Here we show that chronic environmental exposure of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) to hypoxia in a Florida estuary caused marked suppression of ovarian and testicular growth which was accompanied by ...
Wilkerson J E R JE Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2007
Plasticity is an important property of the respiratory control system. One of the best-studied models of respiratory plasticity is pLTF (phrenic long-term facilitation). pLTF is a progressive increase in phrenic motor output lasting several hours following acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Similar to many other forms of neuroplasticity, pLTF is ...
Gujic Marko - - 2008
cAMP plays an important role in peripheral chemoreflex function in animals. We tested the hypothesis that the phosphodiesterase inhibitor and inotropic medication enoximone increases peripheral chemoreflex function in humans. In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study of 15 men, we measured ventilatory, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and hemodynamic responses to ...
Tadjalli Arash - - 2007
Episodic hypoxia causes repetitive inspiratory activation that induces a form of respiratory plasticity termed long-term facilitation (LTF). While LTF is a function of the hypoxic exposures and inspiratory activation, their relative importance in evoking LTF is unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) dissociate the relative roles played ...
Houssiere Anne - - 2007
Heart transplantation does not normalize exercise capacity or the ventilatory response to exercise. We hypothesized that excessive muscle reflex activity, as assessed by the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response to handgrip exercise, persists after cardiac transplantation and that this mechanism is related to exercise hyperpnea in heart transplant recipients ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >