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Results 701 - 750 of 1063
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Nonnotte G - - 1993
Changes in respiratory and acid-base variables were studied in siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baeri, during progressive deep hypoxia followed by recovery under normoxic conditions. During hypoxia, both ventilatory frequency and amplitude increased and this sturgeon was able to maintain standard oxygen consumption down to a low critical level of ambient PO2 ...
Ibañez J - - 1993
The effect of severe acute hypoxia (fractional concentration of inspired oxygen equalled 0.104) was studied in nine male subjects performing an incremental exercise test. For power outputs over 125 W, all the subjects in a state of hypoxia showed a decrease in oxygen consumption (VO2) relative to exercise intensity compared ...
Lee M R - - 1993
Trauma reduces both action potential amplitudes and conduction velocities, as well as the ability of axons to follow high-frequency stimulation, in spinal cord dorsal columns. Since white matter blood flow falls after spinal cord injury, hypoxia may play a role in post-traumatic axonal dysfunction. We examined the effects of hypoxia ...
Takahashi E - - 1993
Hypoxia induces unstable breathing such as Cheyne-Stokes breathing primarily through the increase in the peripheral chemoreceptor gain to CO2. Another consequence of hypoxia may be the direct depression of the respiratory center known as hypoxic ventilatory depression (HVD). The present study was undertaken to predict the effect of HVD on ...
Temp J A - - 1992
The normal ventilatory response to the sudden imposition of sustained hypoxia is characterized by an acute increase followed by a modest decline in ventilation. Since subanesthetic concentrations of potent inhalational anesthetics greatly attenuate the acute response, we hypothesized that ventilation might decrease to less than normoxic levels when hypoxia is ...
Kulling P - - 1992
Combustion toxicology is complex so, although victims exposed to combustion products are mainly treated symptomatically, it is important to identify those situations when specific therapeutic measures might be of importance. Victims presenting respiratory symptoms including severe cough, bronchoconstriction, hypoxia and respiratory distress should be given oxygen and ventilatory assistance or ...
Elliott S L - - 1992
Livers from fasted (N = 16) and fed (N = 22) rats were perfused with harmol (50 microM) for an initial 30 min with normal oxygen delivery (6-10 mumol/min/g liver), then for 45 min with perfusate equilibrated with O2/N2 mixtures, which reduced hepatic oxygen delivery to 0.9-6 mumol/min/g liver, and ...
Abbot N C - - 1992
The sequence of changes at the site of a positive tuberculin test response were studied in 19 healthy young adults who had been immunised with BCG in childhood. The development of erythema preceded that of induration and both were most intense at 48-72 h. The strongest reactions showed higher laser ...
Yang T - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the electromechanical effects of dofetilide, a new class III antiarrhythmic agent, in isolated guinea pig ventricular muscle during hypoxia. METHODS: Hypoxia was induced by superfusing guinea pig right ventricular papillary, muscles with Tyrode's solution gassed with 95% N2 + 5% CO2 [PO2 = 5.3(SEM ...
Georgopoulus D - - 1992
In conscious normal humans after a brief hypoxic ventilatory stimulus, ventilation slowly decays to baseline and does not undershoot though the subjects are hyperoxic and hypocapnic. This phenomenon is attributed to short-term poststimulus potentiation (STP), which may be an important factor promoting ventilatory stability by preventing periodic breathing. It has ...
Cao K Y - - 1992
To determine if a long-lasting increase in normoxic ventilatory drive is induced in conscious animals by repetitive hypoxia, we examined the normoxic [arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) > 93%] ventilatory response following successive episodes of 2-min eucapnic hypoxic challenges (SaO2 = 80%) in awake tracheotomized dogs. End-tidal CO2 was maintained at ...
Melton J E - - 1992
This study examines the effect of progressive isocapnic CO hypoxemia on respiratory afterdischarge and the phrenic neurogram response to supramaximal carotid sinus nerve (CSN) stimulation. Twelve anesthetized, vagotomized, peripherally chemodenervated, ventilated cats with blood pressure controlled were studied. During isocapnic hypoxemia, the amplitude of the phrenic neurogram was progressively depressed. ...
Olsen N V - - 1992
Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration ...
Rebillard G - - 1992
In order to study the effects of a controlled hypoxia on the cochlear active mechanisms, the 2f1-f2 distortion product (DP) and the endocochlear potential (EP) were recorded simultaneously in the same ear, in guinea pigs artificially respired with gas mixtures containing different percentages of oxygen. The data show an important ...
Thoresen M - - 1992
Sympathoadrenal activity was studied in 13 young piglets during hypoxia. The piglets were anaesthetized with chloralose/urethane, tracheostomized, paralyzed with gallamine and artificially ventilated. A femoral artery catheter was inserted and used for blood sampling. The piglets were challenged with 6 min of 6% CO2, 10 min of 12% O2 and ...
Nikolov R - - 1992
The central effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and their modification by the calcium entry blocker cinnarizine have been investigated using CNS and hypoxia/ischemia tests. CNS tests comprised behavior, horizontal and vertical motor activity and hot plate test. Hypoxia/ischemia tests used were hypobaric hypoxia and complete ischemia by decapitation. ET-1 was injected ...
Berkenbosch A - - 1992
1. The ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia is characterized by a fast increase due to the peripheral chemoreceptors followed by a slow decline. The mechanism of this decline is unknown. 2. To investigate the characteristics of the ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia ten healthy subjects were exposed to two consecutive ...
Cao K Y - - 1992
The ventilatory response to 20 min sustained isocapnic hypoxia (SaO2, 80 +/- 2%) was examined in 5 trained unanesthetized adult dogs breathing through an endotracheal tube. End tidal PCO2 was maintained at the resting levels. The dogs' conscious status was monitored by recording EEG and EOG on a chart recorder. ...
Frappell P - - 1992
O2 consumption (VO2), CO2 production (VCO2), and minute ventilation (VE) have been measured during normoxia and hypoxia (10-20 min in 10% O2) in specimens of 27 species from 6 mammalian orders, ranging in body mass (M) from a few grams to several kilograms. In normoxia, both metabolism and VE scaled ...
Bascom D A - - 1992
The purpose of this investigation was to examine how the ventilatory decline observed during sustained, eucapnic hypoxia (HVD) is affected by different levels of hypoxia. Six subjects were each studied 3-6 times at each of 5 different levels of isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 equal to 45, 50, 55, 65 and ...
Haria M - - 1992
The precise mode of action of topically applied steroids is unknown. We have applied clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment (Dermovate; Glaxo Pharmaceuticals) under occlusion to the forearm skin of 10 healthy volunteers for 6 h and monitored transcutaneous oxygen tension at the site for 19 h after its removal. Compared to ...
Haghighi S S - - 1992
Cortical somatosensory evoked potential (CSEP), spinal somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), and electroencephalogram were recorded in rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. After baseline recordings in room air (21% O2), animals were subjected to a graded hypoxia at 15.75%, 10.5%, and 5.25% oxygen levels for 10 minutes. Each level of hypoxia was followed ...
Tatsumi K - - 1992
In a previous work, we showed that the adult cat demonstrates a ventilatory decline during sustained hypoxia (the "roll off" phenomenon) and that the mechanism responsible for this secondary decrease in ventilation lies within the central nervous system (J. Appl. Physiol. 63: 1658-1664, 1987). In this study, we sought to ...
Clement I D - - 1992
The independence of the central and peripheral chemoreflexes has been tested in humans. Acute metabolic acidosis generated by a prior bout of brief, hard exercise was used to stimulate primarily the peripheral chemoreceptors, and respiratory acidosis generated by inhaled CO2 was used to stimulate both central and peripheral chemoreceptors. Seven ...
Headrick J P - - 1992
Release of adenosine and AMP into epicardial fluid and coronary venous effluent of isovolumic guinea-pig hearts was examined during normoxic (95% O2) and hypoxic (30% O2) perfusion with and without the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor alpha,beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (AOPCP)*. Normoxic epicardial and venous adenosine levels were 221 +/- 27 and 67 +/- ...
Córdova A - - 1992
Variations in serum levels and distribution of Mg in the heart, gastrocnemius, liver and kidney in rats were studied after exercise to exhaustion in air (normoxia) and during hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.10). After exercise serum Mg concentrations increased significantly in air, but not during hypoxia. At rest, they increased significantly ...
Kumar P - - 1992
We examined the effect of a dynamic, hypoxic stimulus upon the reflex respiratory responses of 15, conscious rat pups on post-natal days 5-7 in order to ascertain the influence of a non-adapting peripheral chemoreceptor discharge upon respiratory control during hypoxia in the newborn. Respiration was measured as integrated airflow into ...
Gautier H - - 1992
Interactions between the control of thermogenesis and ventilation were studied during normoxia, hyperoxia, and ambient or CO hypoxia in adult anesthetized intact or carotid-denervated cats. Shivering, metabolic and ventilatory responses to cold stress were studied. In addition, the effects of transient pharmacological stimulation (NaCN) or inhibition (Dopamine) of arterial chemoreceptor ...
Prince L S - - 1992
Each of six perfused rat hearts was subjected to 30 min of hypoxia followed by 60 min of reoxygenation. Inversion-recovery data on the intracellular Na NMR signal, differentiated by a shift reagent, 6 mM Dy(PPP)2, were obtained every 5 min, and T1 values were calculated. The T1 of the intracellular ...
Marchal F - - 1992
The activities of carotid chemoreceptors at three levels of inspired PO2 (55, 145 and 690 Torr) and at two levels of inspired PCO2 (35 and 70 Torr in O2) were studied in 28 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated kittens aged 0-17 days. A biphasic response to hypoxia was found in 46% of ...
Stein J C - - 1992
The impact of an increased hemoglobin oxygen affinity (decreased P50) on oxygen transport was evaluated in capillaries of the retractor muscle under nonhypoxic (FIo2 = 0.30 and 0.21) and hypoxic (FIo2 = 0.10) conditions in hamsters with normal oxygen affinity [control; P50 = 26.1 +/- 1.0 (SD) mmHg, n = ...
Miyamura M - - 1992
In order to examine whether or not there are initial changes in ventilation at the start of bicycle exercise having work loads of differing intensities are affected with regard to normoxia and to hypoxia accompanying hypocapnia, six healthy male subjects performed submaximal exercise of 30 and 120 W at 60 ...
Lammers W J - - 1992
In isolated superfused left atria of the rabbit, the inducibility of tachyarrhythmias by single early premature stimuli was highly increased by hypoxia. High-resolution mapping showed that these arrhythmias were caused by circus movement around a functional arc of conduction block (leading circle reentry). To determine the electrophysiological changes by hypoxia ...
Ohdaira T - - 1992
Recent investigations have shown that the calcium channel blocker verapamil attenuated the hypoxic ventilatory chemosensitivity of carotid body in animals. To determine whether this is also the case in humans, transient physiological chemodenervation by O2 breaths (withdrawal test) during sustained hypoxia (N = 7), and ventilatory and circulatory responses to ...
Pandit J J - - 1991
To investigate how the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia is modified by steady-state exercise, five subjects were studied at rest and performing 70 W bicycle exercise. At rest, isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 50 Torr) for 25 min resulted in a biphasic response: an initial increase in ventilation was followed by ...
Frappell P - - 1991
We questioned whether the hypoxia-induced drop in aerobic metabolism in newborns necessitates an oxygen debt, and whether in such a case the debt is payed upon recovery. Aerobic metabolism (VO2 and VCO2) was computed each 30 sec in 15 newborn kittens (age 2-5 days) using an open flow system during ...
Schmidt W - - 1991
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of different exercise regimens on serum immunoreactive erythropoietin concentration (EPO). The same untrained male subjects performed bouts of maximal and submaximal exercise (60 min at 60% of maximal performance) under normoxia (n = 10) and normobaric hypoxia (PIO2 92 mmHg, n ...
Daristotle L - - 1991
We utilized selective carotid body (CB) perfusion while changing inspired O2 fraction in arterial isocapnia to characterize the non-CB chemoreceptor ventilatory response to changes in arterial PO2 (PaO2) in awake goats and to define the effect of varying levels of CB PO2 on this response. Systemic hyperoxia (PaO2 greater than ...
Arimura H - - 1991
To examine the effects of halothane on segmental vascular responses to hypoxia, we used cardiopulmonary bypass with venous outflow divided into three compartments (splanchnic, coronary, and "other") in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The reservoir volume changes represented the inverted changes in systemic blood volume (SBV). In addition, sympathetic efferent ...
Jensen J A - - 1991
Subcutaneous wound-tissue oxygen (PsqO2) tension in eight volunteers fell rapidly and significantly in response to smoking, and remained low for 30 to 50 minutes. Sham "smoking" had no effect. These data suggest that a typical "pack-per-day" smoker experiences tissue hypoxia during a significant portion of each day. The degree of ...
Seals D R - - 1991
Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that hypoxia potentiates exercise-induced sympathetic neural activation in humans. In 15 young (20-30 yr) healthy subjects, lower leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, peroneal nerve; microneurography), venous plasma norepinephrine (PNE) concentrations, heart rate, and arterial blood pressure were measured at rest and in ...
Arai A - - 1991
Breakdown products (BDPs) resulting from the partial proteolysis of spectrin were examined in hippocampal slices after periods of hypoxia lasting for 5 or 10 min. The concentration of a approximately 155 kDa BDP increased nearly twofold after 5 min of hypoxia; further increases were not seen with 10 min episodes ...
Pedraz C - - 1991
Many newborn mammals decrease metabolism and body temperature (Tb) during acute hypoxia. We asked what effects warming of the hypoxic newborn would have on these variables. In unanesthetized newborn cats and dogs, we measured the breathing pattern, CO2 production, Tb, and ambient temperature during normoxia at an ambient temperature of ...
Warner M M - - 1991
The ventilatory response to moderate exercise in hypoxia is potentiated in goats, decreasing PaCO2 more than in normoxic exercise. We investigated the hypothesis that this potentiation results from a ventilatory stimulus provided by increased levels of circulating catecholamines (norepinephrine and/or epinephrine), acting via beta-receptors. Plasma norepinephrine [NE] and epinephrine [E] ...
Dinh L - - 1991
In order to evaluate the influence of hypoxia on upper airway patency, we measured the response of upper airway resistance (UAR) to progressive (P) normocapnic hypoxia (Rebuck's method) and transient (T) hypoxia (three to five breaths to 100% N2) in 11 normal men. Breath-by-breath inspiratory UAR was calculated at isoflow ...
Ward D S - - 1991
The ventilatory stimulating effects of hypoxia occurring at carotid bodies are potentiated by exercise. However, hypoxia also has central ventilatory depressive effects; the potential interactions between this hypoxic depression and exercise have not been studied. We examined the ventilatory response to a 20 min period of isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal O2, ...
Raff H - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of hypoxia and hypercapnia in the control of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion in fetal sheep and to determine the role of the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in that response. We measured the plasma AVP response to hypercapnia and/or hypoxia in catheterized ...
Gray A T - - 1991
Bohr-integrated estimates of steady-state pulmonary diffusing capacity for oxygen (DLO2) were calculated using lung compartments with different VA/Q ratios. Compartmental diffusing capacity was distributed in proportion to either ventilation or blood flow. This method was applied to 115 gas exchange data sets previously collected from healthy human subjects during normoxic ...
Whiteis C A - - 1991
In the normal heart, presynaptic cholinergic muscarinic and alpha 2-adrenergic mechanisms modify the fractional rate constant for norepinephrine (NE) synthesis (kNE), an index of sympathetic neural function. To evaluate presynaptic regulation of kNE, conscious guinea pigs subjected to normoxia and then hypoxia (n = 7-8 in each group) were pretreated ...
Park Y - - 1991
Reactive O2 species appear to be generated both during hypoxia and at reoxygenation, but it has not been established whether these species interact with heart tissue and cause injury. Oxidative changes were evaluated in isolated rat heart perfused with Krebs-Henseleit medium containing 10 mM glucose and 2.5 mM calcium. After ...
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